References of "Friederich, Evelyne 40020345"
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See detailETV5 cooperates with LPP as a sensor of extracellular signals and promotes EMT in endometrial carcinomas.
Colas, E.; Muinelo-Romay, L.; Alonso-Alconada, L. et al

in Oncogene (2012), 31(45), 4778-88

Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most frequent among infiltrating tumors of the female genital tract, with myometrial invasion representing an increase in the rate of recurrences and a decrease in ... [more ▼]

Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most frequent among infiltrating tumors of the female genital tract, with myometrial invasion representing an increase in the rate of recurrences and a decrease in survival. We have previously described ETV5 transcription factor associated with myometrial infiltration in human ECs. In this work, we further investigated ETV5 orchestrating downstream effects to confer the tumor the invasive capabilities needed to disseminate in the early stages of EC dissemination. Molecular profiling evidenced ETV5 having a direct role on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In particular, ETV5 modulated Zeb1 expression and E-Cadherin repression leading to a complete reorganization of cell-cell and cell-substrate contacts. ETV5-promoted EMT resulted in the acquisition of migratory and invasive capabilities in endometrial cell lines. Furthermore, we identified the lipoma-preferred partner protein as a regulatory partner of ETV5, acting as a sensor for extracellular signals promoting tumor invasion. All together, we propose ETV5-transcriptional regulation of the EMT process through a crosstalk with the tumor surrounding microenvironment, as a principal event initiating EC invasion. [less ▲]

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See detailAn alpaca single-domain antibody blocks filopodia formation by obstructing L-plastin-mediated F-actin bundling.
Delanote, Veerle; Vanloo, Berlinda; Catillon, Marie UL et al

in FASEB Journal (2010), 24(1), 105-18

L-plastin, a conserved modular F-actin bundling protein, is ectopically expressed in tumor cells and contributes to cell malignancy and invasion. The underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain ... [more ▼]

L-plastin, a conserved modular F-actin bundling protein, is ectopically expressed in tumor cells and contributes to cell malignancy and invasion. The underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear, in part, because specific inhibitors of L-plastin are lacking. We used recombinant alpaca-derived L-plastin single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) as effector of L-plastin function in cells. [less ▲]

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See detailA mathematical model of actin filament turnover for fitting FRAP data
Halavatyi, A. A.; Nazarov, P. V.; Al Tanoury, Z. et al

in European Biophysics Journal [=EBJ] (2010), 39(4), 669-677

A novel mathematical model of the actin dynamics in living cells under steady-state conditions has been developed for fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. As opposed to other ... [more ▼]

A novel mathematical model of the actin dynamics in living cells under steady-state conditions has been developed for fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. As opposed to other FRAP fitting models, which use the average lifetime of actins in filaments and the actin turnover rate as fitting parameters, our model operates with unbiased actin association/dissociation rate constants and accounts for the filament length. The mathematical formalism is based on a system of stochastic differential equations. The derived equations were validated on synthetic theoretical data generated by a stochastic simulation algorithm adapted for the simulation of FRAP experiments. Consistent with experimental findings, the results of this work showed that (1) fluorescence recovery is a function of the average filament length, (2) the F-actin turnover and the FRAP are accelerated in the presence of actin nucleating proteins, (3) the FRAP curves may exhibit both a linear and non-linear behaviour depending on the parameters of actin polymerisation, and (4) our model resulted in more accurate parameter estimations of actin dynamics as compared with other FRAP fitting models. Additionally, we provide a computational tool that integrates the model and that can be used for interpretation of FRAP data on actin cytoskeleton. © 2009 European Biophysical Societies' Association. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative kinetic study of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin and of its impact on actin turn-over.
Al Tanoury, Ziad; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth UL; Halavatyi, Aliaksandr UL et al

