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See detailLife satisfaction of two-year post-stroke survivors: effects of socioeconomic factors, motor impairment, Newcastle Stroke-specific Quality of Life leasure and World health Organization quality of Life-bref of informal caregivers in Luxembourg and a rural area in Portugal.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Lurbe-Puerto, Katia UL; Leandro, M. E. et al

in Cerebrovascular Diseases (2012), 33

Background: Life satisfaction of stroke survivors is known to be associated with socio-economic factors and the survivor’s and his/her caregiver’s quality of life, but their respective influence remains ... [more ▼]

Background: Life satisfaction of stroke survivors is known to be associated with socio-economic factors and the survivor’s and his/her caregiver’s quality of life, but their respective influence remains to be fully elucidated. Purpose: To analyse the stroke survivors’ life satisfaction 2 years after the event and its relationships with quality of life, socio-economic and stroke-related characteristics, and with informal caregivers’ life satisfaction and quality of life . Methods: Over 18 months, all stroke patients from Luxembourg and northeastern Portugal who lived at home were identified from the Inspection Générale de la Sécurité Sociale and hospital records, respectively. The clinical diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease was confirmed. We excluded all patients who declared that stroke did not result in neurological impairmentsat the time of stroke from the statistical analysis. The samples comprised 79 patients in Luxembourg and 48 in Portugal. Patients and the people they identified as their main caregivers were interviewed using validated questionnaires measuring life satisfaction, i.e. the Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (Newsqol – 11 subscales), which identifies the areas affected by stroke among patients, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life – bref (Whoqol-bref – 4 subscales) of informal caregivers. Survivors without neurological impairment at the time of stroke were excluded. Data were analysed via multiple-regression models. Results: Life satisfaction was higher among women and lower among subjects with impaired motor functions. It was lower among Portuguese respondents with low-level education ( <12th grade) and higher among those at work (37.6/100). In Luxembourg, retired people had more life satisfaction than did working people (–7.9/100). Controlling for socio-economic factors, life satisfaction was associated with feelings- Newsqol (slope 0.25) among Luxembourg residents, and with feelings-, mobility- and self-care-Newsqol (slopes 0.24, 0.27 and 0.33, respectively) among Portuguese respondents. Life satisfaction of patients was strongly related to that offamily caregivers among the Portuguese respondents (slope 0.66) but the relationship was moderate in Luxembourg (slope 0.28). The survivors’ life satisfaction was not correlated with any Whoqol-bref domain in the Luxembourg group, but was correlated with the Whoqol-bref psychological, social relationships and environment domains among the Portuguese respondents (slopes 0.55, 0.59 and 0.51, respectively). Conclusions: The life satisfaction scale and the Newsqol stroke instrument, which identify areas of quality of life affected by stroke, are reliable patient-centred markers of intervention outcome. They can be used within the framework of medical follow-up (such as telephone assistance, clinical practice and prevention). Depending on the stroke survivor’s and the family caregiver’s habitual lifestyle and material circumstances, enhancement of a caregiver’s quality of life can help maintain the patient’s life satisfaction, particularly in a rural setting. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial support and subsequent premature mortality, gender disparities and role of potential confounders.
Chau, N.; Otero-Sierra, C.; Ravaud, J. F. et al

in Psychology & Health (2010), suppl

To assess the association between social support and subsequent premature mortality (PM) (<70 years), gender difference, and the confounding role of age, occupation, health-related behaviors, obesity, and ... [more ▼]

To assess the association between social support and subsequent premature mortality (PM) (<70 years), gender difference, and the confounding role of age, occupation, health-related behaviors, obesity, and diseases. Methods: 4118 subjects (2189 men, 1929 women), aged >15 years, randomly selected in north-eastern France, completed in 1996 a postal questionnaire gathering characteristics, smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, social support from colleagues/family/friends, and physician-diagnosed diseases. The cohort was followed-up until 2008 (12.5 years). Data were analyzed using Poisson models. Results: There were 165 PM (115 men, 50 women) during the follow-up. For all the cohort, social support was strongly associated with PM: crude relative risk (RR) 2.09 (95%CI 1.53-2.85). It decreased to 1.52 (1.11-2.09) when adjusted for age, 1.46 (1.06-2.00) with further adjustment for occupation, 1.44 (1.04-1.98) with further adjustment for smoking, alcohol abuse and obesity, and 1.28 (0.92-1.78) when diseases (cancer, diabetes, mental, nervous-system, cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary and musculoskeletal diseases) were taken into account. Similar results were found for men: crude RR 2.46 decreasing to 1.81, 1.70, 1.60, 1.45 respectively. But not for women: close-to-significant crude RR 1.57 (small number of PM). Conclusions: Social support influenced PM in men but not in women. Occupation, health behaviours, and diseases play a role. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial disparities and correlates of domestic accidents.
Baumann, Michèle UL; Spitz, E.; Ravaud, J. et al

in Psychology & Health (2009)

