References of "Chauvel, Louis 50001235"
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See detailInequality in old age cognition across the world
Olivera, Javier; Andreoli, Francesco; Leist, Anja UL et al

in Economics and Human Biology (in press)

Although cohort and country differences in average cognitive levels are well established, identifying the degree and determinants of inequalities in old age cognitive functioning could guide public health ... [more ▼]

Although cohort and country differences in average cognitive levels are well established, identifying the degree and determinants of inequalities in old age cognitive functioning could guide public health and policymaking efforts. We use all publicly available and representative old age surveys with comparable information to assess inequalities of cognitive functioning in six distinctive age groups of 29 countries. We document that cognitive inequalities in old age are largely determined by earlier educational inequalities as well as gender differential survival rates. For example, a one percentage point increase in the Gini index of past education is associated with an increase of 0.45 percentage points in the Gini index of delayed recall and 0.23 percentage points in the Gini of immediate recall. Results are robust to a variety of alternative explanations and persist even after controlling for gender-related biases in survival rates. Furthermore, we find evidence that unequal opportunities for education -captured by differences in parental background and gender- also have significant effects on inequality of old age cognition. [less ▲]

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See detailThe persistence of the gender earnings gap: cohort trends and the role of education in twelve countries
Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Chauvel, Louis UL; Gornick, Janet et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Studying twelve countries over 30 years, we examine whether women’s educational expansion has translated into a closing gender earnings gap. As educational attainment is cohort-dependent, an Age-Period ... [more ▼]

Studying twelve countries over 30 years, we examine whether women’s educational expansion has translated into a closing gender earnings gap. As educational attainment is cohort-dependent, an Age-Period-Cohort analysis is most appropriate in our view. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) data, we show that while in terms of attainment of tertiary education women have caught up and often even outperform men, substantial gender differences in earnings persist in all countries. These results are consistent with the composition of the top earnings decile. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods, we demonstrate that the role of education in explaining the gender earnings gap has been limited and even decreased over cohorts. Contrary, employment status as well as occupation explain a more substantial part in all countries. We conclude that earnings differences at levels far from gender equality likely also persist in the future, even if the “rise of women” in terms of education continues. [less ▲]

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See detailMore Necessary and Less Sufficient: An Age-Period-Cohort Approach to Overeducation in Comparative Perspective
Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

In many countries, the skilled labor market has lagged behind educational expansion. As a result of increased competition, younger cohorts of the highly educated face decreasing returns to education or ... [more ▼]

In many countries, the skilled labor market has lagged behind educational expansion. As a result of increased competition, younger cohorts of the highly educated face decreasing returns to education or overeducation. Surprisingly, decreasing occupational outcomes do not coincide empirically with the economic returns among those with tertiary education. Regarding the process of changes in economic returns to education based on cohort transformations, we expect that the expansion of tertiary education affects specific cohorts, which find themselves facing more labor market competition. As a result, the economic returns to education should decrease over cohorts even though they remain stable and even increase during the same period. To study this process, we model economic returns with a new Age-Period- Cohort-Trended-Lag (APCTLAG) method, which allows comparing the gap in economic returns between tertiary and less than tertiary education over cohorts. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), we analyze trends over three decades in 12 countries. Our results confirm that educational returns for tertiary education have declined over time, even though the gap between the educated and the less educated has remained similar in most of the countries. For younger cohorts, tertiary education has become more necessary to survive in the competitive labor market, but the actual economic returns to it have decreased - making tertiary education less sufficient than before. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Inequalities in the Use of Self-Tracking Diet and Fitness Apps: Interview Study on the Influence of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors
Régnier, Faustine; Chauvel, Louis UL

in JMIR mHealth and uHealth (2018), 6(4), 1-13

Background: Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major ... [more ▼]

