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See detailUrban densities and patterns: stylized facts and generic abstract tools
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

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See detailAlonso and the Scaling of Urban Profiles
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Geographical Analysis (2019)

How urban characteristics change with total population, their scaling behavior, has become an important research field since one needs to better understand the challenges of urban densification. Yet urban ... [more ▼]

How urban characteristics change with total population, their scaling behavior, has become an important research field since one needs to better understand the challenges of urban densification. Yet urban scaling research is largely disconnected from intra-urban structure, and this seriously limits its operationalization. In contrast, the monocentric model of Alonso provides a residential choice-based theory to urban density profiles. However, dedicated comparative static analyses do not completely solve how the model scales with population. This article bridges this gap by simultaneously introducing power laws for land, income and transport cost in the Alonso model. We show that the equilibrium urban structure of this augmented model matches recent empirical findings about the scaling of European population density profiles and satisfactorily represents European cities. This result is however not compatible with the observed scaling power of housing land profiles, and challenges current empirical understanding of wage and transport cost elasticities with population. Our results call for revisiting theories about land development and housing processes as well as the empirics of agglomeration benefits and transport costs. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for the homothetic scaling of urban forms
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science (2018)

The size and form of cities influence their social and environmental impacts. Whether cities have the same form irrespective of their size is still an open question. We analyse the profile of artificial ... [more ▼]

The size and form of cities influence their social and environmental impacts. Whether cities have the same form irrespective of their size is still an open question. We analyse the profile of artificial land and population density, with respect to the distance to their main centre, for the 300 largest European cities. Our analysis combines the GMES/Copernicus Urban Atlas 2006 land use database at 5 m resolution for 300 larger urban zones with more than 100,000 inhabitants and the Geostat population grid at 1 km resolution. We find a remarkable constancy of radial profiles across city sizes. Artificial land profiles scale in the two horizontal dimensions with the square root of city population, while population density profiles scale in three dimensions with its cube root. In short, cities of different size are homothetic in terms of land use and population density, which challenges the idea that larger cities are more parsimonious in the use of land per capita. While earlier literature documented the scaling of average densities (total surface and population) with city size, we document the scaling of the whole radial distance profile with city size, thus liaising intra-urban radial analysis and systems of cities. Our findings also yield homogenous spatial definitions of cities, from which we can re-question urban scaling laws and Zipf’s law for cities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe provision of urban green space and its accessibility: Spatial data effects in Brussels
Le Texier, Marion UL; Schiel, Kerry UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in PLoS ONE (2018), 13(10), 0204684

Urban green space (UGS) has many environmental and social benefits. UGS provision and access are increasingly considered in urban policies and must rely on data and indicators that can capture variations ... [more ▼]

Urban green space (UGS) has many environmental and social benefits. UGS provision and access are increasingly considered in urban policies and must rely on data and indicators that can capture variations in the distribution of UGS within cities. There is no consensus about how UGS, and their provision and access, must be defined from different land use data types. Here we identify four spatial dimensions of UGS and critically examine how different data sources affect these dimensions and our understanding of their variation within a city region (Brussels). We compare UGS indicators measured from an imagery source (NDVI from Landsat), an official cadastre-based map, and the voluntary geographical information provided by OpenStreetMap (OSM). We compare aggregate values of provision and access to UGS as well as their spatial distribution along a centrality gradient and at neighbourhood scale. We find that there are strong differences in the value of indicators when using the different datasets, especially due to their ability to capture private and public green space. However we find that the interpretation of intra-urban spatial variations is not affected by changes in data source. Centrality in particular is a strong determinant of the relative values of UGS availability, fragmentation and accessibility, irrespective of datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailRadial urban forms in Europe
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2018, September 27)

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See detailAlonso and the scaling of urban profiles
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Urban characteristics scaling with total population has become an important urban research field since one needs to better understand the benefits and disadvantages of urban growth and fur- ther ... [more ▼]

