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See detailUmfrage - Einführung in die Methoden der Umfrageforschung
Jacob, Rüdiger; Heinz, Andreas UL; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

Book published by De Gruyter Oldenbourg - 4 (2019)

Das Buch vermittelt theoretische Grundlagen und praxisnahe Kenntnisse zu wissenschaftlichen Umfragen. Mit Hilfe dieser Kenntnisse kann der Leser Umfragen sowohl kritisch beurteilen als auch Fragebögen ... [more ▼]

Das Buch vermittelt theoretische Grundlagen und praxisnahe Kenntnisse zu wissenschaftlichen Umfragen. Mit Hilfe dieser Kenntnisse kann der Leser Umfragen sowohl kritisch beurteilen als auch Fragebögen selbst nach den gültigen wissenschaftlichen Standards erstellen. Damit wird dem in den letzten Jahren zunehmenden Problem mangelnder Gültigkeit und Zuverlässigkeit von Befragungsdaten entgegengewirkt. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf Hinweisen zur Formulierung von Fragen und zur Konstruktion von Fragebögen, daneben werden aber auch viele andere Probleme behandelt, wie z.B. Fragen des Forschungsdesigns oder der Planung und Durchführung der Feldarbeit. Neben postalischen, persönlichen und telefonischen Befragungen werden auch Online-, Mobile und Mixed-Mode-Befragungen erläutert. Das Buch schließt die Lücke zwischen allgemeinen Lehrbüchern zur empirischen Sozialforschung einerseits und speziellen Lehr- und Handbüchern zur Datenanalyse andererseits. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual Consequences of Migration in a Life Course Perspective: Experiences of the First Two Waves of the New German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS)
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Witte, Nils; Ette, Andreas et al

Scientific Conference (2019)

ith the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) we have recently started to establish a new and unique longitudinal data set to investigate consequences of international migration from a ... [more ▼]

ith the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) we have recently started to establish a new and unique longitudinal data set to investigate consequences of international migration from a life course perspective. This task is challenging, as internationally mobile individuals are hard to survey for different reasons (e.g. sampling design and approach, contact strategy, panel maintenance). In our presentation, we would like to report experiences we have made and how we handled with methodical problems. GERPS is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and surveys international mobile German citizens (recently emigrated abroad or recently re-migrated to Germany) in four consecutive waves within a panel design. Based on a probability sample, GERPS elucidates the individual consequences of cross-border mobility and concentrates on representative longitudinal individual data. It bases mainly on online surveys and covers topics like changing living conditions or life events linked to the migration process. Our first wave was conducted in November 2018 and the second wave will be started in April 2019. This enables us to present first hand results and experiences of the first two waves of this new and unique longitudinal dataset, which focuses on international migrants. We will mainly reflect the effectiveness of our register-based sampling focusing on traditional indicators of data quality such as response rates or attrition rates. Additionally, we will present our results concerning the success of different incentive approaches (lottery, pre-paid and post-paid incentives) and contact strategies, the used devices to run our online responsive online panel and field experiences we made (e.g. field time and fieldwork during this waves). These results can be very helpful to international researchers in the context of surveying mobile populations. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Much Evidence Is in Evidence-Based Policymaking: A Case Study of an Expert Group of the European Commission
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

in Evidence & Policy (2018), Online First

Knowledge co-production is a solution-oriented approach to analysing real-life problems such as making the right decision in a given scenario. The most popular examples come from evidence-based ... [more ▼]

Knowledge co-production is a solution-oriented approach to analysing real-life problems such as making the right decision in a given scenario. The most popular examples come from evidence-based policymaking contexts. Political decisions made in this way rely on specialist expertise co-produced in organisations that can be characterised as Hybrid Fora. However, despite the rise in popularity of Hybrid Fora and evidence-based policymaking processes, there are only a few studies that analyse the influencing factors of knowledge co-production in these contexts. The case study presented here addresses this new area of research through a documentary analysis and 11 expert interviews, both analysed via qualitative content analysis. First, the study reconstructs how knowledge is produced within an Expert Group of the European Commission. Second, it reflects how the produced knowledge is de facto included as “evidence” into the decision-making processes of the relevant policy area. The results of this study show that in this expert group, pragmatic and extra-scientific criteria such as specific stakes and interests as well as the group hierarchy controlled the process of knowledge co-production. Moreover, it also seems that knowledge produced by the interaction of experts within the examined Expert Group has a more symbolic, policy-orientated function, rather than being specifically used as decision-making evidence. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Media and Its Role in Friendship-driven Interactions among Young People A Mixed Methods Study
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Heinen, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut UL

in Young : Nordic Journal of Youth Research (2018), Online First

This article examines trends and developments in social interactions of young people and the role of social media in Luxembourg using a mixed method approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative ... [more ▼]

