References of "Czarnitzki, Dirk"
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See detailOwnership Concentration and the Innovativeness of Corporate Ventures
Hussinger, Katrin UL; Dick, Johannes; Czarnitzki, Dirk

in Research Policy (2018)

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See detailInput and Output Additionality of R&D Subsidies
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin UL

in Applied Economics (2018), 50(12), 1324-1341

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See detailOwnership Concentration, Institutional Development and Firm Performance in Central and Eastern Europe
Balsmeier, Benjamin UL; Czarnitzki, Dirk

in Managerial and Decision Economics (2017), 38

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See detailKnowledge Creates Markets: The Influence of Entrepreneurial Support and Patent Rights on Academic Entrepreneurship
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Doherr, Thorsten; Hussinger, Katrin UL et al

in European Economic Review (2016)

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See detailR&D Collaboration with Uncertain Intellectual Property Rights
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Schneider, Cedric

in Review of Industrial Organization (2015), 46(2), 183-204

Patent pendencies create uncertainty in research and development (R&D) collaboration, which can result in a threat of expropriation of unprotected knowledge, reduced bargaining power and enhanced search ... [more ▼]

Patent pendencies create uncertainty in research and development (R&D) collaboration, which can result in a threat of expropriation of unprotected knowledge, reduced bargaining power and enhanced search costs. We show that - depending of the type of collaboration partner and the size of the company - uncertain intellectual property rights (IPR) lead to reduced collaboration between firms and can, hence, hinder knowledge production. This has implications for technology policy as R&D collaborations are exempt from antitrust legislation in order to increase R&D in the economy. We argue that a functional IPR system is needed for successful utilization of this policy. [less ▲]

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See detailHow valuable are Patent Blocking Strategies?
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Leten, Bart

Scientific Conference (2013)

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See detailThe Nexus between Science and Industry: Evidence from Faculty Inventions
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Schneider, Cedric

in Journal of Technology Transfer (2012)

Knowledge transfer from science to industry has been shown to be beneficial for the corporate partner. In order to get a better understanding of the reasons behind these positive effects, this study ... [more ▼]

Knowledge transfer from science to industry has been shown to be beneficial for the corporate partner. In order to get a better understanding of the reasons behind these positive effects, this study focuses on the junction of science and industry by comparing characteristics of academic inventions that are transferred to industry and those staying in the public sector. Academic inventions are identified via patent applications of German academic scientists. We find that academic patents assigned to corporations are more likely to enable firms reaping short term rather than, possibly more uncertain, long-run returns, in contrast to patents that stay in the public sector. Firms also strive for academic inventions with a high blocking potential in technology markets. Academic patents issued to corporations appear to reflect less complex inventions as compared to inventions that are patented by the public science sector. [less ▲]

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See detailCommercializing Academic Research: The Quality of Faculty Patenting
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Schneider, Cedric

in Industrial and Corporate Change (2011)

The knowledge produced by academic scientists has been identified as a potential key driver of technological progress. Recent policies in Europe aim at increasing commercially orientated activities in ... [more ▼]

The knowledge produced by academic scientists has been identified as a potential key driver of technological progress. Recent policies in Europe aim at increasing commercially orientated activities in academe. Based on a sample of German scientists across all fields of science, we investigate the importance of academic patenting. Our findings suggest that academic involvement in patenting results in a citation premium, as academic patents appear to generate more forward citations. We also find that in the European context of changing research objectives and funding sources since the mid-1990s, the “importance” of academic patents declines over time. We show that academic entrants have patents of lower “quality” than academic incumbents but they did not cause the decline, since the relative importance of patents involving academics with an existing patenting history declined over time as well. Moreover, a preliminary evaluation of the effects of the abolishment of the “professor privilege” (the German counterpart of the US Bayh-Dole Act) reveals that this legal disposition led to an acceleration of this apparent decline. [less ▲]

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See detail“Wacky” Patents Meet Economic Indicators
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Schneider, Cedric

in Economics Letters (2011)

We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between ‘‘wacky’’ patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, ‘‘wacky’’ patents have higher ... [more ▼]

We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between ‘‘wacky’’ patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, ‘‘wacky’’ patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted carefully. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy Challenge the Ivory Tower? New Evidence on the Basicness of Academic Patents
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Schneider, Cedric

in Kyklos : internationale Zeitschrift für Sozialwissenschaften (2009)

While often presumed in academic literature and policy discussions there is little empirical evidence showing that academic patents protectmore basic inventions than corporate patents. This study provides ... [more ▼]

While often presumed in academic literature and policy discussions there is little empirical evidence showing that academic patents protectmore basic inventions than corporate patents. This study provides new evidence on the basicness of academic patents using German professor patents linked to patent opposition data from the European Patent Office (EPO). Patent oppositions are the most important mechanism by which the validity of patents filed at the EPO can be challenged. Controlling for patent value, asymmetric information and diverging expectations between the opposition parties, the likelihood of a potentially litigious situation and the relative costs of opposition versus settlement, we find that academic patents are opposed less frequently than a control group of corporate patents.This suggests that academic patents cover rather basic inventions with a low immediate commercial value not threatening current returns of potential plaintiffs. The effect is weaker for academic patents filed in collaboration with the business sector, which suggests that those patents are evaluated as more applied by owners of potentially rival technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneity of Patenting and Implications for Basic Research
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Glanzel, Wolfgang; Hussinger, Katrin UL

in Research Policy (2009)

The increasing commercialization of university discoveries has initiated a controversy on the impact for scientific research. It has been argued that an increasing orientation towards commercialization ... [more ▼]

The increasing commercialization of university discoveries has initiated a controversy on the impact for scientific research. It has been argued that an increasing orientation towards commercialization may have a negative impact on more fundamental research efforts in science. Several scholars have therefore analyzed the relationship between publication and patenting activity of university researchers, and most articles report positive correlations between patenting and publishing activities of scientists. However, previous studies do not account for heterogeneity of patenting activities. This paper explores the incidence of patenting and publishing of scientists distinguishing between corporate patents and patents assigned to non-profit organizations for a largesample of professors active in Germany. While patents assigned to nonprofit organizations (incl. individual ownership of the professors themselves) complement publication quantity and quality, patents assigned to corporations are negatively related to quantity and quality of publication output. [less ▲]

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See detailPatent and Publication Activities of German Professors: An Empirical Assessment of Their Co-Activity
Hussinger, Katrin UL; Czarnitzki, Dirk; Glanzel, Wolfgang

in Research Evaluation (2007)

The growing importance of technology relevant non-publication output of university research has come into the focus of policy-makers’ interest. A fierce debate arose on possible negative consequences of ... [more ▼]

The growing importance of technology relevant non-publication output of university research has come into the focus of policy-makers’ interest. A fierce debate arose on possible negative consequences of the increasing commercialization of science, as it may come along with a reduction in research performance. This paper investigates the relationship between publishing as a measure of scientific output and patenting for German professors active in a range of science fields. We combine bibliometric/technometric indicators and econometric techniques to show that patenting positively correlates with the publication output and with publication quality of patenting researchers. [less ▲]

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