Urban characteristics scaling with total population has become an important urban research field since one needs to better understand the benefits and disadvantages of urban growth and fur- ther population concentration. Urban scaling research, however, is largely disconnected from the empirics and theory of intra-urban structure for it considers averaged attributes and ignores resi- dential choice trade-offs between transport and housing costs within cities. Using this fundamental trade-off, the monocentric model of Alonso provides theory to urban density profiles. However, it is silent about how these profiles scale with population, thus preventing empirical scaling studies to anchor in a strong micro-economic theory. This paper fixes this gap by introducing power laws for land and for population density in the Alonso model. From an augmented model with land use, we derive the conditions at which equilibrium profiles match recent empirical findings about the scaling of urban land and population density profiles in European cities. We find that the Alonso model is theoretically compatible with the observed scaling of population density profiles and leads to a satisfactory representation of European cities. The conditions for this compatibility refine current understanding of wage and transport costs elasticities with population. Although they require a scaling power of the profile of the share of urbanised land that is different from what is observed, it is argued that alternatives specifications of transport cost functions could solve this issue. Thus our results call for revisiting theories about land development and housing processes as well as the empirics of agglomeration benefits and transport costs. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-scale fine-grained LUTI model to simulate land-use scenarios in Luxembourg
Gerber, Philippe; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cornélis, Eric et al

in Journal of Transport and Land Use (2018), 11(1), 255272

The increasing attractiveness of Luxembourg as a place to work and live puts its land use and transport systems under high pressure. Understanding how the country can accommodate residential growth and ... [more ▼]

The increasing attractiveness of Luxembourg as a place to work and live puts its land use and transport systems under high pressure. Understanding how the country can accommodate residential growth and additional traffic in a sustainable manner is a key and difficult challenge that requires a policy relevant, flexible and responsive modelling framework. We describe the first fully fledged land-use and transport interaction framework (MOEBIUS) applied to the whole of Luxembourg. We stress its multi-scalar nature and detail the articulation of two of its main components: a dynamic demographic microsimulation at the scale of individuals and a micro-spatial scale simulation of residential choice. Conversely to traditional zone-based approaches, the framework keeps full details of households and individuals for residential and travel mode choice, making the model highly consistent with theory. In addition, results and policy constraints are implemented at a very fine resolution (20m) and can thus incorporate local effects (residential externalities, local urban design). Conversely to fully disaggregated approaches, a linkage is organized at an intermediate scale, which allows one (1) to simplify the generation and spatial distribution of trips, (2) to parallelize parts of the residential choice simulation, and (3) to ensure a good calibration of the population and real estate market estimates. We show model outputs for different scenarios at the horizon 2030 and compare them along sustainability criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial sorting, attitudes and the use of green space in Brussels
Schindler, Mirjam; Le Texier, Marion; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (2018), 31

Extensive evidence exists on the benefits provided by urban green space (UGS) but evidence is lacking about whether and how socio-economic benefits accrue to all residents or disproportionally depending ... [more ▼]

Extensive evidence exists on the benefits provided by urban green space (UGS) but evidence is lacking about whether and how socio-economic benefits accrue to all residents or disproportionally depending on their socio-economic status or residential location. We model joint effects of socio-economic and locational attributes on attitudes and use of UGS in Brussels (BE). The analysis is based on a survey conducted along an urban-suburban continuum with respondents sampled across non-park public space. Patterns of use are depicted by the frequency and the distance travelled to the most used UGS. Attitudes are analysed along three dimensions: willingness to (i) pay for UGS, (ii) trade-off housing for green space and (iii) substitute private for public green. Our results stress the importance of separating effects of attitudes from socio-economic and locational effects to quantify UGS use, and suggest endogenous effects of green space with residential sorting. [less ▲]

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See detailEmerging urban form – Emerging pollution: Modelling endogenous health and environmental effects of traffic on residential choice
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Environment and Planning B (2018)

Air pollution bears severe health and environmental impacts and is of increasing concern to urban planners but densification strategies have ambiguous impacts. We analyse how households’ aversion to ... [more ▼]

Air pollution bears severe health and environmental impacts and is of increasing concern to urban planners but densification strategies have ambiguous impacts. We analyse how households’ aversion to generating and being exposed to traffic pollution at the residential place and during their commute influences emerging urban structures and how these structures in turn affect pollution exposure and the residential choice of households. Resulting spatial patterns are difficult to predict because of this feedback and the spatial form of urbanisation and road networks. We address this complexity with a micro-economic agent-based residential choice model dynamically coupled with a cellular automata model for pollution dispersion and its perception in neighbourhoods. Our simulation experiments on a theoretical grid suggest that the spatial scale of this perception is important. We also find that if both health and environmental concerns are to be addressed, a combination of reducing commuting distances and preserving local green spaces is necessary. In particular, locally dispersed urban development and intra-urban green spaces next to busy roads can mitigate pollution exposure. [less ▲]

