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See detailThe Effect of Morphosyntactic Training on Multilingual Fifth-Graders' Spelling in French
Bilici, Natalia UL; Ugen, Sonja UL; Fayol, Michel UL et al

in Applied Psycholinguistics (2018), 39(6), 1319-1343

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See detailGeneral and Specific Contributions of RAN to Reading and Arithmetic Fluency in First Graders: A Longitudinal Latent Variable Approach
Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL; Fayol, Michel UL

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017)

In the present study, we opted for a longitudinal design and examined rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance from two perspectives. In a first step, we examined the structure of RAN performance from a ... [more ▼]

In the present study, we opted for a longitudinal design and examined rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance from two perspectives. In a first step, we examined the structure of RAN performance from a general cognitive perspective. We investigated whether rapid naming measures (e.g., digit RAN and color RAN) reflect a mainly domain-general factor or domain-specific factors. In a second step, we examined how the best fitting RAN model was related to reading and arithmetic outcomes, assessed several months later. Finally in a third step we took a clinical perspective and investigated specific contributions of RAN measures to reading and arithmetic outcomes. While RAN has emerged as a promising predictor of reading, the relationship between RAN and arithmetic has been less examined in the past. Hundred and twenty-two first graders completed seven RAN tasks, each comprising visually familiar stimuli such as digits, vowels, consonants, dice, finger-numeral configurations, objects, and colors. Four months later the same children completed a range of reading and arithmetic tasks. From a general descriptive perspective, structural equation modeling supports a one-dimensional RAN factor in 6- to -7-year-old children. However, from a clinical perspective, our findings emphasize the specific contributions of RANs. Interestingly, alphanumeric RANs (i.e., vowel RAN) were most promising when predicting reading skills and number-specific RANs (i.e., finger-numeral configuration RAN) were most promising when predicting arithmetic fluency. The implications for clinical and educational practices will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe power of vowels: Contributions of vowel, consonant and digit RAN to clinical approaches in reading development
Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL; Fayol, Michel UL

in Learning and Individual Differences (2017), 57

The main purpose of this study was to examine the specific contributions of rapid automatized naming (RAN) measures with different visually presented stimuli (e.g., vowels, consonants, digits) to reading ... [more ▼]

The main purpose of this study was to examine the specific contributions of rapid automatized naming (RAN) measures with different visually presented stimuli (e.g., vowels, consonants, digits) to reading outcomes in first and second grade. Previous studies have shown that RAN is an independent and robust predictor for reading skills in children. Less research investigated the incremental contributions of distinct RAN measures to reading skills in beginning readers. Ninety-three children from kindergarten and first grade completed four different RAN measures involving color, digit, vowel, and consonant naming at the end of the school year. Six months later these children were either in first or in second grade and completed several reading measures. The results emphasize that vowel RAN was a strong and unique predictor for reading accuracy in first grade. Vowel RAN and digit RAN were both significant predictors for reading speed in second grade. The current findings underline that vowel RAN is a promising predictor for reading outcomes (i.e., accuracy and speed) at the beginning of elementary school. RAN performance did however not significantly predict second grade reading comprehension. Results and practical implications will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of training morphosyntactic markers in German and in French on multilingual fifth-graders' spelling.
Bilici, Natalia UL; Ugen, Sonja UL; Fayol, Michel UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017, June 26)

Many studies focussing on spelling in French and German languages show that, even by the end of the primary school, pupils have difficulties to encode morphosyntactic information in their writing ... [more ▼]

