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See detailLigand-dependent activation of ER{beta} lowers blood pressure and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Jazbutyte, Virginija; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Hu, Kai et al

in Cardiovascular research (2008), 77(4), 774-81

AIMS: The biological effects of oestrogens are mediated by two different oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, which might play different, redundant, or opposing roles in cardiovascular ... [more ▼]

AIMS: The biological effects of oestrogens are mediated by two different oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, which might play different, redundant, or opposing roles in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that the selective ERalpha agonist 16alpha-LE2 improves vascular relaxation, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, and increases cardiac output without lowering elevated blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Because ERbeta-deficient mice exhibit elevated blood pressure and since the ERbeta agonist 8beta-VE2 attenuated hypertension in aldosterone-salt-treated rats, we have now tested the hypothesis that the isotype-selective ERbeta agonist 8beta-VE2 might be capable of lowering elevated blood pressure in ovariectomized SHR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatment of ovariectomized SHR with 8beta-VE2 for 12 weeks conferred no uterotrophic effects but lowered elevated systolic blood pressure (-38 +/- 5 mmHg, n = 31, P < 0.001 vs. placebo) as well as peripheral vascular resistance (-31.3 +/- 4.6%, P < 0.001 vs. placebo). 8beta-VE2 enhanced aortic ERbeta expression (+75.7 +/- 7.1%, P < 0.01 vs. placebo), improved NO-dependent vasorelaxation, augmented phosphorylation of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein in isolated aortic rings (P < 0.05 vs. placebo), increased cardiac output (+20.4 +/- 2.5%, P < 0.01 vs. placebo), and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy (-22.2 +/- 3.2%, p < 0.01 vs. placebo). 8beta-VE2, in contrast to oestradiol, did not enhance cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain expression. CONCLUSION: Ligand-dependent activation of ERbeta confers blood pressure lowering effects in SHR that are superior to those of 17beta-estradiol or the ERalpha agonist 16alpha-LE2 and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy primarily by a reduction of cardiac afterload without promoting uterine growth. [less ▲]

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See detailMedroxyprogesterone acetate but not drospirenone ablates the protective function of 17 beta-estradiol in aldosterone salt-treated rats.
Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Hu, Kai; Schafer, Andreas et al

in Hypertension (2006), 48(5), 994-1001

Controversial results obtained from human and animal studies on the prevention of heart disease by estrogens and progestins warrant a better understanding of nuclear hormone receptor function and ... [more ▼]

Controversial results obtained from human and animal studies on the prevention of heart disease by estrogens and progestins warrant a better understanding of nuclear hormone receptor function and interaction. To address this issue and taking into account that effects of synthetic progestins are not only referable to action through the progesterone receptor but may also be mediated by other steroid receptors, we characterized cardiovascular function and inflammatory gene expression in aldosterone salt-treated rats on long-term administration of 17beta-estradiol, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and drospirenone, a new progestogen exhibiting antimineralocorticoid activity. The complex pattern of cardiovascular injury in ovariectomized Wistar rats induced by chronic aldosterone infusion plus a high-salt diet was significantly attenuated in sham-ovariectomized rats and by coadministration of 17beta-estradiol in ovariectomized animals after 8 weeks of continuous treatment. The beneficial role of 17beta-estradiol on blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, vascular osteopontin expression, perivascular fibrosis, and impaired NO-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic rings was completely abrogated by coadministration of medroxyprogesterone acetate. In contrast, drospirenone was either neutral or additive to 17beta-estradiol in protecting against aldosterone salt-induced cardiovascular injury and inflammation. The current results support the hypothesis of complex interactions among estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoid, androgen, and mineralocorticoid receptor signaling in cardiovascular injury and inflammation. Novel progestins, such as drospirenone, confer superior effects compared with medroxyprogesterone acetate in a model of aldosterone-induced heart disease because of its antimineralocorticoid properties. [less ▲]

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See detailAging reduces the efficacy of estrogen substitution to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy in female spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Jazbutyte, Virginija; Hu, Kai; Kruchten, Patricia et al

in Hypertension (2006), 48(4), 579-86

Clinical trials failed to show a beneficial effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, whereas experimental studies in young animals reported a protective function of estrogen replacement in ... [more ▼]