This article examines trends and developments in social interactions of young people and the role of social media in Luxembourg using a mixed method approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data. Our findings corroborate that social interactions via social media play a growing role in leisure time of young people and have changed the traditional patterns of friendship-driven social interactions among peers. We argue that although offline interactions remain very important for young people, they have been complemented and partially replaced by interactions via social media. Modes of young people’s social media interactions can be characterized as mixed modalities. [less ▲]

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See detailDie “Kunst” der Frageformulierung in Umfragen
Mergener, Alexandra; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

in Keller, Bernhard (Ed.) Qualität und Data Science in der Marktforschung (2018)

enn du etwas wissen willst, frage! – Was im Alltag so einfach klingt, ist in der Methodenforschung ein aufwendiger Prozess. Sowohl das Formulieren von Fragen als auch die Gestaltung des Fragebogens bedarf ... [more ▼]

enn du etwas wissen willst, frage! – Was im Alltag so einfach klingt, ist in der Methodenforschung ein aufwendiger Prozess. Sowohl das Formulieren von Fragen als auch die Gestaltung des Fragebogens bedarf der Berücksichtigung unterschiedlicher Regeln, ohne die durch Befragungen gewonnene Daten schnell unbrauchbar werden können. So spielen in einem systematischen Frage-Antwort-Vorgang zentrale Kommunikationsregeln und psychologische Abläufe eine Rolle, die es als Forscher dringend zu beachten gilt. Aufbauend auf diesen zentralen Erkenntnissen befasst sich der folgende Beitrag mit unterschiedlichen Aspekten, die die Qualität von Fragebögen beeinflussen. Anhand von praxisbezogenen Beispielen, die aus Erfahrungen mit diversen Befragungen sowie einer systematischen Methodenforschung resultieren, werden dabei dem Leser Leitlinien zur Optimierung von eigenen Fragebögen an die Hand gegeben. Gleichwohl gilt es dabei zu beachten, dass es allgemeingültige Regeln, die auf jede Forschungsfrage, Untersuchungspopulation oder auch Erhebungsart anwendbar sind, nicht geben kann. Die hier erarbeiteten Instruktionen dienen vielmehr der Vermittlung wesentlicher Kenntnisse, die zum Vermeiden grober Fehler führen sollen und es dem Forscher zugleich erlauben, bei Bedarf die Leitlinien nach kritischer Betrachtung eigenständig anzupassen. [less ▲]

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See detailThe dialectic of transnational integration and national disintegration as mayor challenge of the aggregation of knowledge by European Expert Groups
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

Scientific Conference (2017, October 14)

From a phenomenological perspective on modern systems of knowledge production a transformation towards a hybrid knowledge production has taken place. Categories like locality or embeddedness have been ... [more ▼]

From a phenomenological perspective on modern systems of knowledge production a transformation towards a hybrid knowledge production has taken place. Categories like locality or embeddedness have been overcome and rise of arenas of cross-broader-cooperation can be observed. The political sector is an important example where a rise of decision-making contexts with supra national relevance can be detected. As consequence a transformation of the political advisory-system towards the genesis of multinational advisory organisations on supranational level can be observed. This means that decision-making knowledge is developed and standardized on supranational level and supposed to be applied top-down on local level. Theoretically such a cooperative form of knowledge co-production of application-driven knowledge by a heterogeneous set of stakeholders aims to produce a context specific solution for specific problems of application (“socially robust knowledge”) in order to provide evidence-based policy-making. But in fact such a processes of unification of knowledge on supranational level often reduces national policy autonomy and is associated with the risk of limited compliance to the specific local needs. Thus the universal transnational knowledge is systematically contested by a variety of particularistic relevancies as is lacks in socially robustness for the application on national decision-making level (“dialectic of transnational integration and disintegration “. This paper analyses how national policy systems are responding to global integration initiatives. By using an in-depth-case-study, I focus especially on individual actors and their responses in the light of a multiplicity of institutional relevancies and the effective social robustness of the aggregated knowledge on national level. [less ▲]