Many studies focussing on spelling in French and German languages show that, even by the end of the primary school, pupils have difficulties to encode morphosyntactic information in their writing. Particularly problematic are, for instance, capitalisation of nouns in German (Betzel 2014) or plural markers in French (Fayol et al. 2006), because they are inaudible and require knowledge that goes beyond simple phoneme-grapheme correspondences. Our paper presents how multilingual learners deal with silent morphosyntactic markers in French and German and shows the effects of an intervention training on children's spelling performance. In total our study included 228 multilingual fifth graders (mean age 11 years) with four years instruction in German and two years instruction in French. They were assigned to an intervention (n=137) and to a control group (n=91) based on the results of a spelling test in French and German. This was done by creating performance groups that were, in a second step, attributed to one of the experimental groups taking their performance into account (quasi-randomised procedure). The French test consisted of three word categories of different difficulty (nouns, verbs, adjectives). For adjectives only, position (pre- vs. post-nominal) was also manipulated. The German test focussed on three lexical-semantic characteristics (concrete nouns, abstract nouns, nominalizations) and four syntactical positions (determinant+noun, determinant+adjective+noun, adjective+noun, noun) frequent words and pseudo-words. Additionally, word frequency was manipulated within each language (frequent words vs. pseudowords). These difficulty levels have been based on the literature published on monolingual learners (French: Totereau et al. (2014), German: Funke (2005); Guenther (2007); Betzel (2014)). The children participated in 12 intervention sessions of 20 minutes each (six in German and six in French, the order was counterbalanced). Children of the intervention group were trained to improve their morphosyntactic awareness and thus spelling performance of French plurals and German capitalization. The control group received the same amount of language input than the intervention group, but they were trained on another aspect of language i.e. listening comprehension. Results from the pre-test show that multilingual children acquiring German and French show similar difficulty patterns as German or French monolinguals. The post-test shows that the intervention group improved significantly in both their German and French spelling in comparison to the control group in all word and pseudo-word categories and positions. The intervention group's performance increased especially on pseudo-words, indicating that the training had an effect on children's spelling according to syntactic regularities. The study results are specifically important to better understand the learning processes of morphosyntactic spelling in primary school. The implications on the teaching methods will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing spelling skills related to morphosyntax of German-French biliterate pupils in a multilingual educational context
Ugen, Sonja UL; Bilici, Natalia UL; Fayol, Michel UL et al

Poster (2016, March 12)

How do multilingual learners write spellings related to morphosyntactic information in German (capitalisation of nouns) and French (plural markers of nouns, adjectives and verbs)? Our talk presents the ... [more ▼]

How do multilingual learners write spellings related to morphosyntactic information in German (capitalisation of nouns) and French (plural markers of nouns, adjectives and verbs)? Our talk presents the construction and the items of a spelling test of German and French for multilingual 5th graders in Luxembourg (N=300) as well as the first results of both tests. It is the pre-test of a study that will analyse the processes of morphosyntactic agreement in spelling in the children’s first (German) and second (French) acquired language at school. It will further examine how their performances relate to their language background. The setting in Luxembourg is characterised by three school languages: While Luxembourgish is the language of pre-school, children are alphabetised in German and learn French from second grade on. German and French are second languages for most children. However, children have either a Germanic (Luxembourgish) or a Romance (Portuguese) background. The children performed spellings tests tailored to the specificities of each of the test languages but relying on comparable grammatical processes. The test framework will be presented in detail as well as first results. Based on the literature, we expect differences in performances for proper and abstract nouns as well as nominalisation with best performance for proper nouns. In French, we expect differences in performances according to the plural markers of nouns, adjectives and verbs with best performance for nouns. Additionally, we expect contextual effects of the target words within each language. Results will further be analysed according to the background language of the children. [less ▲]

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See detailPhonological similarity can also impair transcoding
Fayol, Michel UL; Seron, X.

in Artésano, C.; Jucla, M. (Eds.) Neuropsycholinguistic perspectives on language cognition (2015)

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See detailIdentifying strategies in arithmetic with the operand recognition paradigm: A matter of switch cost?
Thevenot, Catherine; Castel, Caroline; Danjon, Juliette et al

in Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory & Cognition (2015), 41(2), 541-552

Determining adults’ and children’s strategies in mental arithmetic constitutes a central issue in the domain of numerical cognition. However, despite the considerable amount of research on this topic, the ... [more ▼]

Determining adults’ and children’s strategies in mental arithmetic constitutes a central issue in the domain of numerical cognition. However, despite the considerable amount of research on this topic, the conclusions in the literature are not always coherent. Therefore, there is a need to carry on the investigation, and this is the reason why we developed the operand recognition paradigm (ORP). It capitalizes on the fact that, contrary to retrieval, calculation procedures degrade the memory traces of the operands involved in a problem. As a consequence, the use of calculation procedures is inferred from relatively long recognition times of the operands. However, it has been suggested that recognition times within the ORP do not reflect strategies but the difficulty of switching from a difficult task (calculation) to a simpler one (recognition). In order to examine this possibility, in a series of 3 experiments we equalized switch-cost variations in all conditions through the introduction of intermediate tasks between problem solving and recognition. Despite this neutralization, we still obtained the classical effects of the ORP, namely longer recognition times after addition than after comparison. We conclude that the largest part of the ORP effects is related to different strategy use and not to difficulty-related switch costs. The possible applications and promising outcomes of the ORP in and outside the field of numerical cognition are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailProducing written noun phrases in French
Maggio, Severine; Chenu, Florence; Bes De Berc, Guillemette et al

in Written Language and Literacy (2015), 18(1), 1-24

This research compares the time-course of the written production of bare nouns to that of noun phrases. French adults named pictures of objects either using or not using determiners. Resulting pauses and ... [more ▼]