Domestic accidents are a public health problem. This study assessed the disparities between socioeconomic positions and the confounding role of gender, age, education, living alone, income, poor health ... [more ▼]

Domestic accidents are a public health problem. This study assessed the disparities between socioeconomic positions and the confounding role of gender, age, education, living alone, income, poor health, obesity, current tobacco use, alcohol abuse, fatigue/sleep disorders, and physical, sensorial and cognitive disabilities. Methods: 6,198 people aged ≥15, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire including domestic accident(s) during the last two years. The data were analyzed via logistic models. Findings: Domestic accidents affected 3.1% of subjects. Manual workers and clerks had higher risks (age-gender adjusted OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.6 and 1.5, 1.0-2.4) compared with the other socioeconomic groups. These differences became non significant when controlling for all covariates of which those significant were: sex, current tobacco use, alcohol abuse, and fatigue/sleep disorders (adjusted odds ratios 1.48-1.88). Discussion: There are social disparities in domestic accidents, and they are confounded by sex, substance use, and fatigue/sleep disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors associated with trafic accident.
Chau, N.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in Psychology & Health (2009)

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See detailCorrelates and inequalities of psychotropic drug use among young adults.
Chau, N.; Baumann, Michèle UL

in International Journal for Equity in Health (2008), 7

Use of psychotropic drugs is widespread in Europe, and is markedly more common in France than elsewhere. Young adults often fare less well than adolescents on health indicators (injury, homicide, and ... [more ▼]

Use of psychotropic drugs is widespread in Europe, and is markedly more common in France than elsewhere. Young adults often fare less well than adolescents on health indicators (injury, homicide, and substance use). This population-based study assessed disparities in psychotropic among from different socio-occupational groups and determined whether they were mediated by educational level, health status, income, health-related behaviours, family support, personality traits, or disability. Methods. A total of 1,257 people aged 18–29, randomly selected in north-eastern France completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering sex, date of birth, height, weight, educational level, occupation, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, income, health-status, diseases, reported disabilities, self-reported personality traits, family support, and frequent psychotropic medication for tiredness, nervousness/anxiety or insomnia. The data were analyzed using the adjusted odds ratios (ORa) computed with logistic models. Results. Use of psychotropic drugs was common (33.2%). Compared with upper/intermediate professionals, markedly high odds ratios adjusted for sex were found for manual workers (2.57, 95% CI 1.02–6.44), employees (2.58, 1.11–5.98), farmers/craftsmen/ tradesmen (4.97, 1.13–21.8), students (2.40, 1.06–5.40), and housewives (3.82, 1.39–10.5). Adjusting for all the confounders considered reduced the estimates to a pronounced degree for manual workers (adjusted OR 1.49, non-significant) but only slightly for the other socio-occupational groups. The odds ratio for unemployed people did not reach statistical significance. The significant confounders were: sex, not-good health status, musculoskeletal disorders and other diseases, being worried, nervous or sad, and lack of family support (adjusted odds ratios between 1.60 and 2.50). Conclusion. There were marked disparities among young adults from different socio-occupational groups. Sex, health status, musculoskeletal diseases, family support, and personality traits were related to use of psychotropic drugs. These factors mediated the higher risk strongly among manual workers and slightly among the other groups. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between multiple deprivation and tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use
Baumann, Michèle UL; Spitz, E.; Chau, N.

in Proceedings of 10th European Congress
of Psychology
(2007)

Objectives. To assess the relationships of multiple deprivation and gender differences towards tobacco, alcohol and psychotropic drug use. Design and methods. The sample included 6,216 subjects, aged 15 ... [more ▼]

Objectives. To assess the relationships of multiple deprivation and gender differences towards tobacco, alcohol and psychotropic drug use. Design and methods. The sample included 6,216 subjects, aged 15 years, randomly selected in north-eastern France who completed a mailed questionnaire. Data were analyzed with the logistic model. Results. Multiple deprivation (noted MD, defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployment, living alone, nationality (other than Western Europe), low income, and non-home-ownership) concerned many people: 37.4% for MD1, 21.2% for MD2, 10.0% for MD≥3. Tobacco and excess alcohol use was more frequent in men than in women (30.2% vs. 21.9%, 12.5% vs. 3.3%, p<0.001) contrarily to frequent psychotropic drug use (for headache, tiredness, nervousness/anxiety, insomnia, 23.8% vs. 41.0%, p<0.001). The MD was strongly related to tobacco use (odds ratio 1.16, 95%CI 1.00-1.34 for MD1; 1.49, 1.27-1.74 for MD2; 1.93, 1.59-2.35 for MD≥3; vs. MD0) as well as to excess alcohol use (1.19, 0.94-1.52 for MD1; 1.32, 1.01-1.73 for MD2; 1.80, 1.32-2.46 for MD≥3; vs. MD0) and to frequent psychotropic drug use (1.26, 1.11-1.44 for MD1; 1.51, 1.30-1.75 for MD2; 1.91, 1.58-2.30 for MD≥3; vs. MD0). Marked relationships were observed between the MD and the use of those substances in active/non-retired inactive men and women (except for excess alcohol use in female). In retired people, the MD was associated with tobacco and psychotropic use in men only. Conclusion. Multiple deprivation may favour tobacco, alcohol and psychotropic drug use. The psychologists may find gender differences remedial measures. [less ▲]