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See detailDas Ansehen der Ärzteschaft in Europa - Ein Ländervergleich
Heinz, Andreas UL; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

in Das Gesundheitswesen (2017), 79

Study objective: Patients expect a lot from doctors. They expect doctors to be trustworthy and competent, to discuss all treatment options with them, to inform them about mistakes made during the ... [more ▼]

Study objective: Patients expect a lot from doctors. They expect doctors to be trustworthy and competent, to discuss all treatment options with them, to inform them about mistakes made during the treatment and to put their interests before their own interests. This paper examines how the population of Europe assesses doctors in this respect and whether there are countries where the assessments are similar. Methods: In the "International Social Survey Programme - ISSP" the population in 32 countries was asked to assess the doctors in their respective countries. For this paper, data of 27,772 respondents from 18 European countries were analysed. The respondents were asked to rate 5 statements about doctors on a 5-point scale, with 1 indicating a positive assessment and 5 indicating a negative assessment. For each country, the mean values for the statements were calculated and grouped using cluster analysis to identify countries with similar assessments. Results: "Doctors can be trusted" is the statement with the highest approval across all countries, with means ranging from 2.0 in Denmark to 2.7 in Russia. In most countries, the means of the following statements were close to each other: "Doctors discuss all treatment options with their patients", "The medical skills of doctors are as good as they should be", and "Doctors do not care more about their earnings than about their patients." In almost all countries, respondents were particularly skeptical about the statement "Doctors would tell their patients if they had made a mistake during treatment". Four clusters were identified, but there was no cluster that rated among the best for all five statements. With regard to trust, the discussion of treatment options and the pursuit of self-serving interests, doctors in Germany were not rated particularly well or particularly badly. In Germany, the population was more likely to think that doctors would not inform their patients about mistakes during the treatment. Conclusions: Trust in doctors seems to reflect the general level of trust in a country. The question arises why trust in doctors is high across countries if the respondents are much more skeptical regarding the other statements. [less ▲]

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See detailGetting to the bottom of response behavior when using Forced Answering in Online Surveys
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Mergener, Alexandra; Sischka, Philipp UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017)

Abstract: Recent studies have shown that the use of the forced answering (FA) option in online surveys results in reduced data quality. This response behavior has often been interpreted as psychological ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Recent studies have shown that the use of the forced answering (FA) option in online surveys results in reduced data quality. This response behavior has often been interpreted as psychological reactance reaction. However, no study researched the psychological mechanism behind the correlation of FA on dropout and data quality before. By using online survey-experiments with forced and non-forced answering instructions, our study offers statistical evidence for the often proposed reactance effect influencing response behavior. Relevance: Recent studies have shown that the use of the forced answering (FA) option in online surveys results in reduced data quality. They especially examined that forcing respondents to answer questions in order to proceed through the questionnaire leads to higher dropout rates and lower answer quality. However, no study researched the psychological mechanism behind the correlation of FA on dropout and data quality before. This response behavior has often been interpreted as psychological reactance reaction. So, the Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) predicts that reactance appears when an individuals’ freedom is threatened and cannot be directly restored. Reactance describes the motivation to restore this loss of freedom. Respondents could experience FA as a loss of freedom, as (s)he is denied the choice to leave a question unanswered. According to PRT, possible reactions in this situation might be to quit survey participation, to fake answers or to show satisficing tendencies. Research content: This study explores the psychological mechanism that effects response behavior in FA condition (compared to non-FA- condition). Our major hypothesis is that forcing respondents to answer will cause reactance, which turns into increasing dropout rates, decreasing answer quality and a satisficing behavior. Methods and Data: We used online survey-experiments with forced and non-forced answering instructions. Reactance was measured with a four-item reactance scale. To determine answer quality, we used self-report for faking as well as the analysis of answers to open ended questions. Results: Zero-order effects showed that FA increased state reactance and questionnaire dropout as well as it reduced answer length in open-ended questions. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis of reactance as an underlying psychological mechanism behind negative FA effects on data quality. Added Value: This is the first study which offers statistical evidence for the often proposed reactance effect influencing response behavior. This offers a base for a deeper psychological reflection of the use of the FA-option. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Jugend der Gemeinde Strassen Entwicklungen, Probleme und Perspektiven: Ergebnisbericht der Jugendstudie im Rahmen des Jugendkommunalplanes für die Gemeinde Strassen
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Heinen, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut UL