in PloS one (2010), 5(2), 9210

BACKGROUND: Initially detected in leukocytes and cancer cells derived from solid tissues, L-plastin/fimbrin belongs to a large family of actin crosslinkers and is considered as a marker for many cancers ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Initially detected in leukocytes and cancer cells derived from solid tissues, L-plastin/fimbrin belongs to a large family of actin crosslinkers and is considered as a marker for many cancers. Phosphorylation of L-plastin on residue Ser5 increases its F-actin binding activity and is required for L-plastin-mediated cell invasion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the kinetics of L-plastin and the impact of L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation on L-plastin dynamics and actin turn-over in live cells, simian Vero cells were transfected with GFP-coupled WT-L-plastin, Ser5 substitution variants (S5/A, S5/E) or actin and analyzed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). FRAP data were explored by mathematical modeling to estimate steady-state reaction parameters. We demonstrate that in Vero cell focal adhesions L-plastin undergoes rapid cycles of association/dissociation following a two-binding-state model. Phosphorylation of L-plastin increased its association rates by two-fold, whereas dissociation rates were unaffected. Importantly, L-plastin affected actin turn-over by decreasing the actin dissociation rate by four-fold, increasing thereby the amount of F-actin in the focal adhesions, all these effects being promoted by Ser5 phosphorylation. In MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment induced L-plastin translocation to de novo actin polymerization sites in ruffling membranes and spike-like structures and highly increased its Ser5 phosphorylation. Both inhibition studies and siRNA knock-down of PKC isozymes pointed to the involvement of the novel PKC-delta isozyme in the PMA-elicited signaling pathway leading to L-plastin Ser5 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the L-plastin contribution to actin dynamics regulation was substantiated by its association with a protein complex comprising cortactin, which is known to be involved in this process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether these findings quantitatively demonstrate for the first time that L-plastin contributes to the fine-tuning of actin turn-over, an activity which is regulated by Ser5 phosphorylation promoting its high affinity binding to the cytoskeleton. In carcinoma cells, PKC-delta signaling pathways appear to link L-plastin phosphorylation to actin polymerization and invasion. [less ▲]

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See detailThe actin filament cross-linker L-plastin confers resistance to TNF-alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.
Janji, Bassam; Vallar, Laurent; Al Tanoury, Ziad et al

in Journal of Cellular & Molecular Medicine (2010), 14(6A), 1264-75

We used a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha resistant breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell line to investigate the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in the mechanism of cell resistance to this cytokine ... [more ▼]

We used a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha resistant breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell line to investigate the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in the mechanism of cell resistance to this cytokine. We found that TNF resistance correlates with the loss of cell epithelial properties and the gain of a mesenchymal phenotype, reminiscent of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Morphological changes were associated with a profound reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and with a change in the repertoire of expressed actin cytoskeleton genes and EMT markers, as revealed by DNA microarray-based expression profiling. L-plastin, an F-actin cross-linking and stabilizing protein, was identified as one of the most significantly up-regulated genes in TNF-resistant cells. Knockdown of L-plastin in these cells revealed its crucial role in conferring TNF resistance. Importantly, overexpression of wild-type L-plastin in TNF-sensitive MCF-7 cells was sufficient to protect them against TNF-mediated cell death. Furthermore, we found that this effect is dependent on serine-5 phosphorylation of L-plastin and that non-conventional protein kinase C isoforms and the ceramide pathway may regulate its phosphorylation state. The protective role of L-plastin was not restricted to TNF-alpha resistant MCF-7 cells because a correlation between the expression of L-plastin and the resistance to TNF-alpha was observed in other breast cancer cell lines. Together, our study discloses a novel unexpected role of the actin bundling protein L-plastin as a cell protective protein against TNF-cytotoxicity. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-resolved analysis of transcriptional events during SNAI1-triggered epithelial to mesenchymal transition
Vetter, G.; Le Béchec, Antony UL; Muller, J. et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2009), 385(4), 485-91

The transcription regulator SNAI1 triggers a transcriptional program leading to epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), providing epithelial cells with mesenchymal features and invasive properties ... [more ▼]

