References of "Cavallo, Viola"
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See detailReview of safety and mobility issues among older pedestrians
Tournier, Isabelle UL; Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola

in Accident Analysis & Prevention (2016), 91

Although old people make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group, older pedestrians’ difficulties have been studied less extensively than those of older drivers, and more knowledge of this issue is ... [more ▼]

Although old people make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group, older pedestrians’ difficulties have been studied less extensively than those of older drivers, and more knowledge of this issue is still required. The present paper reviews current knowledge of older-adult problems with the main components of pedestrian activity, i.e., walking and obstacle negotiation, wayfinding, and road crossing. Compared to younger ones, old pedestrians exhibit declining walking skills, with a walking speed decrease, less stable balance, less efficient wayfinding strategies, and a greater number of unsafe road crossing behaviors. These difficulties are linked to age-related changes in sensorial, cognitive, physical, and self-perception abilities. It is now known that visual impairment, physical frailty, and attention deficits have a major negative impact on older pedestrians' safety and mobility, whereas the roles of self-evaluation and self-regulation are still poorly understood. All these elements must be taken into consideration, not only in developing effective safety interventions targeting older pedestrians, but also in designing roads and cars. Recent initiatives are presented here and some recommendations are proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailArrival-time judgments on multi-lane streets: the failure to ignore irrelevant traffic
Baurès, Robin; Oberfeld, Daniel; Tournier, Isabelle UL et al

in Accident Analysis & Prevention (2014), 65

How do road users decide whether or not they have enough time to cross a multiplelane street with multiple approaching vehicles? Temporal judgments have been investigated for single cars approaching an ... [more ▼]

How do road users decide whether or not they have enough time to cross a multiplelane street with multiple approaching vehicles? Temporal judgments have been investigated for single cars approaching an intersection, however, close to nothing is known about how street crossing decisions are being made when several vehicles are simultaneously approaching in two adjacent lanes. This task is relatively common in urban environments. We report two simulator experiments in which drivers had to judge whether it would be safe to initiate street crossing in such cases. Matching traffic gaps (i.e., the temporal separation between two consecutive vehicles) were presented either with cars approaching on a single lane or with cars approaching on two adjacent lanes, either from the same side (Experiment 1) or from the opposite sides (Experiment 2). The stimuli were designed such that only the shortest gap was decision-relevant. The results showed that when the two gaps were in sight simultaneously (Experiment 1), street-crossing decisions were also influenced by the decision-irrelevant longer gap. Observers were more willing to cross the street when they had access to information about the irrelevant gap. However, when the two gaps could not be seen simultaneously but only sequentially (Experiment 2), only the shorter and relevant gap influenced the street-crossing decisions. The results are discussed within the framework of perceptual averaging processes, and practical implications for road safety are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailCrossing a two-way street: comparison of young and old pedestrians
Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Dubuisson, Jean-Baptiste et al

in Journal of Safety Research (2014), 50

Introduction Choosing a safe gap in which to cross a two-way street is a complex task and only few experiments have investigated age-specific difficulties. Method A total of 18 young (age 19–35), 28 ... [more ▼]

Introduction Choosing a safe gap in which to cross a two-way street is a complex task and only few experiments have investigated age-specific difficulties. Method A total of 18 young (age 19–35), 28 younger-old (age 62–71) and 38 older-old (age 72–85 years) adults participated in a simulated street-crossing experiment in which vehicle approach speed and available time gaps were varied. The safe and controlled simulated environment allowed participants to perform a real walk across an experimental two-way street. The differences between the results for the two lanes are of particular interest to the study of visual exploration and crossing behaviors. Results The results showed that old participants crossed more slowly, adopted smaller safety margins, and made more decisions that led to collisions than did young participants. These difficulties were found particularly when vehicles approached in the far lane, or rapidly. Whereas young participants considered the time gaps available in both lanes to decide whether to cross the street, old participants made their decisions mainly on the basis of the gap available in the near lane while neglecting the far lane. Conclusions The present results point to attentional deficits as well as physical limitations in older pedestrians and have implications in terms of road design and pedestrian training. [less ▲]

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See detailSafer Mobility for Elderly Road Users
Mathieson, Paul; Dean, Adrian; Goss, Sue et al

Report (2013)

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See detailMobility and safety of elderly drivers and pedestrians: review of interventions and training programmes
Tournier, Isabelle UL; Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola

Poster (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (5 UL)