Report (2016)

Die vorliegende Studie zur Situation der Jugendlichen in der Gemeinde Strassen wurde von der Forschergruppe „youth research“ an der Forschungseinheit INSIDE (Integrative Research Unit on Social and ... [more ▼]

Die vorliegende Studie zur Situation der Jugendlichen in der Gemeinde Strassen wurde von der Forschergruppe „youth research“ an der Forschungseinheit INSIDE (Integrative Research Unit on Social and Individual Development) der Universität Luxemburg im Auftrag des Bürgermeister- und Schöffenrates der Gemeinde Strassen erstellt. Diese Studie ist Teil des Jugendkommunalplans für die Gemeinde Strassen und hat zum Ziel, den Verantwortlichen in Politik, Verwaltung und Jugendarbeit Informationen zu liefern, die zu einem besseren Verständnis der Jugendlichen in der Gemeinde beitragen. Denn die Gruppe der Jugendlichen repräsentiert mit ihren Wünschen, eigenen Sichtweisen und Erwartungen eine zentrale Entwicklungsperspektive für die Gemeinde Strassen. Unter anderem aus diesem Grund sind die Ergebnisse dieser Studie eine wichtige Informations- und Diskussionsgrundlage für die zukünftige Planung und Umsetzung der kommunalen Jugendpolitik und ein wichtiges Fundament für „Evidence-based-policy-making“, also eine wissensbasierte Jugendpolitik in Strassen. Diesem Anliegen entsprechend wurde diese Studie als Situations- und Bedarfsanalyse konzipiert. Wichtige thematische Aspekte sind insbesondere die Lebenswelten, das Freizeitverhalten und die Freizeitinteressen der Jugendlichen in Straßen aber auch die sozialen Herkunftsmilieus die einen starken Einfluss auf die Startbedingungen, Lebensentwürfe und Zukunftsperspektiven der Jugendlichen haben. Nicht zuletzt interessiert auch die Frage, wie die Jugendlichen unterschiedlicher Herkunft in der Gemeinde integriert sind, wie zufrieden sie mit den Angeboten und der Infrastruktur sind, welche Möglichkeiten der Partizipation für sie wichtig sind und inwiefern die Maßnahmen und Angebote der kommunalen Politik die Jugendlichen erreichen. In diesem Zusammenhang ist auch ein genauerer Blick auf die Situation der Jugendlichen mit einer ausländischen Nationalität von Interesse, zum Beispiel die Frage, wo Defizite aber auch Chancen einer stärkeren Integration oder Beteiligung dieser großen Zahl an Jugendlichen am Gemeindeleben bestehen. Bei vielen Themenbereichen sind Vergleiche mit anderen luxemburgischen oder mit internationalen Jugendstudien möglich. Dadurch können Gemeinsamkeiten sowie Besonderheiten der Gemeinde Straßen deutlich gemacht werden. [less ▲]

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See detailForced Answering in Online Surveys: Is it really a reactance effect that reduces data quality?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Mergener, Alexandra; Neufang, Kristina Marliese et al

Scientific Conference (2016, October 14)

Online surveys are conducted without adequate attention to implementation details too often. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering (FA) option, which forces the respondent to answer ... [more ▼]