The transcription regulator SNAI1 triggers a transcriptional program leading to epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), providing epithelial cells with mesenchymal features and invasive properties during embryonic development and tumor progression. To identify early transcriptional changes occurring during SNAI1-induced EMT, we performed a time-resolved genome-scale study using human breast carcinoma cells conditionally expressing SNAI1. The approach we developed for microarray data analysis, allowed identifying three distinct EMT stages and the temporal classification of genes. Importantly, we identified unexpected, biphasic expression profiles of EMT-associated genes, supporting their pivotal role during this process. Finally, we established early EMT gene networks by identifying transcription factors and their potential targets which may orchestrate early events of EMT. Collectively, our work provides a framework for the identification and future systematic analysis of novel genes which contribute to SNAI1-triggered EMT. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional repression of microRNA genes by PML-RARA increases expression of key cancer proteins in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Saumet, Anne; Vetter, Guillaume; Bouttier, Manuella et al

in Blood (2009), 113(2), 412-21

Micro(mi)RNAs are small noncoding RNAs that orchestrate many key aspects of cell physiology and their deregulation is often linked to distinct diseases including cancer. Here, we studied the contribution ... [more ▼]

Micro(mi)RNAs are small noncoding RNAs that orchestrate many key aspects of cell physiology and their deregulation is often linked to distinct diseases including cancer. Here, we studied the contribution of miRNAs in a well-characterized human myeloid leukemia, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), targeted by retinoic acid and trioxide arsenic therapy. We identified several miRNAs transcriptionally repressed by the APL-associated PML-RAR oncogene which are released after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. These coregulated miRNAs were found to control, in a coordinated manner, crucial pathways linked to leukemogenesis, such as HOX proteins and cell adhesion molecules whose expressions are thereby repressed by the chemotherapy. Thus, APL appears linked to transcriptional perturbation of miRNA genes, and clinical protocols able to successfully eradicate cancer cells may do so by restoring miRNA expression. The identification of abnormal miRNA biogenesis in cancer may therefore provide novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in myeloid leukemias. [less ▲]

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See detailAn integrative simulation model linking major biochemical reactions of actin-polymerization to structural properties of actin filaments
Halavatyi, A. A.; Nazarov, P. V.; Medves, S. et al

in Biophysical Chemistry (2009), 140(1-3), 24-34

We report on an advanced universal Monte Carlo simulation model of actin polymerization processes offering a broad application panel. The model integrates major actin-related reactions, such as assembly ... [more ▼]

We report on an advanced universal Monte Carlo simulation model of actin polymerization processes offering a broad application panel. The model integrates major actin-related reactions, such as assembly of actin nuclei, association/dissociation of monomers to filament ends, ATP-hydrolysis via ADP-Pi formation and ADP-ATP exchange, filament branching, fragmentation and annealing or the effects of regulatory proteins. Importantly, these reactions are linked to information on the nucleotide state of actin subunits in filaments (ATP hydrolysis) and the distribution of actin filament lengths. The developed stochastic simulation modelling schemes were validated on: i) synthetic theoretical data generated by a deterministic model and ii) sets of our and published experimental data obtained from fluorescence pyrene-actin experiments. Build on an open-architecture principle, the designed model can be extended for predictive evaluation of the activities of other actin-interacting proteins and can be applied for the analysis of experimental pyrene actin-based or fluorescence microscopy data. We provide a user-friendly, free software package ActinSimChem that integrates the implemented simulation algorithms and that is made available to the scientific community for modelling in silico any specific actin-polymerization system. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIn colon carcinogenesis, the cytoskeletal protein gelsolin is down-regulated during the transition from adenoma to carcinoma.
Gay, Fabien; Estornes, Yann; Saurin, Jean-Christophe et al

in Human pathology (2008), 39(10), 1420-30

The actin-binding protein gelsolin is involved in cell motility via the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and its expression is modified in several human cancers. However, the potential implication of ... [more ▼]