This research compares the time-course of the written production of bare nouns to that of noun phrases. French adults named pictures of objects either using or not using determiners. Resulting pauses and writing rates were analyzed in relation to word-orthographic frequency, syllabic length, and phoneme-to-grapheme consistency at the end of words. More specifically, we showed that the noun production process begins as soon the determiner production is initiated (word frequency effect on latencies, length and consistency effects on determiner writing rate) and continued during the course of the noun production. When the determiner was absent, the management of writing was different: the writer slowed the production speed, probably in order to realize the lexeme processing that s/he could not do in the absence of the determiner production time. These results provided further evidence that some form of parallel processing occurs in written word production and led us to sketch the time-course of the noun spelling in written denomination of a noun phrase. [less ▲]

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See detailPeut-on améliorer les performances mathématiques en faisant jouer les enfants?
Fayol, Michel UL; Gendre, N.; Pautonnier, L.

in Developpements (2015), 18-19

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See detailL’apprentissage de l’orthographe des noms en situation de classe. Le cas des noms propres en histoire chez des élèves de première
Fayol, Michel UL; Sahli, Aline; Souny-Benchimot, Emmanuelle

in Rééducation Orthophonique (2015), 262

L’apprentissage de l’orthographe ne cesse jamais. Une fois achevées les scolarités primaire et secondaire, qui incluent un enseignement systématique et explicite de l’orthographe, les individus se ... [more ▼]

L’apprentissage de l’orthographe ne cesse jamais. Une fois achevées les scolarités primaire et secondaire, qui incluent un enseignement systématique et explicite de l’orthographe, les individus se trouvent confrontés à des environnements académiques ou professionnels dans lesquels les écrits sont associés à des domaines spécifiques. Le plus souvent, les formes orthographiques à acquérir présentent des caractéristiques éloignées de celles de la langue maternelle: certaines configurations de lettres sont très rares voire inexistantes en Français (sh, gh, ai). Or, ces formes sont rencontrées « au vol « en relation avec des contextes qui leur donnent une signification. Comment les élèves ou les apprentis les acquièrent-ils ? Rencontrent-ils des difficultés spécifiques associées aux caractéristiques de ces mots, et lesquelles? Cette acquisition s’appuie-t-elle sur les connaissances et capacités antérieures ou la présence de contextes signifiants prévient-elle ou évite-t-elle l’apparition d’erreurs? La présente recherche rapporte l’apprentissage par des adolescents de classe de première de formes orthographiques introduites dans le cadre d’un enseignement d’histoire dispensé tout au long de l’année scolaire Elle fait apparaitre les difficultés rencontrées par ces élèves en cherchant a différencier celles qui relèvent des capacités individuelles de celles qui tiennent aux caractéristiques des mots eux-mêmes. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccessful written subject verb agreement: an online analysis of the procedure used by students in Grades 3, 5 and 12
Alamargot, Denis; Flouret, Lisa; Larocque, Denis et al

in Reading and Writing (2015), 28

This study was designed to (1) investigate the procedure responsible forsuccessful written subject–verb agreement, and (2) describe how it develops acrossgrades. Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12 were asked ... [more ▼]

This study was designed to (1) investigate the procedure responsible forsuccessful written subject–verb agreement, and (2) describe how it develops acrossgrades. Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12 were asked to read noun–noun–verb sen-tences aloud (e.g., Le chien des voisins mange [The dog of the neighbors eats]) andwrite out the verb inflections. Some of the nouns differed in number, thus inducingattraction errors. Results showed that third graders were successful because theyimplemented a declarative procedure requiring regressive fixations on the subjectnoun while writing out the inflection. A dual-step procedure (Hupet, Schelstraete,Demaeght, & Fayol, 1996) emerged in Grade 5, and was fully efficient by Grade 12.This procedure, which couples an automatized agreement rule with a monitoringprocess operated within working memory (without the need for regressive fixa-tions), was found to trigger a mismatch asymmetry (singular–plural [ plural–sin-gular) in Grade 5. The time course of written subject–verb agreement, the origin of agreement errors and differences between the spoken and written modalities are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Language to Text: The Development and Learning of Translation
Fayol, Michel UL

in MacArthur, C.A.; Graham, S.; Fitzgerald, J. (Eds.) Handbook of Writing Research, Second Edition (2015)

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See detailInterword and intraword pause threshold in writing
Chenu, Florence; Pellegrino, François; Jisa, Harriet et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2014), 5

Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of ... [more ▼]

Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of the processes as they occur in real time. Analysis of pauses is one of the preferred methods for accessing the dynamics of writing and is based on the idea that pauses are behavioral correlates of cognitive processes. However, there is a need to clarify what we are observing when studying pause phenomena, as we will argue in the first section. This taken into account, the study of pause phenomena can be considered following two approaches. A first approach, driven by temporality, would define a threshold and observe where pauses, e.g., scriptural inactivity occurs. A second approach, linguistically driven, would define structural units and look for scriptural inactivity at the boundaries of these units or within these units. Taking a temporally driven approach, we present two methods which aim at the automatic identification of scriptural inactivity which is most likely not attributable to grapho-motor management in texts written by children and adolescents using digitizing tablets in association with Eye and Pen© (Chesnet and Alamargot, 2005). The first method is purely statistical and is based on the idea that the distribution of pauses exhibits different Gaussian components each of them corresponding to a different type of pause. After having reviewed the limits of this statistical method, we present a second method based on writing dynamics which attempts to identify breaking points in the writing dynamics rather than relying only on pause duration. This second method needs to be refined to overcome the fact that calculation is impossible when there is insufficient data which is often the case when working with young scriptors. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes graphotactic knowledge influence the learning of new spellings presented in isolation?
Pacton, Sébastien; Treiman, Rebecca; Borchardt, G. et al

in Reading & Writing (2014), 4

Two experiments investigated whether and how the learning of spellings by French third graders is influenced by two graphotactic patterns: consonants cannot double in word-initial position (Experiment 1 ... [more ▼]

Two experiments investigated whether and how the learning of spellings by French third graders is influenced by two graphotactic patterns: consonants cannot double in word-initial position (Experiment 1) and consonants cannot double after single consonants (Experiment 2). Children silently read meaningful texts that contained three types of novel spellings: no doublet (e.g., mupile, guprane), doublet in a legal position (e.g., muppile, gupprane), and doublet in an illegal position (e.g., mmupile, guprrane). Orthographic learning was assessed with a task of spelling to dictation. In both experiments, children recalled items without doublets better than items with doublets. In Experiment 1, children recalled spellings with a doublet in illegal word-initial position better than spellings with a doublet in legal word-medial position, and almost all misspellings involved the omission of the doublet. The fact that the graphotactic violation in an item like mmupile was in the salient initial position may explain why children often remembered both the presence and the position of the doublet. In Experiment 2, children recalled non-words with a doublet before a single consonant (legal, e.g., gupprane) better than those with a doublet after a single consonant (illegal, e.g., guprrane). Omission of the doublet was the most frequent error for both types of items. Children also made some transposition errors on items with a doublet after a single consonant, recalling for example gupprane instead of guprrane. These results suggest that, when a doublet is in the hard-to-remember medial position, children sometimes remember that an item contains a doublet but not which letter is doubled. Their knowledge that double consonants can occur before but not after single consonants leads to transposition errors on items like guprrane. These results shed new light on the conditions under which children use general knowledge about the graphotactic patterns of their writing system to reconstruct spellings. [less ▲]

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See detailEnseigner la ponctuation: comment et avec quels effets?
Fayol, Michel UL; Carré, Mariane; Simon-Thibult, Laurence

in Français Aujourd'Hui (Le) (2014), 4(187), 31-40

Nous rapportons ici les résultats d’une brève recherche portant sur l’apprentissage explicite de la ponctuation. Cent-vingt-neuf enfants de CE2 (3ème primaire) ont suivi un enseignement bref (deux ... [more ▼]

Nous rapportons ici les résultats d’une brève recherche portant sur l’apprentissage explicite de la ponctuation. Cent-vingt-neuf enfants de CE2 (3ème primaire) ont suivi un enseignement bref (deux semaines ; six séances de 20 mn) et systématique visant à présenter et expliquer la nature et la fonction textuelle de trois marques de ponctuation (alinéa : A ; point et majuscule : PM ; virgule : V). Ces interventions ont fait l’objet d’une évaluation à court terme (quelques jours) puis à long terme (plusieurs semaines) portant d’abord sur des exercices systématiques (textes à compléter), puis sur la rédaction de l’histoire du « Petit Chaperon Rouge ». Les résultats, modestes, montrent une amélioration de l’emploi des trois marques étudiées. L’absence de groupe contrôle conduit à suggérer de poursuivre les recherches dans cette direction. [less ▲]

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See detailWritten language : Learning to read and to spell
Fayol, Michel UL

in Fäcke, C. (Ed.) Manual of language acquisition (2014)

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