Online surveys are conducted without adequate attention to implementation details too often. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering (FA) option, which forces the respondent to answer questions in order to proceed through the questionnaire. Currently, only a few studies have researched the impact of FA on different quality parameters. Some studies that evaluated the influence of FA on quality parameters (e.g. drop-out or answer quality) hypothesized that FA leads to reactance in the participants indicated by a higher drop-out-rate as well as lower answer quality. However, no study researched the psychological mechanism behind the correlation of FA on dropout and data quality before. Psychological Reactance Theory predicts that reactance appears when an individual’s freedom is threatened and cannot be directly restored. Reactance describes the motivation to restore this loss of freedom. Respondents could experience FA as a loss of freedom, as (s)he is denied the choice to leave a question unanswered. According to Reactance Theory possible reactions in this situation might be to quit survey participation or to fake answers. This study examines the psychological mechanism that explains higher amounts of dropout and faking behavior in FA condition (compared to non-FA- condition). Our major hypothesis is that forcing respondents to answer will cause reactance, which turns into increasing dropout rates and decreasing answer quality. We used split-ballot-field-experiments with a forced and non-forced answering instruction. Reactance was measured with a four-item reactance scale. To determine answer quality, we used self-report for faking. Our Mediation analysis shows that respondents in FA condition report higher amounts of reactance compared to respondents in non-FA condition. In addition to that reactance also is a strong predictor for dropout behavior, faking, or re-participation. Therefore, the influence of FA on quality parameters is mediated through reactance. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Reaktanzeffekt oder: Warum Gesundheitskampagnen scheitern können
Sischka, Philipp UL; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Neufang, Kristina et al

in In-Mind Magazin : IM; Psychologie für Alle (2016), (4),

Gesundheitskampagnen (z. B. Anti-Drogen-, Anti-Raucher- oder Kondomnutzungskampagnen) haben zum Ziel, Menschen zu Einstellungen und Verhalten zu motivieren, die gesundheitsförderlich oder präventiv sind ... [more ▼]

Gesundheitskampagnen (z. B. Anti-Drogen-, Anti-Raucher- oder Kondomnutzungskampagnen) haben zum Ziel, Menschen zu Einstellungen und Verhalten zu motivieren, die gesundheitsförderlich oder präventiv sind. Beispielsweise versuchen Anti-Drogen-Kampagnen auf die Gefahren und Folgen von Drogenkonsum aufmerksam zu machen. Anti-Raucher-Kampagnen stellen hingegen die Sensibilisierung für die gesundheitsschädlichen Folgen des Rauchens in den Vordergrund und versuchen, das von den Zigarettenfirmen aufgebaute positive Image des Rauchens zu entwerten. Solche Kampagnen laufen Gefahr, ihr Ziel – eine Einstellungs- und Verhaltensänderung bei ihren AdressatInnen zu bewirken – zu verfehlen, wenn ihre zentrale Botschaft von den RezipientInnen als zu aufdringlich empfunden wird. In der Sozialpsychologie wird dieses Phänomen häufig mit der Theorie der psychologischen Reaktanz erklärt. [less ▲]

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See detailBargaining for evidence in a Hybrid Forum? The case of an indicator expert group chaired by the European Commssion
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

in International Sociological Association (Ed.) THE FUTURES WE WANT: Global Sociology and the Struggles for a Better World (2016, July)

In the area of policymaking, we observe that decisions increasingly base on knowledge/evidence debated in hybrid think thanks by external experts. This knowledge is used to ideally fade uncertainties by ... [more ▼]

In the area of policymaking, we observe that decisions increasingly base on knowledge/evidence debated in hybrid think thanks by external experts. This knowledge is used to ideally fade uncertainties by calculating the risks involved in the final decision and by this to legitimize political decisions by delivering hard-facts in the argumentation (e.g. as “evidence-based-policy-making“). A consequence of this decision-making processes is the authoritative implementation of knowledge and direct application into the context of everyday-life. Such a political-decision-context often is a very specific situation, in which traditional mono-disciplinary scientific knowledge commonly is not precise enough, because usually it is produced to be universally valid and bases on certain assumptions. What is needed in such a context of real life application is socially robust knowledge. As a response to that demand, the mode of knowledge production is changing. Instead of linear-ordered knowledge-production, hybrid forums of heterogeneous actors are becoming important. These actors are debating and bargaining solutions to a problem and are co-constructing a contextualized knowledge as decision-making-base for the specific context of application. This discursive process of knowledge production is not only affected by the different forms of knowledge from the heterogeneous actors, it is also influenced by the heterogeneous world of relevancies (interests, targets, practices, experiences…). This study assesses and analyses by a multiple triangulation how an Indicator Expert Group of the European Commission develops social indicators (as an example for political evidence) within a transdisciplinary- and transnational expert-discourse. Based on multiple data sources my study is offering information on how evidence is produced in decision-making within such hybrid forums, e.g. important factors, processes and structures influencing indicator-systems. [less ▲]