The actin-binding protein gelsolin is involved in cell motility via the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and its expression is modified in several human cancers. However, the potential implication of this protein in colorectal carcinogenesis is debated. By using immunohistochemistry, we studied gelsolin expression in 69 cases of colon adenocarcinomas and in 72 lesions representative of the different stages of colonic tumorigenesis. In addition, we performed Northern blot analysis of gelsolin messenger RNA in 12 paired samples of human colon cancer and normal corresponding mucosa. Gelsolin protein and messenger RNA expressions were severely down-regulated in all adenocarcinomas tested. Moreover, gelsolin protein was down-regulated in a large proportion of high-grade adenomas (14/16) before the acquisition of invasive properties but in only a small proportion of low grade adenomas and serrated adenomas (2/30) and in none of the 9 cases of nonneoplastic hyperplastic polyps tested. Our results therefore demonstrate that gelsolin down-regulation is an early and almost constant event in colon carcinogenesis and is associated with the transition from adenoma to carcinoma. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvanced spot quality analysis in two-colour microarray experiments
Yatskou, M.; Novikov, E.; Vetter, G. et al

in BMC Research Notes (2008), 1

Background: Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of ... [more ▼]

Background: Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of spot quality control are still in early age of development, often leading to underestimation of true positive microarray features and, consequently, to loss of important biological information. Therefore, improving and standardizing the statistical approaches of spot quality control are essential to facilitate the overall analysis of microarray data and subsequent extraction of biological information. Findings: We evaluated the performance of two image analysis packages MAIA and GenePix (GP) using two complementary experimental approaches with a focus on the statistical analysis of spot quality factors. First, we developed control microarrays with a priori known fluorescence ratios to verify the accuracy and precision of the ratio estimation of signal intensities. Next, we developed advanced semi-automatic protocols of spot quality evaluation in MAIA and GP and compared their performance with available facilities of spot quantitative filtering in GP. We evaluated these algorithms for standardised spot quality analysis in a whole-genome microarray experiment assessing well-characterised transcriptional modifications induced by the transcription regulator SNAI1. Using a set of RT-PCR or qRT-PCR validated microarray data, we found that the semi-automatic protocol of spot quality control we developed with MAIA allowed recovering approximately 13% more spots and 38% more differentially expressed genes (at FDR = 5%) than GP with default spot filtering conditions. Conclusion: Careful control of spot quality characteristics with advanced spot quality evaluation can significantly increase the amount of confident and accurate data resulting in more meaningful biological conclusions. © 2008 Friederich et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of a novel BBS gene (BBS12) highlights the major role of a vertebrate-specific branch of chaperonin-related proteins in Bardet-Biedl syndrome.
Stoetzel, Corinne; Muller, Jean; Laurier, Virginie et al

in American Journal of Human Genetics (2007), 80(1), 1-11

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is primarily an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by progressive retinal degeneration, obesity, cognitive impairment, polydactyly, and kidney anomalies. The disorder ... [more ▼]

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is primarily an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by progressive retinal degeneration, obesity, cognitive impairment, polydactyly, and kidney anomalies. The disorder is genetically heterogeneous, with 11 BBS genes identified to date, which account for ~70% of affected families. We have combined single-nucleotide-polymorphism array homozygosity mapping with in silico analysis to identify a new BBS gene, BBS12. Patients from two Gypsy families were homozygous and haploidentical in a 6-Mb region of chromosome 4q27. FLJ35630 was selected as a candidate gene, because it was predicted to encode a protein with similarity to members of the type II chaperonin superfamily, which includes BBS6 and BBS10. We found pathogenic mutations in both Gypsy families, as well as in 14 other families of various ethnic backgrounds, indicating that BBS12 accounts for approximately 5% of all BBS cases. BBS12 is vertebrate specific and, together with BBS6 and BBS10, defines a novel branch of the type II chaperonin superfamily. These three genes are characterized by unusually rapid evolution and are likely to perform ciliary functions specific to vertebrates that are important in the pathophysiology of the syndrome, and together they account for about one-third of the total BBS mutational load. Consistent with this notion, suppression of each family member in zebrafish yielded gastrulation-movement defects characteristic of other BBS morphants, whereas simultaneous suppression of all three members resulted in severely affected embryos, possibly hinting at partial functional redundancy within this protein family. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign and evaluation of Actichip, a thematic microarray for the study of the actin cytoskeleton
Muller, J.; Mehlen, A.; Vetter, G. et al

in BMC Genomics (2007), 8

Background: The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in supporting and regulating numerous cellular processes. Mutations or alterations in the expression levels affecting the actin cytoskeleton system ... [more ▼]

