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See detailROADNET: Fairness- and Throughput-Enhanced Scheduling for Content Dissemination in VANETs
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL et al

in ROADNET: Fairness- and Throughput-Enhanced Scheduling for Content Dissemination in VANETs (2018, May 23)

The increasing demand for bandwidth by applications in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs), combined with the increasing number of their users, stresses the importance of data dissemination schemes that ... [more ▼]

The increasing demand for bandwidth by applications in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs), combined with the increasing number of their users, stresses the importance of data dissemination schemes that strike a balance between network throughput and user fairness. Ensuring this balance is challenging in vehicular networks, which are characterized by a high dynamism of the network topology, volatility of intervehicular links, and heterogeneity of the exchanged content. For these reasons, we hereby introduce ROADNET, a cooperative content dissemination scheme for VANETs. Leveraging on the Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm, ROADNET provides a trade-off between network throughput and user fairness by exploiting the logical centralized control of SDN and the multichannel operation of the IEEE 1609.4 standard. Realistic simulation results show that our scheme outperforms prior works in terms of both throughput (≈ 36%) and fairness (≈ 6%), providing high channel load balance (σ ≈ 1%). [less ▲]

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See detailA centralized approach for setting floating content parameters in VANETs
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Palattella, Maria Rita et al

in A centralized approach for setting floating content parameters in VANETs (2017, July 20)

Floating Content (FC) has recently been proposed as an attractive application for mobile networks, such as VANETs, to operate opportunistic and distributed content sharing over a given geographic area ... [more ▼]

Floating Content (FC) has recently been proposed as an attractive application for mobile networks, such as VANETs, to operate opportunistic and distributed content sharing over a given geographic area, namely Anchor Zone (AZ). FC performances are tightly dependent on the AZ size, which in literature is classically chosen by the node that generates the floating message. In the present work, we propose a method to improve FC performances by optimizing the AZ size with the support of a Software Defined Network (SDN) controller, which collects mobility information, such as speed and position, of the vehicles in its coverage range. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multi-Pronged Approach to Adaptive and Context Aware Content Dissemination in VANETs
Duarte, Joao; Kalogeiton, Eirini; Soua, Ridha UL et al

in Mobile Networks and Applications (2017)

Content dissemination in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) has the potential to enable a myriad of applications, ranging from advertising, traffic and emergency warnings to infotainment. This variety in ... [more ▼]

Content dissemination in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) has the potential to enable a myriad of applications, ranging from advertising, traffic and emergency warnings to infotainment. This variety in applications and services calls for mechanisms able to optimize content storing, retrieval and forwarding among vehicles, without jeopardizing network resources. Content Centric Networking (CCN), takes advantage of inherent content redundancy in the network in order to decrease the utilization of network resources, improve response time and content availability, coping efficiently with some of the effects of mobility. Floating Content (FC), on the other hand, holds potential to implement efficiently a large amount of vehicular applications thanks to its property of geographic content replication, while Software Defined Networking (SDN), is an attractive solution for the lack of flexibility and dynamic programmability that characterizes current VANET architectures. By implementing a logical centralization of the network, SDN enables dynamic and efficient management of network resources. In this paper, for a few reference scenarios, we illustrate how approaches that combine CCN, FC and SDN enable an innovative adaptive VANET architecture able to efficiently accommodate to intermittent connectivity, fluctuating node density and mobility patterns on one side and application performance and network resources on the other side, aiming to achieve high QoS. For each scenario, we highlight the main open research challenges, and we describe possible solutions to improve content dissemination and reduce replication without affecting content availability. [less ▲]

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See detailCoordination Mechanisms for Floating Content in Realistic Vehicular Scenario
Manzo, Gaetano; Soua, Ridha UL; Di Maio, Antonio UL et al

in Coordination Mechanisms for Floating Content in Realistic Vehicular Scenario (2017)

The increasing interest in vehicular communications draws attention to scalability and network congestion problems and therefore on techniques to offload the traffic, typically carried through the ... [more ▼]

The increasing interest in vehicular communications draws attention to scalability and network congestion problems and therefore on techniques to offload the traffic, typically carried through the infrastructure, to the Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) network. Floating content (FC) represents a promising paradigm to share ephemeral content without direct support from infrastructure. It is based on constraining geographically within the Anchor Zone (AZ) the opportunistic replication of a given content among vehicles, in a way that strikes a balance between minimization of resource usage and content availability. Existing works on FC performance modeling are based on standard, homogeneous synthetic mobility models, and it is hence unclear how they actually fit in realistic mobility scenarios. Moreover, the approaches to FC dimensioning they propose assume users have full knowledge of Spatio-temporal mobility patterns, which is hard to achieve in practice. Finally, despite FC is an infrastructure-less communication paradigm, some form of infrastructure support could be available in the vast majority of those application scenarios for which it has been proposed. In this paper, we perform a first attempt at tackling these issues. We focus on how to dimension an Anchor Zone in a realistic vehicular scenario. We propose the first set of simple dimensioning strategies, based on the estimation of some key mobility parameters and of FC performance. We assess such strategies on measurement-based vehicular traces, providing a first indication of their relative performance, and of the feasibility of FC in practical scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailEnabling SDN in VANETs: What is the Impact on Security?
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL; Soua, Ridha UL et al

in Sensors (2016), 16(12), 2077

The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens’ ... [more ▼]