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See detailForced answering in online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Mergener, Alexandra et al

Presentation (2016, March 03)

Too often online surveys are conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each ... [more ▼]

Too often online surveys are conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. There has been a tremendous increase in the use of this option; however, the inquirers are often not aware of possible consequences. Currently, only a few studies have researched the impact of forced answering on different quality parameters (e.g. dropouts, item nonresponse), with inconsistent results. To date no study has systematically examined effects of forced answering formats on answer quality. Given the rise in the popularity of online surveys in general and the frequent use of the forced answering option in particular, the impact of forced answering on data quality needs to be addressed. Our study assesses the consequences of the implementation of the forced answering option on dropouts as well as on answer quality. Our major hypothesis is that forcing respondents to answer will cause reactance, which in turn will decrease answer quality and increase dropout rates. To analyse the consequences of the implementation of forced answering option on response behaviour, we use split-ballot-field-experiments. We already conducted two studies (n=1056 & n=615) with differing experimental conditions and a third is ongoing. To determine answer quality, we use instructed response items, self-report for faking and other self-reports. Our results show a significant increase in dropouts and higher percentages of fakers under the forced answering condition. Both can be interpreted as reactance behavior arising from the force to answer each question in this condition. So far, no study has systematically examined effects of forced answering formats on answer quality. Our Paper address this issue. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitische Orientierungen und Partizipation Jugendlicher in Deutschland und Europa
Gille, Martina; De Rijke, Johann; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL et al

in Gürlevik, Aydin; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Palentien, Christian (Eds.) Jugend und Politik: Politische Bildung und Beteiligung von Jugendlichen (2016)

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See detailFluch oder Segen? Ambivalente Perspektiven auf die Antwortqualität von Onlineumfragen
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Mergener, Alexandra; Sischka, Philipp UL

in Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie (Ed.) Kongressband 38. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie (2016)

Onlinebefragungen haben sich heute als Erhebungsmethode in Wissenschaft und Praxis etabliert. Dem aktuellen Jahresbericht des Arbeitskreises deutscher Markt und Sozialforschungsinstitute ist zu entnehmen ... [more ▼]

Onlinebefragungen haben sich heute als Erhebungsmethode in Wissenschaft und Praxis etabliert. Dem aktuellen Jahresbericht des Arbeitskreises deutscher Markt und Sozialforschungsinstitute ist zu entnehmen, dass im letzten Jahr 43 Prozent aller durchgeführten Befragungen als Onlineumfrage realisiert wurden. Die zentrale Frage, die immer wieder aufkommt, ist jedoch: Wie gut ist die Qualität der Daten, die im Rahmen von Onlineumfragen generiert werden? Hier zeigt sich, dass viele der spezifischen Eigenschaften der Befragungsart und -situation sowohl positive als auch negative Auswirkungen haben können. Genau solche Ambivalenzen gilt es, u.a. im Rahmen dieser Ad-Hoc-Gruppe, zu erforschen und zu diskutieren. Von besonderem Interesse sind – vor allem empirisch experimentelle – Beiträge, die sich mit Phänomenen im Bereich der Antwortqualität bei Onlinebefragungen auseinandersetzen. Fragen, die hier besonders interessieren, sind u. a.: • Welche Vor- oder Nachteile besitzt die Onlinebefragung im Gegensatz zu den anderen Befragungsmethoden und was bedeutet dies in Bezug auf die Datenqualität (Self Administration, Interviewsituation, Fragedesign, Repräsentativität, Anonymität etc.)? • Welche Methoden und Techniken können eingesetzt werden, um die Antwortqualität zu ermitteln (z.B. „careless responses“, „Satisficing“ oder Ehrlichkeit der Antworten, zum Beispiel in sensiblen Fragekontexten)? • Welche Strategien erhöhen die Aufmerksamkeit, die Fokussierung und die Motivation der Respondenten bei der Beantwortung der Fragen? • Welchen Einfluss haben Befragungsteilnahmen über mobile Endgeräte tatsächlich auf die Datenqualität? [less ▲]

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See detailWissensgenerierung in Hybriden Foren: Dargestellt am Beispiel der Erstellung von Sozialindikatoren in internationalen Arbeitsgruppen
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

Doctoral thesis (2016)