Background: The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in supporting and regulating numerous cellular processes. Mutations or alterations in the expression levels affecting the actin cytoskeleton system or related regulatory mechanisms are often associated with complex diseases such as cancer. Understanding how qualitative or quantitative changes in expression of the set of actin cytoskeleton genes are integrated to control actin dynamics and organisation is currently a challenge and should provide insights in identifying potential targets for drug discovery. Here we report the development of a dedicated microarray, the Actichip, containing 60-mer oligonucleotide probes for 327 genes selected for transcriptome analysis of the human actin cytoskeleton. Results: Genomic data and sequence analysis features were retrieved from GenBank and stored in an integrative database called Actinome. From these data, probes were designed using a home-made program (CADO4MI) allowing sequence refinement and improved probe specificity by combining the complementary information recovered from the UniGene and RefSeq databases. Actichip performance was analysed by hybridisation with RNAs extracted from epithelial MCF-7 cells and human skeletal muscle. Using thoroughly standardised procedures, we obtained microarray images with excellent quality resulting in high data reproducibility. Actichip displayed a large dynamic range extending over three logs with a limit of sensitivity between one and ten copies of transcript per cell. The array allowed accurate detection of small changes in gene expression and reliable classification of samples based on the expression profiles of tissue-specific genes. When compared to two other oligonucleotide microarray platforms, Actichip showed similar sensitivity and concordant expression ratios. Moreover, Actichip was able to discriminate the highly similar actin isoforms whereas the two other platforms did not. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that Actichip is a powerful alternative to commercial high density microarrays for cytoskeleton gene profiling in normal or pathological samples. Actichip is available upon request. © 2007 Muller et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecial issue: Integrated approaches to cytoskeleton research
Friederich, Evelyne UL

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Cell Research (2007), 1773(5), 603

[No abstract available]

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See detailPhosphorylation on Ser5 increases the F-actin-binding activity of L-plastin and promotes its targeting to sites of actin assembly in cells
Janji, B.; Giganti, A.; De Corte, V. et al

in Journal of Cell Science (2006), 119(9), 1947-1960

L-plastin, a malignant transformation-associated protein, is a member of a large family of actin filament cross-linkers. Here, we analysed how phosphorylation of L-plastin on Ser5 of the headpiece domain ... [more ▼]

L-plastin, a malignant transformation-associated protein, is a member of a large family of actin filament cross-linkers. Here, we analysed how phosphorylation of L-plastin on Ser5 of the headpiece domain regulates its intracellular distribution and its interaction with F-actin in transfected cells and in in vitro assays. Phosphorylated wild-type L-plastin localised to the actin cytoskeleton in transfected Vero cells. Ser5Ala substitution reduced the capacity of L-plastin to localise with peripheral actin-rich membrane protrusions. Conversely, a Ser5Glu variant mimicking a constitutively phosphorylated state, accumulated in actin-rich regions and promoted the formation of F-actin microspikes in two cell lines. Similar to phosphorylated wild-type L-plastin, this variant remained associated with cellular F-actin in detergent-treated cells, whereas the Ser5Ala variant was almost completely extracted. When compared with non-phosphorylated protein, phosphorylated L-plastin and the Ser5Glu variant bound F-actin more efficiently in an in vitro assay. Importantly, expression of L-plastin elicited collagen invasion in HEK293T cells, in a manner dependent on Ser5 phosphorylation. Based on our findings, we propose that conversely to other calponin homology (CH)-domain family members, phosphorylation of L-plastin switches the protein from a low-activity to a high-activity state. Phosphorylated L-plastin might act as an integrator of signals controlling the assembly of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility in a 3D-space. [less ▲]