Clinical trials failed to show a beneficial effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, whereas experimental studies in young animals reported a protective function of estrogen replacement in cardiovascular disease. Because these diverging results could in part be explained by aging effects, we compared the efficacy of estrogen substitution to modulate cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac gene expression among young (age 3 months) and senescent (age 24 months) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), which were sham operated or ovariectomized and injected with placebo or identical doses of 17beta-estradiol (E2; 2 microg/kg body weight per day) for 6 weeks (n=10/group). Blood pressure was comparable among sham-operated senescent and young SHRs and not altered by ovariectomy or E2 treatment among young or among senescent rats. Estrogen substitution inhibited uterus atrophy and gain of body weight in young and senescent ovariectomized SHRs, but cardiac hypertrophy was attenuated only in young rats. Cardiac estrogen receptor-alpha expression was lower in intact and in ovariectomized senescent compared with young SHRs and increased with estradiol substitution in aged rats. Plasma estradiol and estrone levels were lower not only in sham-operated but surprisingly also in E2-substituted senescent SHRs and associated with a reduction of hepatic 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity, which converts weak (ie, estrone) into potent estrogens, such as E2. Aging attenuates the antihypertrophic effect of estradiol in female SHRs and is associated with profound alterations in cardiac estrogen receptor-alpha expression and estradiol metabolism. These observations contribute to explain the lower efficiency of estrogen substitution in senescent SHRs. [less ▲]

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See detailPioglitazone reverses down-regulation of cardiac PPARgamma expression in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.
Pelzer, Theo; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2005), 329(2), 726-32

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models ... [more ▼]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models. The functional role of PPARgamma in the diabetic heart, however, is not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac gene expression, metabolic control, and cardiac glucose uptake in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF fa/fa) and lean ZDF rats (+/+) treated with the high affinity PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone or placebo from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as lower cardiac PPARgamma, glucose transporter-4 and alpha-myosin heavy chain expression levels were detected in diabetic ZDF rats compared to lean animals. Pioglitazone increased body weight and improved metabolic control, cardiac PPARgamma, glut-4, and alpha-MHC expression levels in diabetic ZDF rats. Cardiac [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was not detectable by micro-PET studies in untreated and pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats but was observed after administration of insulin to pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats. PPARgamma agonists favorably affect cardiac gene expression in type-2 diabetic rats via activation and up-regulation of cardiac PPARgamma expression whereas improvement of impaired cardiac glucose uptake in advanced type-2 diabetes requires co-administration of insulin. [less ▲]

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See detailThe estrogen receptor-alpha agonist 16alpha-LE2 inhibits cardiac hypertrophy and improves hemodynamic function in estrogen-deficient spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Pelzer, Theo; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Hu, Kai et al

in Cardiovascular research (2005), 67(4), 604-12

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac mass increases with age and with declining estradiol serum levels in postmenopausal women. Although the non-selective estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta agonist 17beta-estradiol ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac mass increases with age and with declining estradiol serum levels in postmenopausal women. Although the non-selective estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta agonist 17beta-estradiol attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in animal models and in observational studies, it remains unknown whether activation of a specific estrogen receptor subtype (ERalpha or ERbeta) might give similar or divergent results. Therefore, we analyzed myocardial hypertrophy as well as cardiac function and gene expression in ovariectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with the subtype-selective ERalpha agonist 16alpha-LE2 or 17beta-estradiol. METHODS AND RESULTS: Long-term administration of 16alpha-LE2 or 17beta-estradiol did not affect elevated blood pressure, but both agonists efficiently attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac output, left ventricular stroke volume, papillary muscle strip contractility, and cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain expression. The observed effects of E2 and 16alpha-LE2 were abrogated by the ER antagonist ZM-182780. Improved left ventricular function upon 16alpha-LE2 treatment was also observed in cardiac MRI studies. In contrast to estradiol and 16alpha-LE2, tamoxifen inhibited cardiac hypertrophy but failed to increase alpha-myosin heavy chain expression and cardiac output. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that activation of ERalpha favorably affects cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial contractility, and gene expression in ovariectomized SHR. Further studies are required to determine whether activation ERbeta mediates redundant or divergent effects. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased mortality and aggravation of heart failure in estrogen receptor-beta knockout mice after myocardial infarction.
Pelzer, Theo; Loza, Paula-Anahi Arias; Hu, Kai et al