The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens’ quality of life by developing the smart mobility concept. Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are widely recognized to be instrumental in realizing such concept, by enabling appealing safety and infotainment services. Such networks come with their own set of challenges, which range from managing high node mobility to securing data and user privacy. The Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm has been identified as a suitable solution for dealing with the dynamic network environment, the increased number of connected devices, and the heterogeneity of applications. While some preliminary investigations have been already conducted to check the applicability of the SDN paradigm to VANETs, and its presumed benefits for managing resources and mobility, it is still unclear what impact SDN will have on security and privacy. Security is a relevant issue in VANETs, because of the impact that threats can have on drivers’ behavior and quality of life. This paper opens a discussion on the security threats that future SDN-enabled VANETs will have to face, and investigates how SDN could be beneficial in building new countermeasures. The analysis is conducted in real use cases (smart parking, smart grid of electric vehicles, platooning, and emergency services), which are expected to be among the vehicular applications that will most benefit from introducing an SDN architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailSDN coordination for CCN and FC content dissemination in VANETs
Soua, Ridha UL; Kalogeiton, Eirini; Manzo, Gaetano et al

in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks (ADHOCNETS), Ottawa, ON, Canada (2016, September 26)

Content dissemination in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks has a myriad of applications, ranging from advertising and parking notifications, to traffic and emergency warnings. This heterogeneity requires ... [more ▼]

Content dissemination in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks has a myriad of applications, ranging from advertising and parking notifications, to traffic and emergency warnings. This heterogeneity requires optimizing content storing, retrieval and forwarding among vehicles to deliver data with short latency and without jeopardizing network resources. In this paper, for a few reference scenarios, we illustrate how approaches that combine Content Centric Networking (CCN) and Floating Content (FC) enable new and efficient solutions to this issue. Moreover, we describe how a network architecture based on Software Defined Networking (SDN) can support both CCN and FC by coordinating distributed caching strategies, by optimizing the packet forwarding process and the availability of floating data items. For each scenario analyzed, we highlight the main research challenges open, and we describe a few possible solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel approach to evaluate blood parameters using computer vision techniques
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Marino, Francescomaria et al

in Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), 2016 IEEE International Symposium on (2016, May 15)

Current medical practice for determining hemoglobin concentration (which is especially important for anemic patients in need of blood transfusion) involves frequent blood tests. In this work, we propose ... [more ▼]

Current medical practice for determining hemoglobin concentration (which is especially important for anemic patients in need of blood transfusion) involves frequent blood tests. In this work, we propose an alternative, non-invasive approach to hemoglobin estimation, based on image analysis of a specific conjunctival region. Our ultimate goal is to develop an easy-to-use wearable device that patients themselves can employ at home to autonomously assess their need of blood transfusion. In this paper, we detail the prototype of our device and the methodology for extracting key information from the color values of the acquired image. Tests conducted on 77 anemic and healthy patients show significant correlation between the real hemoglobin value obtained through blood sampling and the value estimated by our algorithm. A prototypical binary classification algorithm for assessing the need of blood transfusion yielded good results in terms of accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, thus making it possible to avoid a significant number of blood tests. [less ▲]

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See detailA computer vision and control algorithm to follow a human target in a generic environment using a drone
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Intelligent Computing Theories and Application (2016)

This work proposes an innovative technique to solve the problem of tracking and following a generic human target by a drone in a natural, possibly dark scene. The algorithm does not rely on color ... [more ▼]

This work proposes an innovative technique to solve the problem of tracking and following a generic human target by a drone in a natural, possibly dark scene. The algorithm does not rely on color information but mainly on shape information, using the HOG classifier, and on local brightness information, using the optical flow algorithm. We tried to keep the algorithm as light as possible, envisioning its future application on embedded or mobile devices. After several tests, performed modeling the system as a set of SISO feedback-controlled systems and calculating the Integral Squared Error as quality indicator, we noticed that the final performance, overall satisfactory, degrades as the background complexity and the presence of disturbance sources, such as sharp edges and moving objects that cross the target, increase . [less ▲]

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