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See detailDo male and female adolescents differ in the effect of individual and family characteristics on their use of psychotropic drugs?
Baumann, Michèle UL; Spitz, E.; Predine, R. et al

in European Journal of Pediatrics (2007), 166(1), 29-35

This study assesses the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two ... [more ▼]

This study assesses the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two high schools. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires covering gender, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, tiredness during the daytime, selfreported personality traits, family conditions, and psychotropic drug use. The data were analyzed using logistic models. The prevalence of frequent psychotropic drug use (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia) was 43.0% overall; twice as high among girls than boys. Among the girls, frequent psychotropic drug use was associated with frequent tiredness during the daytime (adjusted odds ratio OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.61–2.57), smoking(2.02, 1.50–2.71), alcohol use (1.34, 1.04–1.74), higher body mass index (>18 kg/m2, 1.54, 1.16–2.04), poor family atmosphere (1.33, 1.03–1.72), and being worried (1.93, 1.53–2.43) or easily becoming irritable (1.28, 1.01–1.62). In boys the factors with significant ORs were frequent tiredness during the daytime (2.21, 1.67–2.93), alcohol use (1.52, 1.15–2.01), and being worried (1.70, 1.28–2.26) or easily becoming irritable (1.42, 1.06–1.89); univariate analysis revealed a significant relationship with smoking and family atmosphere. An association was also observed for illicit drugs in both sexes and for age≥17 years in girls. Individual and family characteristics have marked influence on psychotropic drug use among both male and female adolescents. Preventive measures should be taken to make adolescents and their parents more aware of the risks and to improve their living conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations of social and material deprivation with tobacco, alcohol, and psychotropic drug use, and gender differentials: a population-based study
Baumann, Michèle UL; Spitz, Elisabeth; Guillemin, F. et al

in International Journal of Health Geographics (2007), 2

The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge ... [more ▼]

The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. Methods: The sample comprised 6,216 people aged ≥ 15 years randomly selected from the population in northeastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia). A deprivation score (D) was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa) computed with logistic models. Results: Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D ≥ 3. More men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9%) and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%), whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%). Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D ≥ 3), alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D ≥ 3) and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D ≥ 3). These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women). Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Conclusion: Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial measures. [less ▲]

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See detailDo male and female adolescents differ in the effect of individual and family characteristics on their use of psychotropic drugs?
Spitz, E.; Chau, N.; Predine, R. et al

in Abstract book of 10th European Congress of Psychology (2007)

Objectives. To assess the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. Design and methods. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two ... [more ▼]

Objectives. To assess the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. Design and methods. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two high schools. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires covering gender, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, tiredness during the daytime, self-reported personality traits, family conditions, and psychotropic drug use. The data were analyzed using logistic models. Results. The prevalence of frequent psychotropic drug use (for headache, tiredness, nervousness/anxiety, insomnia) was 43.0% overall; twice as high among girls than boys. In girls, frequent psychotropic drug use was associated with frequent tiredness during the daytime (adjusted odds ratio OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.61-2.57), smoking (2.02, 1.50-2.71), alcohol use (1.34, 1.04-1.74), higher body mass index (18 kg/m2, 1.54, 1.16-2.04), poor family atmosphere (1.33, 1.03-1.72), and being worried (1.93, 1.53-2.43) or easily becoming irritable (1.28, 1.01-1.62). In boys the factors with significant ORs were frequent tiredness during the daytime (2.21, 1.67-2.93), alcohol use (1.52, 1.15-2.01), and being worried (1.70, 1.28-2.26) or easily becoming irritable (1.42, 1.06-1.89); univariate analysis revealed a significant relationship with smoking and family atmosphere. An association was also observed for illicit drug in both sexes and for age17 years in girls. Conclusions. Individual and family characteristics have marked influences on psychotropic drug use among both male and female adolescents. This finding may be useful for the psychologists, the physicians, the parents and the school staff to be more aware of the risks and to find remedial measures. [less ▲]

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