Background: Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. Objective: We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. Methods: Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France. We interviewed 79 individuals (Weight Watchers, n=37; MyFitnessPal, n=20; sport apps, n=22). In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, using open-ended questions about their use of diet and fitness apps. A triangulation of methods (content, textual, and quantitative analyses) was performed. Results: We found 3 clusters of interviewees who differed by social background and curative goal linked to use under constraint versus preventive goal linked to chosen use, and intensity of their self-quantification efforts and participation in social networks. Interviewees used the apps for a diversity of uses, including measurement, tracking, quantification, and participation in digital communities. A digital divide was highlighted, comprising a major social gap. Social conditions for appropriation of self-tracking devices included sociodemographic factors, life course stages, and cross-cutting factors of heterogeneity. Conclusions: Individuals from affluent or intermediate social milieus were most likely to use the apps and to participate in the associated online social networks. These interviewees also demonstrated a preventive approach to a healthy lifestyle. Individuals from lower milieus were more reluctant to use digital devices relating to diet and physical activity or to participate in self-quantification. The results of the study have major implications for public health: the digital self-quantification device is intrinsically less important than the way the individual uses it, in terms of adoption of successful health behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreases in well-being in the transition to retirement for unemployed. Catching up with formerly employed persons
Ponomarenko, Valentina; Leist, Anja UL; Chauvel, Louis UL

in Ageing & Society (2017), online

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning from employment to unemployment has been found to cause a decrease of subjective well-being with more time spent in unemployment, it is not clear how transitioning from unemployment to retirement affects well-being levels. We use the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to monitor life satisfaction of respondents who retire in between two waves. We portray well-being scores before and after retirement and then identify the change in life satisfaction during the retirement transition using a First Difference model. Results indicate that being unemployed before retirement is associated with an increase in life satisfaction, but presents mainly a catching-up effect compared to employed persons transitioning to retirement. Retirement from labour market inactivity does not lead to significant changes in well-being. Findings are robust to selection into unemployment and country differences. As well-being of unemployed persons recovers after transitioning to retirement, especially the currently unemployed population should be supported to prevent detrimental consequences of economically unfavourable conditions and lower well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of Income Rank Volatility: Evidence from Germany and the US
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Palmisano, Flaviana

E-print/Working paper (2017)

This paper presents a methodology for comparing income rank volatility profiles over time and across distributions. While most of the existing measures are affected by changes in marginal distributions ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a methodology for comparing income rank volatility profiles over time and across distributions. While most of the existing measures are affected by changes in marginal distributions, this paper proposes a framework that is based on individuals’ relative positions in the distribution, and is neutral in relation to structural changes that occur in the economy. Applying this approach to investigate rank volatility in Germany and the US over three decades, we show that while poorer individuals within both countries are the most volatile, the volatility trend for the middle class in each of these countries differs. [less ▲]

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See detailDetecting the "Big Red Spot" of age-period excess mortality in 25 countries: Age-period-cohort residual analysis
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL; Smith, Herbert

in PAA Server (2017, April 28)

In times of wide availability of yearly mortality information of age and period groups all over the world, we lack in tools that detect and graph fine-grained deviations from mortality trends. We provide ... [more ▼]

In times of wide availability of yearly mortality information of age and period groups all over the world, we lack in tools that detect and graph fine-grained deviations from mortality trends. We provide a new age-period-cohort based methodology, combining information from age-period (AP) and APC-Detrended (APCD) analyses to detect all-cause mortality increases. Plotting the resulting AP coefficients and APCD residuals in equilateral Lexis diagrams, mortality patterns can easily be distinguished as age, period, or cohort trends and fluctuations. Additionally, we detect abnormalities as interactions of age and period (‘big red spots’). We then investigate the ‘red spots’ of mortality of young-adult cohorts in the early 1990s in Spain, other southern European countries and the U.S. to delineate their simultaneously occurring public health crises. Additional analyses with WHO mortality data show that mortality increases are mostly due to increased HIV/AIDS mortality. We discuss possible applications of the new method. [less ▲]

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See detailA Prey-Predator Model of Trade Union Density and Inequality in 12 Advanced Capitalisms over Long Periods
Chauvel, Louis UL; Schröder, Martin UL

in Kyklos : internationale Zeitschrift für Sozialwissenschaften (2017), 70(1), 3-26

