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See detailDynamic Vehicular Routing in Urban Environments
Codeca, Lara UL

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Traffic congestion is a persistent issue that most of the people living in a city have to face every day. Traffic density is constantly increasing and, in many metropolitan areas, the road network has ... [more ▼]

Traffic congestion is a persistent issue that most of the people living in a city have to face every day. Traffic density is constantly increasing and, in many metropolitan areas, the road network has reached its limits and cannot easily be extended to meet the growing traffic demand. Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a world wide trend in traffic monitoring that uses technology and infrastructure improvements in advanced communication and sensors to tackle transportation issues such as mobility efficiency, safety, and traffic congestion. The purpose of ITS is to take advantage of all available technologies to improve every aspect of mobility and traffic. Our focus in this thesis is to use these advancements in technology and infrastructure to mitigate traffic congestion. We discuss the state of the art in traffic flow optimization methods, their limitations, and the benefits of a new point of view. The traffic monitoring mechanism that we propose uses vehicular telecommunication to gather the traffic information that is fundamental to the creation of a consistent overview of the traffic situation, to provision real-time information to drivers, and to optimizing their routes. In order to study the impact of dynamic rerouting on the traffic congestion experienced in the urban environment, we need a reliable representation of the traffic situation. In this thesis, traffic flow theory, together with mobility models and propagation models, are the basis to providing a simulation environment capable of providing a realistic and interactive urban mobility, which is used to test and validate our solution for mitigating traffic congestion. The topology of the urban environment plays a fundamental role in traffic optimization, not only in terms of mobility patterns, but also in the connectivity and infrastructure available. Given the complexity of the problem, we start by defining the main parameters we want to optimize, and the user interaction required, in order to achieve the goal. We aim to optimize the travel time from origin to destination with a selfish approach, focusing on each driver. We then evaluated constraints and added values of the proposed optimization, providing a preliminary study on its impact on a simple scenario. Our evaluation is made in a best-case scenario using complete information, then in a more realistic scenario with partial information on the global traffic situation, where connectivity and coverage play a major role. The lack of a general-purpose, freely-available, realistic and dependable scenario for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) creates many problems in the research community in providing and comparing realistic results. To address these issues, we implemented a synthetic traffic scenario, based on a real city, to evaluate dynamic routing in a realistic urban environment. The Luxembourg SUMO Traffic (LuST) Scenario is based on the mobility derived from the City of Luxembourg. The scenario is built for the Simulator of Urban MObiltiy (SUMO) and it is compatible with Vehicles in Network Simulation (VEINS) and Objective Modular Network Testbed in C++ (OMNet++), allowing it to be used in VANET simulations. In this thesis we present a selfish traffic optimization approach based on dynamic rerouting, able to mitigate the impact of traffic congestion in urban environments on a global scale. The general-purpose traffic scenario built to validate our results is already being used by the research community, and is freely-available under the MIT licence, and is hosted on GitHub. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg SUMO Traffic (LuST) Scenario: Traffic Demand Evaluation
Codeca, Lara UL; Frank, Raphaël UL; Faye, Sébastien UL et al

in IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine (2016)

Both the industrial and the scientific communities are working on problems related to vehicular traffic congestion, intelligent transportation systems, and mobility patterns using information collected ... [more ▼]

Both the industrial and the scientific communities are working on problems related to vehicular traffic congestion, intelligent transportation systems, and mobility patterns using information collected from a variety of sources. Usually, a vehicular traffic simulator, with an appropriate scenario for the problem at hand, is used to reproduce realistic mobility patterns. Many mobility simulators are available, and the choice is made based on the type of simulation required, but a common problem is finding a realistic traffic scenario. The aim of this work is to provide and evaluate a scenario able to meet all the basic requirements in terms of size, realism, and duration, in order to have a common basis for evaluations. In the interest of building a realistic scenario, we used information from a real city with a typical topology common in mid-size European cities, and realistic traffic demand and mobility patterns. In this paper, we show the process used to build the Luxembourg SUMO Traffic (LuST) Scenario, and present a summary of its characteristics together with our evaluation and validation of the traffic demand and mobility patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailA Car Hacking Experiment: When Connectivity meets Vulnerability
Jafarnejad, Sasan UL; Codeca, Lara UL; Bronzi, Walter UL et al

in Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2015 IEEE (2015, December)