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See detailActin-filament cross-linking protein T-plastin increases Arp2/3-mediated actin-based movement
Giganti, A.; Plastino, J.; Janji, B. et al

in Journal of Cell Science (2005), 118(6), 1255-1265

Increasing evidence suggests that actin cross-linking or bundling proteins might not only structure the cortical actin cytoskeleton but also control actin dynamics. Here, we analyse the effects of T ... [more ▼]

Increasing evidence suggests that actin cross-linking or bundling proteins might not only structure the cortical actin cytoskeleton but also control actin dynamics. Here, we analyse the effects of T-plastin/T-fimbrin, a representative member of an important actin-filament cross-linking protein by combining a quantitative biomimetic motility assay with biochemical and cell-based approaches. Beads coated with the VCA domain of the Wiskott/Aldrich-syndrome protein (WASP) recruit the actin-nucleating Arp2/3 complex, polymerize actin at their surface and undergo movement when placed in cell-free extracts. T-Plastin increased the velocity of VCA beads 1.5 times, stabilized actin comets and concomitantly displaced cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. T-Plastin also decreased the F-actin disassembly rate and inhibited cofilin-mediated depolymerization of actin filaments in vitro. Importantly, a bundling-incompetent variant comprising the first actin-binding domain (ABD1) had similar effects. In cells, this domain induced the formation of long actin cables to which other actin-regulating proteins were recruited. Altogether, these results favor a mechanism in which binding of ABD1 controls actin turnover independently of cross-link formation. In vivo, this activity might contribute to the assembly and maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton of plasma-membrane protrusions. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular basis for dissimilar nuclear trafficking of the actin-bundling protein isoforms T- and L-plastin.
Delanote, Veerle; Van Impe, Katrien; De Corte, Veerle et al

in Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) (2005), 6(4), 335-45

T- and L-plastin are highly similar actin-bundling proteins implicated in the regulation of cell morphology, lamellipodium protrusion, bacterial invasion and tumor progression. We show that T-plastin ... [more ▼]

T- and L-plastin are highly similar actin-bundling proteins implicated in the regulation of cell morphology, lamellipodium protrusion, bacterial invasion and tumor progression. We show that T-plastin localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm, whereas L-plastin distributes between nucleus and cytoplasm in HeLa or Cos cells. T-plastin shows nuclear accumulation upon incubation of cells with the CRM1 antagonist leptomycin B (LMB). We identified a Rev-like nuclear export sequence (NES) in T-plastin that is able to export an otherwise nuclear protein in an LMB-dependent manner. Deletion of the NES promotes nuclear accumulation of T-plastin. Mutation of residues L17, F21 or L26 in the T-plastin NES inhibits nuclear efflux. L-plastin harbors a less conserved NES and lacks the F21 T-plastin residue. Insertion of a Phe residue in the L-plastin NES specifically enhances its export activity. These findings explain why both isoforms exhibit specific distribution patterns in eukaryotic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe actin cytoskeleton as a therapeutic target: state of the art and future directions.
Giganti, Adeline; Friederich, Evelyne UL

in Progress in cell cycle research (2003), 5

Dynamic processes such as cell migration and division depend on the actin cytoskeleton, a dense meshwork of protein polymers capable of undergoing rapid cycles of assembly and disassembly, under the ... [more ▼]

Dynamic processes such as cell migration and division depend on the actin cytoskeleton, a dense meshwork of protein polymers capable of undergoing rapid cycles of assembly and disassembly, under the control of a large number of actin-associated proteins. In cancer cells, structural and functional perturbations of the actin cytoskeleton correlate with higher proliferation rates and uncontrolled movement. Therefore, small molecules that act on the actin cytoskeleton of tumour cells and thus inhibit cell division and movement, may be of high therapeutic value. The dynamic properties of the actin cytoskeleton and the mechanism of action of actin-targeting drugs will be described. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeting of zyxin to sites of actin membrane interaction and to the nucleus.
Nix, D. A.; Fradelizi, J.; Bockholt, S. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2001), 276(37), 34759-67