This article shows empirically how trade union membership and income inequality are mutually related in twelve countries over more than 100 years. While past research has shown that high income inequality ... [more ▼]

This article shows empirically how trade union membership and income inequality are mutually related in twelve countries over more than 100 years. While past research has shown that high income inequality occurs alongside low trade union membership, we show that past income inequality actually increases trade union membership with a time lag, as trade unions recruit more members after inequality has been high. But we also show that strengthened trade unions then fight inequality, thereby destroying what helped them to recruit new members in the past. As trade union density decreases, inequality increases and eventually re-incentivises workers to join unions again. By showing this empirically, we reconceptualise the relationship between inequality and union density as a Lotka-Volterra prey and predator model, where predators eat prey – unions destroy inequality, but thereby also destroy their own basis for survival. By empirically showing that trade union density and social inequality influence each other in this way over long periods, this article contributes to a dynamic approach on how social problems and social movements interact. [less ▲]

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See detailAPCGO: Stata module to calculate age-period-cohort effects for the gap between two groups (based on a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition), including trends for each parameter
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal UL

Computer development (2017)

The apcgo program calculates the blinder-oaxaca decomposition for each periodXage group context and estimates age-period-cohort APC-T (trended) models for the explained and unexplained gap. It provides ... [more ▼]

The apcgo program calculates the blinder-oaxaca decomposition for each periodXage group context and estimates age-period-cohort APC-T (trended) models for the explained and unexplained gap. It provides trended parameters of age, period and cohort effects (The trend in age is set to be the average effect of ageing of cohorts observed in the window of observation); appropriate constraints offer a unique solution and solve the traditional APC identification problem. The user provides a dependent variable, a binary group variable (gap), age and period, and controls from a microdata series of crossectional surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailSociétés francophones dans le monde de 2050 : Une génération de développement humain soutenable
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal UL et al

Report (2017)

Ce rapport est consacré à une question cruciale pour la Francophonie : le développement démographique, socioéconomique et humain comparé à l’horizon 2050 des sociétés francophones – ces pays membres ou ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport est consacré à une question cruciale pour la Francophonie : le développement démographique, socioéconomique et humain comparé à l’horizon 2050 des sociétés francophones – ces pays membres ou non de l’APF où la langue française joue un rôle important dans l’échange d’idées au quotidien. Il s’agit ici tout à la fois d’un bilan de ce développement depuis 1980 et d’une prospective à l’horizon de 2050. Nous soulignons le renouveau mondial de la francophonie au cours du XXIe siècle, en particulier dans le contexte de sociétés multilingues. Après des décennies de stagnation en proportion de la population mondiale, les pays francophones et la francophonie pourraient émerger comme troisième ère linguistique après l’Anglais et le Chinois, avec une présence sur l’ensemble des continents. Au travers d’un bilan dynamique des sociétés francophones, un ensemble de défis sont mis en évidence : la comparaison met en lumière les risques démographiques, de surpopulation, de pauvreté extrême, de gradient de développement humain (éducation, santé, égalité entre femmes et hommes, etc.). La génération qui vient pourrait voir une amplification des difficultés si nous suivons le scénario central de la prospective. Un autre scénario, optimiste, permet d’envisager une meilleure croissance des pays les plus pauvres, une marche vers l’égalisation du développement humain, un redéveloppement harmonieux, en promouvant la richesse humaine des pays en développement. C’est le message du philosophe Hans Jonas : en nous conformant au devoir d’améliorer le sort des générations suivantes, en investissant en elle, nous nous enrichirons ensemble. Sur cette voie, la pratique d’une francophonie multilingue – où le français est une langue officielle parmi d’autres – semble offrir aux pays qui la connaissent un surcroît de ressources de développement, en accroissant les canaux de la communication en interne et avec les autres pays. [less ▲]

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See detailClosing or Persisting Gender Gap? A Cohort Analysis of Education and Wages in the United States and Europe
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal UL

in Population Association of America - PAA Annual Meeting 2017 (2017)

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See detailLe malaise des classes moyennes représente une menace pour la démocratie
Chauvel, Louis UL