Interconnected vehicles are a growing commodity providing remote access to on-board systems for monitoring and controlling the state of the vehicle. Such features are built to facilitate and strengthen ... [more ▼]

Interconnected vehicles are a growing commodity providing remote access to on-board systems for monitoring and controlling the state of the vehicle. Such features are built to facilitate and strengthen the owner’s knowledge about its car but at the same time they impact its safety and security. Vehicles are not ready to be fully connected as various attacks are currently possible against their control systems. In this paper, we analyse possible attack scenarios on a recently released all-electric car and investigate their impact on real life driving scenarios. We leverage our findings to change the behaviour of safety critical components of the vehicle in order to achieve autonomous driving using an Open Vehicle Monitoring System. Furthermore, to demonstrate the potential of our setup, we developed a novel mobile application able to control such vehicle systems remotely through the Internet. We challenge the current state-of-the-art technology in today’s vehicles and provide a vulnerability analysis on modern embedded systems. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg SUMO Traffic (LuST) Scenario: 24 Hours of Mobility for Vehicular Networking Research
Codeca, Lara UL; Frank, Raphaël UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (2015, December)

Different research communities varying from telecommunication to traffic engineering are working on problems related to vehicular traffic congestion, intelligent transportation systems, and mobility ... [more ▼]

Different research communities varying from telecommunication to traffic engineering are working on problems related to vehicular traffic congestion, intelligent transportation systems, and mobility patterns using information collected from a variety of sensors. To test the solutions, the first step is to use a vehicular traffic simulator with an appropriate scenario in order to reproduce realistic mobility patterns. Many mobility simulators are available, and the choice is usually done based on the size and type of simulation required, but a common problem is to find a realistic traffic scenario. In order to evaluate and compare new communication protocols for vehicular networks, it is necessary to use a wireless network simulator in combination with a vehicular traffic simulator. This additional step introduces further requirements for the scenario. The aim of this work is to provide a scenario able to meet all the common requirements in terms of size, realism and duration, in order to have a common basis for the evaluations. In the interest of building a realistic scenario, we decided to start from a real city with a standard topology common in mid-size European cities, and real information concerning traffic demands and mobility patterns. In this paper we show the process used to build the Luxembourg SUMO Traffic (LuST) Scenario, and present a summary of its characteristics together with an overview of its possible use cases. [less ▲]

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See detailLuST: a 24-hour Scenario of Luxembourg City for SUMO Traffic simulations
Codeca, Lara UL; Frank, Raphaël UL; Engel, Thomas UL

Presentation (2015, May 07)

Various vehicular communities ranging from telecommunication to infrastructure are working on problems related to traffic congestion, intelligent transportation systems, and mobility patterns using ... [more ▼]

Various vehicular communities ranging from telecommunication to infrastructure are working on problems related to traffic congestion, intelligent transportation systems, and mobility patterns using information collected from a variety of sensors. In order to test the solutions, the first step is to use a vehicular traffic simulator and an appropriate scenario. Many mobility simulators are available, but a common problem is finding a realistic traffic scenario. The aim of this work is to provide a scenario able to meet all the common requirements in terms of size, realism and duration, in order to have a common basis for the evaluations. In the interest of building a realistic scenario, we decided to start from a real city with a standard topology common in mid-size European cities, and real information concerning traffic demands and mobility patterns. In this paper we show the process used to build the Luxembourg SUMO Traffic (LuST) Scenario, and present a summary of its characteristics together with an overview of its possible uses. [less ▲]

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See detailTraffic Routing in Urban Environments: the Impact of Partial Information
Codeca, Lara UL; Frank, Raphaël UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Proceedings of 17th Internatonal IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2014, October)