In modern knowledge societies, knowledge is increasingly co-produced in hybrid fora. Actors from heterogeneous contexts and social positions with different competences come together to discuss, negotiate ... [more ▼]

In modern knowledge societies, knowledge is increasingly co-produced in hybrid fora. Actors from heterogeneous contexts and social positions with different competences come together to discuss, negotiate and finally solve problems with real-life applications. The main goal of such a hybrid forum is to negotiate a common solution for very specific problems. <br />To date, little attention has been paid within sociology to this manner of common knowledge production in hybrid fora. Given the rise in popularity of hybrid fora, there is a need for empirical data. Addressing this need and filling this gap is a major goal of this thesis. Using the example of the construction of a specific set of quantitative Social Indicators, two case studies which illustrate how knowledge is co-produced in a hybrid forum will be presented. <br />Case Study I reconstructs the indicator production within an expert group of the European Commission. This group can structurally be characterized as a hybrid forum consisting of heterogeneous actors. The mission of this group is to create a set of indicators, namely the „European Dashboard on Youth Indicators“. This set of indicators is used as an information source for the promotion of evidence-based-policy-making for EU-Policy. This case study illustrates the structures and processes within a hybrid forum, reflecting the formative factors in the process and shows the final outcome of the indicator creation process. The analysis of this complex process highlights how the different perspectives of the stakeholders evolve and influence each other and which factors and conditions determine the decisions for the final integration of an indicator into the indicator system. This study also analyses which criteria are reflected in this hybrid context to evaluate the indicators and their consequences for practical use in different contexts of interest and application. <br />Case Study II builds on the results of Case Study I and reflects the possibilities, the potential and limitations of the practical application of the European Dashboard on Youth Indicators within the youth reporting system in Luxembourg. <br />The findings of these case studies provide a detailed and empirically grounded picture of factors influencing the indicator production within an expert group and the consequences for the alignment within a real-life application. Within the context of a rising awareness of the conditions of hybrid knowledge production, the results of these studies do not only offer a novel contribution for the perspective of the sociology of knowledge and research methodology, but also offer specific recommendations for the establishment of adequate contexts and structures for hybrid knowledge production in the context of practical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailEinflüsse des hybriden Wissensdiskurses auf die Erstellung von Evaluationswissen in der Wissensgesellschaft: Eine Fallanalyse einer Indikator-Expertengruppe der europäischen Kommission
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

in Evaluation und Wissensgesellschaft (2015, October)

In Wissensgesellschaften greift die Politik zunehmend auf von Experten generiertes Wissen zurück, um Entscheidungen abzuwägen, Unsicherheiten/Risiken zu kalkulieren und dadurch zu minimieren sowie ... [more ▼]

In Wissensgesellschaften greift die Politik zunehmend auf von Experten generiertes Wissen zurück, um Entscheidungen abzuwägen, Unsicherheiten/Risiken zu kalkulieren und dadurch zu minimieren sowie getroffene Entscheidungen zu legitimieren. Auf EU‐politischer Ebene wird eine solche wissensbasierte Entscheidungsstrategie als „evidence‐based‐policy‐making“ bezeichnet. Wissen wird hier praktisch angewendet und damit verbindlich. Nicht zuletzt aus diesem Grund zeigen zahlreiche Studien einen Wandel in der Produktion von Wissen in der Wissensgesellschaft. An die Stelle der linearen Ordnung der Wissensproduktion treten hybride Kooperationsforen, in denen unterschiedliche Interessensakteure (z.B. aus Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis) Wissen ko‐konstruieren. Es besteht jedoch ein erhebliches Forschungsdesiderat bezüglich der Art und Weise, wie Wissen in diesen heterogenen Kooperationen generiert wird. Dort setzt die Studie an und analysiert, wie Sozialindikatoren im EU‐politischen Kontext erstellt werden. Diese sind eine Form externen Evaluationswissens zur Entlastung politischer Akteure im Entscheidungsprozess und zur Legitimierung von Entschlüssen, indem sie die Argumente mit belegbaren Fakten füllen. Forschungsfrage Wie beeinflusst der Wissensdiskurs heterogener Akteure in hybriden Foren (h. F.) die traditionell wissenschaftlichen Methoden der Indikatorenerstellung? Analytische Strategie Die empirische Fallanalyse rekonstruiert die Strukturen und Prozesse im Rahmen der Expertengruppe mittels einer Mehrfachtriangulation (Daten‐, Perspektiven‐, Wissens‐ und Methodentriangulation), deren Grundlage eine Analyse von Meeting‐Protokollen, ein Onlinesurvey sowie qualitative Experteninterviews bildet. Die Expertengruppe erstellt Indikatoren im Diskurs (D.) von Experten aus Politik, Praxis und Wissenschaft (transdisziplinärer D.) sowie unterschiedlichen nat. und internat. Interessen, Zielen und kulturellen Identitäten (transnationaler D.). Die Studie liefert bisher noch nicht empirisch untermauerte Erkennisse über die Faktoren, welche die Indikatorenentwicklung bzw. Wissensproduktion und ‐evaluation in h. F. und damit die Entscheidungsgrundlage in vielen politischen Kontexten nachhaltig beeinflussen. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the Implementation of ‘Forced Answering‘ within Online Surveys on Response Rates and Validity of Answers
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Mergener, Alexandra; Neufang, Kristina et al