in Circulation (2005), 111(12), 1492-8

BACKGROUND: Lower mortality rates among women with chronic heart failure than among men may depend in part on the action of female sex hormones, especially estrogens. The biological effects of estrogens ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Lower mortality rates among women with chronic heart failure than among men may depend in part on the action of female sex hormones, especially estrogens. The biological effects of estrogens are mediated by 2 distinct estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes (ERalpha and ERbeta). The present study was undertaken to determine the role of ERbeta in the development of chronic heart failure after experimental myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Female ERbeta null mice (BERKO(Chapel Hill)) and wild-type littermates (WT) were ovariectomized, given 17beta-estradiol, and subjected to chronic anterior MI (MI; BERKO n=31, WT n=30) or sham operation (sham; BERKO n=14, WT n=14). At 8 weeks after MI, both genotypes revealed left ventricular remodeling and impaired contractile function at similar average infarct size (BERKO-MI 32.9+/-5% versus WT-MI 33.0+/-4%); however, BERKO mice showed increased mortality (BERKO-MI 42% versus WT-MI 23%), increased body weight and fluid retention (P<0.01), higher ventricular pro-ANP expression (BERKO-MI 27.9-fold versus sham, WT-MI 5.2-fold versus sham; BERKO-MI versus WT-MI P<0.001), higher atrial natriuretic peptide serum levels, and increased phospholamban expression (P<0.05) compared with WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic deletion of ERbeta in female mice increases mortality, aggravates clinical and biochemical markers of heart failure, and contributes to impaired expression of Ca(2+)-handling proteins in chronic heart failure after MI. Further studies are required to delineate the relative importance of cardiac and vascular effects of ERbeta and the role of ERalpha in the development of heart failure. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of additional temporary glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition on troponin release in elective percutaneous coronary interventions after pretreatment with aspirin and clopidogrel (TOPSTAR trial).
Bonz, Andreas W.; Lengenfelder, Bjorn; Strotmann, Jorg et al

in Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2002), 40(4), 662-8

OBJECTIVES: The Troponin in Planned PTCA/Stent Implantation With or Without Administration of the Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Antagonist Tirofiban (TOPSTAR) trial investigated: 1) the amount of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The Troponin in Planned PTCA/Stent Implantation With or Without Administration of the Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Antagonist Tirofiban (TOPSTAR) trial investigated: 1) the amount of troponin T (TnT) release after nonacute, elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients pretreated with aspirin and clopidogrel; and 2) the effect of additional glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor inhibiton on postinterventional TnT release. BACKGROUND: No data are available yet as to whether additional administration of a GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist might be beneficial in patients undergoing elective PCI already pretreated with aspirin and clopidogrel. METHODS: After bolus application of the study medication (tirofiban [T] or placebo [P]), PCI was performed followed by an 18-h continuous infusion of T/P. Primary end point of the study was incidence and amount of TnT release after elective PCI after 24 h. RESULTS: A total of 12 h after PCI troponin release was detected in 63% of the patients receiving P and in 40% of the patients receiving T (p < 0.05), after 24 h in 69% (P) and 48% (T) (p < 0.05) and after 48 h in 74% (P) versus 58% (T) (p < 0.08) of the patients. No differences were observed regarding major bleeding, intracranial bleeding or nonhemorrhagic strokes. After nine months a reduction of combined death/myocardial infarction/target vessel revascularization could be observed in the tirofiban group ([T] 2.3% vs. [P] 13.04%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Troponin T release occurs after successful intervention in 74% of the patients undergoing elective PCI after 48 h even after pretreatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. The GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist tirofiban is able to decrease the incidence of troponin release significantly in this patient population. [less ▲]

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