References of "Clarke, Steven G"
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See detailA novel GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase involved in quality control of the nucleoside diphosphate sugar pool in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals
Adler, Lital N.; Gomez, Tara A.; Clarke, Steven G. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2011), 286(24), 21511-23

The plant VTC2 gene encodes GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in plant vitamin C biosynthesis. Genes encoding apparent orthologs of VTC2 exist in both mammals, which produce vitamin C ... [more ▼]

The plant VTC2 gene encodes GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in plant vitamin C biosynthesis. Genes encoding apparent orthologs of VTC2 exist in both mammals, which produce vitamin C by a distinct metabolic pathway, and in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans where vitamin C biosynthesis has not been demonstrated. We have now expressed cDNAs of the human and worm VTC2 homolog genes (C15orf58 and C10F3.4, respectively) and found that the purified proteins also display GDP-hexose phosphorylase activity. However, as opposed to the plant enzyme, the major reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is the phosphorolysis of GDP-D-glucose to GDP and D-glucose 1-phosphate. We detected activities with similar substrate specificity in worm and mouse tissue extracts. The highest expression of GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase was found in the nervous and male reproductive systems. A C. elegans C10F3.4 deletion strain was found to totally lack GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase activity; this activity was also found to be decreased in human HEK293T cells transfected with siRNAs against the human C15orf58 gene. These observations confirm the identification of the worm C10F3.4 and the human C15orf58 gene expression products as the GDP-D-glucose phosphorylases of these organisms. Significantly, we found an accumulation of GDP-D-glucose in the C10F3.4 mutant worms, suggesting that the GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase may function to remove GDP-D-glucose formed by GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase, an enzyme that has previously been shown to lack specificity for its physiological D-mannose 1-phosphate substrate. We propose that such removal may prevent the misincorporation of glucosyl residues for mannosyl residues into the glycoconjugates of worms and mammals. [less ▲]

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See detailThe interplay between protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase activity and insulin-like signaling to extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans
Khare, Shilpi; Linster, Carole UL; Clarke, Steven G.

in PLoS ONE (2011), 6(6), 20850

The protein L-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase functions to initiate the repair of isomerized aspartyl and asparaginyl residues that spontaneously accumulate with age in a variety of organisms ... [more ▼]

The protein L-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase functions to initiate the repair of isomerized aspartyl and asparaginyl residues that spontaneously accumulate with age in a variety of organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes lacking the pcm-1 gene encoding this enzyme display a normal lifespan and phenotype under standard laboratory growth conditions. However, significant defects in development, egg laying, dauer survival, and autophagy have been observed in pcm-1 mutant nematodes when deprived of food and when exposed to oxidative stress. Interestingly, overexpression of this repair enzyme in both Drosophila and C. elegans extends adult lifespan under thermal stress. In this work, we show the involvement of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling (IIS) pathway in PCM-1-dependent lifespan extension in C. elegans. We demonstrate that reducing the levels of the DAF-16 downstream transcriptional effector of the IIS pathway by RNA interference reduces the lifespan extension resulting from PCM-1 overexpression. Using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, we show the up-regulation of DAF-16-dependent stress response genes in the PCM-1 overexpressor animals compared to wild-type and pcm-1 mutant nematodes under mild thermal stress conditions. Additionally, similar to other long-lived C. elegans mutants in the IIS pathway, including daf-2 and age-1 mutants, PCM-1 overexpressor adult animals display increased resistance to severe thermal stress, whereas pcm-1 mutant animals survive less long under these conditions. Although we observe a higher accumulation of damaged proteins in pcm-1 mutant nematodes, the basal level of isoaspartyl residues detected in wild-type animals was not reduced by PCM-1 overexpression. Our results support a signaling role for the protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in lifespan extension that involves the IIS pathway, but that may be independent of its function in overall protein repair. [less ▲]

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See detailDefective responses to oxidative stress in protein l-isoaspartyl repair-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans
Khare, Shilpi; Gomez, Tara; Linster, Carole UL et al

in Mechanisms of Ageing & Development (2009), 130(10), 670-80

We have shown that Caenorhabditis elegans lacking the PCM-1 protein repair l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase are more sensitive to oxidative stress than wild-type nematodes. Exposure to the redox-cycling ... [more ▼]