Scientific Conference (2015, August 28)

Due to the low costs and the ability to reach many people in a short time, online-surveys have become an important resource of data for research. As a result, many non-professionals gather their data ... [more ▼]

Due to the low costs and the ability to reach many people in a short time, online-surveys have become an important resource of data for research. As a result, many non-professionals gather their data through online questionnaires, which are often of low quality or operationalised poorly. A popular example for this is the ‘forced-response-option‘, whose impact will be analysed within this research-project. The forced-response-option is commonly described as a possibility to force the respondent to give an answer to each question that is asked. In most of the online-survey computer software, it is easily achieved by enabling a checkbox. There has been a tremendous increase in the use of this option, however, the inquirers are often not aware of possible consequences. In software-manuals, this option is praised as a strategy that reduces item-non-response. In contrast, authors offer many doubts that counter this strategy. They base on the assumption that respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering a question (not understanding; absence of appropriate categories; privacy). Our thesis is that forcing the respondents to select an answer might cause two scenarios: - Increasing unit-non-response/dropout-rates. - Decreasing validity of the answers (lying/random answers). To analyse the consequences of the implementation of forced-response-option, we use split-ballot-field-experiments. We especially focus on dropout-rates and response behaviour. Our first split-ballot-experiment was carried out last July (n=1056) and we plan a second experiment for March, so that we will be able to present our results based on strong data evidence. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does the hybridization of knowledge production influence the development of Social Indicators within evidence-based-policy making processes?The Case of an European Expert-Group on Indicators
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

in European Sociological Association (Ed.) Differences, Inequalities and Sociological Imagination (2015)

As mentioned in the call, “SoK has developed into a field…that is lively and flourishing.” As pointed out further, the SoK no longer focuses on high-level theoretical thinking, instead concentrates on ... [more ▼]

As mentioned in the call, “SoK has developed into a field…that is lively and flourishing.” As pointed out further, the SoK no longer focuses on high-level theoretical thinking, instead concentrates on typifications of everyday-life. My project illustrates this change and focuses on developments in the area of policy-making. In this area decisions increasingly base on knowledge/evidence produced by external experts. This knowledge is used to reduce uncertainties by calculating the risks involved in the final decision and by this to legitimize political decisions by delivering hard-facts in the argumentation (e.g. “evidence-based-policy-making“”). A consequence of this decision-making process is the authoritative implementation of theoretical knowledge and direct application into the context of everyday-life. Furthermore, studies show changes in the process of knowledge production for the recent eras of ‘knowledge- or rather risk-society’. Instead of linear-ordered knowledge-production, hybrid forums of heterogeneous actors with different knowledge-backgrounds have become important. These actors debate solutions to a problem and co-construct a contextualized form of knowledge as decision-making-base. This study assesses and analyses how social indicators (as an example for political evidence) are developed by hybrid forums at the EU-policy-level. The empirical case study reconstructs structures and processes within an “European Expertgroup on Indicators” by multiple-triangulations. This group designs indicators by using transdisciplinary- and transnational expert-discourses. Based on multiple data sources my study offers information on how evidence is produced in decision-making within such hybrid forums, e.g. important factors, processes and structures influencing indicator-systems. [less ▲]

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