There are many studies concerning the problem of traffic congestion in cities. One of the best accepted solutions to relieving congestion involves optimization of resources already available, by means of ... [more ▼]

There are many studies concerning the problem of traffic congestion in cities. One of the best accepted solutions to relieving congestion involves optimization of resources already available, by means of balancing traffic flows to minimize travel delays. To achieve this optimization, it is necessary to collect and process Floating Car Data (FCD) from vehicles. In this paper we evaluate the repercussions of partial information on the overall traffic view, and consequently on the outcome of the optimization. Our study focuses on the role of the user participation rate and the availability of Road Side Units to collect the FCD. By means of simulation we quantify the impact of partially-available information on the computation of route optimization, and how it impedes traffic flows. Our results show that even minor uncertainties can significantly impact routing strategies and lead to deterioration in the overall traffic situation. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving Traffic in Urban Environments
Codeca, Lara UL; Frank, Raphaël UL; Engel, Thomas UL

Report (2014)

The vehicular traffic in the cities is increasing every year. The road infrastructure in many metropolitan areas is not able to sustain the rush-hour traffic demand and the extension of the road network ... [more ▼]

The vehicular traffic in the cities is increasing every year. The road infrastructure in many metropolitan areas is not able to sustain the rush-hour traffic demand and the extension of the road network cannot easily be done. There are some solution proposed to improve the traffic situation, among them, the optimization of the resources already available by means of collecting real time Floating Car Data (FCD) from the vehicles and use them to suggest dynamic routes in order to minimize travel delays. The centralized infrastructure able to achieve this goal has already been presented in ”Improving Traffic in Urban Environments applying the Wardrop Equilibrium” (Codeca, L. et al., 2013). In this extended abstract we present the decentralized version of the system and the preliminary results of its evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving Traffic in Urban Environments applying the Wardrop Equilibrium
Codeca, Lara UL; Frank, Raphaël UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Improving Traffic in Urban Environments applying the Wardrop Equilibrium (2013, October 07)

Over the last few years vehicular traffic density has continuously increased and it is likely that the traffic demand will further increase in the future. In many metropolitan areas the road ... [more ▼]

Over the last few years vehicular traffic density has continuously increased and it is likely that the traffic demand will further increase in the future. In many metropolitan areas the road infrastructure is no longer able to handle the peak traffic demand and the existing road network cannot be easily extended. The best way to improve the traffic situation is to optimise the resources available in the transportation network and to coordinate the traffic demand. The approach that we propose in this paper makes use of a collaborative traffic coordination protocol which collects real-time Floating Car Data (FCD) directly from participating vehicles and suggests dynamic routes in order to minimize travel delay. Information such as speed, position and direction is sent to one or more Traffic Coordination Points (TCPs) where it is aggregated to obtain a global picture of the traffic conditions in real-time. Based on this data, we continuously compute the route that minimizes the travel time to a given destination by applying Wardrop’s first principle of equilibrium. Our results show that, by coordinating the vehicles, we are able to better distribute the overall traffic demand throughout the transportation network, reducing the average travel times and accommodating more vehicles. [less ▲]

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See detailMoViT: The Mobile Network Virtualized Testbed
Giordano, Eugenio; Codeca, Lara UL; Geffon, Brian et al

in VANET '12 Vehicular inter-networking, systems, and applications (2012)

MoViT is a distributed software suite for the emulation of mobile wireless networks. MoViT provides researchers and developers with a virtualized environment for developing and testing mobile applications ... [more ▼]

MoViT is a distributed software suite for the emulation of mobile wireless networks. MoViT provides researchers and developers with a virtualized environment for developing and testing mobile applications and protocols for any hardware and software platform that can be virtualized. The distributed nature of MoViT allows for the emulation of mobile networks of arbitrary size. Additionally, the network connectivity is shaped transparently such that the connectivity observed by each virtual node resembles that of a physical mobile network. In this paper we present the MoViT architecture, the models used to emulate the wireless channel, the details of our initial implementation and, finally, the results of our evaluation regarding the scalability, realism, and versatility of MoViT. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (12 UL)