We have shown that Caenorhabditis elegans lacking the PCM-1 protein repair l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase are more sensitive to oxidative stress than wild-type nematodes. Exposure to the redox-cycling quinone juglone upon exit from dauer diapause results in defective egg-laying (Egl phenotype) in the pcm-1 mutants only. Treatment with paraquat, a redox-cycling dipyridyl, causes a more severe developmental delay at the second larval stage in pcm-1 mutants than in wild-type nematodes. Finally, exposure to homocysteine and homocysteine thiolactone, molecules that can induce oxidative stress via distinct mechanisms, results in a more pronounced delay in development at the first larval stage in pcm-1 mutants than in wild-type animals. Homocysteine treatment also induced the Egl phenotype in mutant but not wild-type nematodes. All of the effects of these agents were reversed upon addition of vitamin C, indicating that the developmental delay and egg-laying defects result from oxidative stress. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that a mutation in the gene encoding the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 suppresses the Egl phenotype in pcm-1 mutants treated with juglone. Our results support a role of PCM-1 in the cellular responses mediated by the DAF-2 insulin-like signaling pathway in C. elegans for optimal protection against oxidative stress. [less ▲]

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See detailL-Ascorbate biosynthesis in higher plants: the role of VTC2
Linster, Carole UL; Clarke, Steven G.

in Trends in Plant Science (2008), 13(11), 567-73

In the past year, the last missing enzyme of the L-galactose pathway, the linear form of which appears to represent the major biosynthetic route to L-ascorbate (vitamin C) in higher plants, has been ... [more ▼]

In the past year, the last missing enzyme of the L-galactose pathway, the linear form of which appears to represent the major biosynthetic route to L-ascorbate (vitamin C) in higher plants, has been identified as a GDP-L-galactos phosphorylase. This enzyme catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of that vital antioxidant and enzyme cofactor. Here, we discuss how GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase enzymes, encoded in Arabidopsis by the paralogous VTC2 and VTC5 genes, function in concert with the other enzymes of the L-galactose pathway to provide plants with the appropriate levels of L-ascorbate. We hypothesize that regulation of L-ascorbate biosynthesis might occur at more than one step and warrants further investigation to allow for the manipulation of vitamin C levels in plants. [less ▲]

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See detailA second GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase in Arabidopsis en route to vitamin C covalent intermediate and substrate requirements for the conserved reaction
Linster, Carole UL; Adler, Lital N.; Webb, Kristofor et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(27), 18483-92

The Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-phosphate in the first committed step of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to plant ... [more ▼]

The Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-phosphate in the first committed step of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to plant vitamin C synthesis. Mutations in VTC2 had previously been found to lead to only partial vitamin C deficiency. Here we show that the Arabidopsis gene At5g55120 encodes an enzyme with high sequence identity to VTC2. Designated VTC5, this enzyme displays substrate specificity and enzymatic properties that are remarkably similar to those of VTC2, suggesting that it may be responsible for residual vitamin C synthesis in vtc2 mutants. The exact nature of the reaction catalyzed by VTC2/VTC5 is controversial because of reports that kiwifruit and Arabidopsis VTC2 utilize hexose 1-phosphates as phosphorolytic acceptor substrates. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and a VTC2-H238N mutant, we provide evidence that the reaction proceeds through a covalent guanylylated histidine residue within the histidine triad motif. Moreover, we show that both the Arabidopsis VTC2 and VTC5 enzymes catalyze simple phosphorolysis of the guanylylated enzyme, forming GDP and L-galactose 1-phosphate from GDP-L-galactose and phosphate, with poor reactivity of hexose 1-phosphates as phosphorolytic acceptors. Indeed, the endogenous activities from Japanese mustard spinach, lemon, and spinach have the same substrate requirements. These results show that Arabidopsis VTC2 and VTC5 proteins and their homologs in other plants are enzymes that guanylylate a conserved active site His residue with GDP-L-galactose, forming L-galactose 1-phosphate for vitamin C synthesis, and regenerate the enzyme with phosphate to form GDP. [less ▲]

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See detailArabidopsis VTC2 encodes a GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, the last unknown enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to ascorbic acid in plants
Linster, Carole UL; Gomez, Tara A.; Christensen, Kathryn C. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(26), 18879-85

The first committed step in the biosynthesis of L-ascorbate from D-glucose in plants requires conversion of GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-phosphate by a previously unidentified enzyme. Here we show ... [more ▼]

The first committed step in the biosynthesis of L-ascorbate from D-glucose in plants requires conversion of GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-phosphate by a previously unidentified enzyme. Here we show that the protein encoded by VTC2, a gene mutated in vitamin C-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana strains, is a member of the GalT/Apa1 branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily that catalyzes the conversion of GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-phosphate in a reaction that consumes inorganic phosphate and produces GDP. In characterizing recombinant VTC2 from A. thaliana as a specific GDP-L-galactose/GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase, we conclude that enzymes catalyzing each of the ten steps of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway from glucose to ascorbate have been identified. Finally, we identify VTC2 homologs in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, suggesting that a similar reaction is used widely in nature. [less ▲]

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