Article for general public (2016)

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See detailLa Spirale du déclassement. Essai sur la société des illusions
Chauvel, Louis UL

Book published by Seuil (2016)

Notre civilisation de classe moyenne est à la croisée des chemins. Alors qu'elle définissait le projet des démocraties modernes, elle fait face à des défis majeurs. La recristallisation en masse des ... [more ▼]

Notre civilisation de classe moyenne est à la croisée des chemins. Alors qu'elle définissait le projet des démocraties modernes, elle fait face à des défis majeurs. La recristallisation en masse des inégalités, la mobilité descendante, l'écrasement du pouvoir d'achat des salaires relativement aux prix des biens immobiliers, la paupérisation de cohortes entières de jeunes surdiplômés et la globalisation porteuse d'une montée aux extrêmes de la concurrence forment ensemble une spirale de déclassement aux effets potentiellement dévastateurs. Les inégalités de classes et la fracture des générations se renforcent mutuellement : à raison de la dynamique de repatrimonialisation, les écarts au sein des nouvelles générations sont appelés à se radicaliser. Ce sont autant de phénomènes dissimulés sous le voile du déni, qui risquent de réduire à néant l'ambition de laisser à nos enfants un monde meilleur. À partir de données et de comparaisons internationales inédites, Louis Chauvel récuse ici les illusions qui aggravent nos maux. Car les dénégations qu'on oppose aux difficultés réelles des classes moyennes et populaires, des jeunes et de pans entiers de la société ne font qu'aiguiser les frustrations et un ressentiment général dont la traduction politique s'exacerbe. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting persistence of cohort effects in the epidemiology of suicide: an age-period-cohort hysteresis model
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL; Ponomarenko, Valentina UL

in PLoS ONE (2016)

Birth cohort effects in suicide rates are well established, but to date there is no methodological approach or framework to test the temporal stability of these effects. We use the APC-Detrended (APCD ... [more ▼]

Birth cohort effects in suicide rates are well established, but to date there is no methodological approach or framework to test the temporal stability of these effects. We use the APC-Detrended (APCD) model to robustly estimate intensity of cohort effects identifying non-linear trends (or ‘detrended’ fluctuations) in suicide rates. The new APC-Hysteresis (APCH) model tests temporal stability of cohort effects. Analysing suicide rates in 25 WHO countries (periods 1970–74 to 2005–09; ages 20–24 to 70–79) with the APCD method, we find that country-specific birth cohort membership plays an important role in suicide rates. Among 25 countries, we detect 12 nations that show deep contrasts among cohort-specific suicide rates including Italy, Australia and the United States. The APCH method shows that cohort fluctuations are not stable across the life course but decline in Spain, France and Australia, whereas they remain stable in Italy, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. We discuss the Spanish case with elevated suicide mortality of cohorts born 1965-1975 which declines with age, and the opposite case of the United States, where the identified cohort effects of those born around 1960 increase smoothly, but statistically significant across the life course. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Intensity and Shape of Inequality: The ABG Method of Distributional Analysis
Chauvel, Louis UL

in Review of Income and Wealth (2016), 62(1), 5268

Inequality is anisotropic: its intensity varies by income level. We here develop a new tool, the isograph, to focus on local inequality and illustrate these variations. This method yields three ... [more ▼]

Inequality is anisotropic: its intensity varies by income level. We here develop a new tool, the isograph, to focus on local inequality and illustrate these variations. This method yields three coefficients which summarize the shape of inequality: a main coefficient, Alpha, which measures inequality at the median, and two correction coefficients, Beta and Gamma, which pick up any differential curvature at the top and bottom of the distribution. The analysis of a set of 232 microdata samples from 41 different countries in the LIS datacenter archive allows us to provide a systematic overview of the properties of the ABG (Alpha Beta Gamma) coefficients, which are compared both to a set of standard indices (Atkinson indices, generalized entropy, Wolfson polarization, etc.) and the GB2 distribution. This method also provides a smoothing tool that reveals the differences in the shape of distributions (the strobiloid) and how these have changed over time. [less ▲]

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