The localization of proteins to particular intracellular compartments often regulates their functions. Zyxin is a LIM protein found prominently at sites of cell adhesion, faintly in leading lamellipodia ... [more ▼]

The localization of proteins to particular intracellular compartments often regulates their functions. Zyxin is a LIM protein found prominently at sites of cell adhesion, faintly in leading lamellipodia, and transiently in cell nuclei. Here we have performed a domain analysis to identify regions in zyxin that are responsible for targeting it to different subcellular locations. The N-terminal proline-rich region of zyxin, which harbors binding sites for alpha-actinin and members of the Ena/VASP family, concentrates in lamellipodial extensions and weakly in focal adhesions. The LIM region of zyxin displays robust targeting to focal adhesions. When overexpressed in cells, the LIM region of zyxin causes displacement of endogenous zyxin from focal adhesions. Upon mislocalization of full-length zyxin, at least one member of the Ena/VASP family is also displaced, and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton is perturbed. Zyxin also has the capacity to shuttle between the nucleus and focal adhesion sites. When nuclear export is inhibited, zyxin accumulates in cell nuclei. The nuclear accumulation of zyxin occurs asynchronously with approximately half of the cells exhibiting nuclear localization of zyxin within 2.3 h of initiating leptomycin B treatment. Our results provide insight into the functions of different zyxin domains. [less ▲]

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See detailActA and human zyxin harbour Arp2/3-independent actin-polymerization activity.
Fradelizi, J.; Noireaux, V.; Plastino, J. et al

in Nature cell biology (2001), 3(8), 699-707

The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network that is composed of a variety of F-actin structures. To understand how these structures are produced, we tested the capacity of proteins to direct actin ... [more ▼]

The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network that is composed of a variety of F-actin structures. To understand how these structures are produced, we tested the capacity of proteins to direct actin polymerization in a bead assay in vitro and in a mitochondrial-targeting assay in cells. We found that human zyxin and the related protein ActA of Listeria monocytogenes can generate new actin structures in a vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-dependent (VASP) manner, but independently of the Arp2/3 complex. These results are consistent with the concept that there are multiple actin-polymerization machines in cells. With these simple tests it is possible to probe the specific function of proteins or identify novel molecules that act upon cellular actin polymerization. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the interaction between zyxin and members of the Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein family of proteins.
Drees, B.; Friederich, Evelyne UL; Fradelizi, J. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2000), 275(29), 22503-11

Zyxin contains a proline-rich N-terminal domain that is similar to the C-terminal domain in the ActA protein of the bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. We screened the entire amino acid sequence of human ... [more ▼]

Zyxin contains a proline-rich N-terminal domain that is similar to the C-terminal domain in the ActA protein of the bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. We screened the entire amino acid sequence of human zyxin for Mena-interacting peptides and found that, as with ActA, proline-rich sequences were the sole zyxin sequences capable of binding to Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) family members in vitro. From this information, we tested zyxin mutants in which the proline-rich sequences were altered. The reduction in Mena/VASP binding was confirmed by peptide tests, immunoprecipitation, and ectopic expression of zyxin variants at the surface of mitochondria. By transfection assays we showed that zyxin interaction with Mena/VASP in vivo enhances the production of actin-rich structures at the apical surface of cells. Microinjection into cells of peptides corresponding to the first proline-rich sequence of zyxin caused the loss of Mena/VASP from focal contacts. Furthermore, these peptides reduced the degree of spreading of cells replated after trypsinization. We conclude that zyxin and proteins that harbor similar proline-rich repeats contribute to the positioning of Mena/VASP proteins. The positioning of Ena/VASP family members appears to be important when the actin cytoskeleton is reorganized, such as during spreading. [less ▲]

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