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See detailCity delineation in European applications of LUTI models: review and tests
Thomas, Isabelle; Jones, Jonathan; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

in Transport Reviews (2018), 38(1), 6-32

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the ... [more ▼]

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the argumentation develops from a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed publications about LUTI applications in European cities. We show that most authors do not assess findings against potential geographical biases. Second, theoretical simulations are conducted with UrbanSim applied to a synthetic urban area. By varying the geographical limits of the system and population endowments, our simulations confirm that the absence of control on city delineation weakens the results. Finally, the paper suggests methodological guidelines to improve the comparability of LUTI applications and push forward their theoretical agenda. [less ▲]

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See detailDéterminants individuels et territoriaux des navettes internes ou transfrontalières des actifs résidant en France
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Le Texier, Marion; Belkacem, Rachid et al

in Espace, Populations, Sociétés (2018), 2017(3), 1-30

This article focuses on the individual and territorial determinants of cross-border commuting from France to its neighbouring countries. We seek to identify whether cross-border commuting is a distinct ... [more ▼]

This article focuses on the individual and territorial determinants of cross-border commuting from France to its neighbouring countries. We seek to identify whether cross-border commuting is a distinct form of commuting, especially whether it differs for an active resident from commuting outside his/her reference functional urban area. We use individual data from the 2013 census and characterize the territory at the municipal scale in order to capture the relative polarisation of residential places within the national urban system. From our multinomial logistic models applied to the whole France or the border fringe, we find that gender, age, education, type and sector of activity, as well as the location of the commune with respect to employment poles in France, explain similarly the commute of active individuals towards another urban area in France and across the border. However, the effect is more intensive for cross-border commuting. After controlling the impact of the different neighbouring countries, we still clearly identify a different behaviour from elastic migrants in border areas and an effect of the distance to the border and of the job density on the cross-border commutes. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregate and disaggregate dynamic spatial interaction approaches to modelling coins diffusion
Le Texier, Marion UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Thill, Jean-Claude (Ed.) Spatial Analysis and Location Modeling in Urban and Regional Systems (2018)

With the 2002 introduction of the euro as a common currency in Europe,the possibility has emerged to assess international mobility using this new tracer, given that every coin bears a specific national ... [more ▼]

With the 2002 introduction of the euro as a common currency in Europe,the possibility has emerged to assess international mobility using this new tracer, given that every coin bears a specific national side. Using a simple two-country framework, four dynamic modeling strategies were designed in order to simulate the diffusion of coins and to understand how this diffusion is affected by population size, mobility rates and coin exchange processes. Methodological implications are raised with respect to aggregation, synchronicity and stochasticity issues. Although each model converges to an equilibrium, the time to reach this end stage and the level of coin mixing in each country strongly varies with the modeling strategy. Calibration is undertaken with French data, using mobility rates as adjustment variables. The experiment shows that convergence to a perfect mix of coins can only be obtained if reciprocal exchanges are modeled, with a time horizon around 2064 - while non-reciprocal models indicate an imperfect mix converging in the year 2020 at the latest. [less ▲]

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See detailHomothetic Scaling of Urban Land Use and Population Density Gradients in Monocentric Models
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November)

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See detailThe homothetic scaling of urban land and density profiles: evidence from Europe
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November)

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See detailEvidence for the homothetic scaling of urban forms
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (2 UL)
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See detailHomothetic Scaling of Urban Land Use and Population Density Gradients in Monocentric Models
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

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See detailMeasuring urban forms from inter-building distances: Combining MST graphs with a Local Index of Spatial Association
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Hilal, Mohamed; Thomas, Isabelle

in Landscape & Urban Planning (2017), 163

A new method is proposed for characterising local urban patterns at the scale of a large urban region. The approach overcomes the difficulties of surface-based representations of built-up morphologies and ... [more ▼]

A new method is proposed for characterising local urban patterns at the scale of a large urban region. The approach overcomes the difficulties of surface-based representations of built-up morphologies and provides an efficient way to account for the proximity of built and non-built land. The strength of the approach resides in the direct use of the coordinates of each building, a very parsimonious input of external parameters, and a local spatial statistical perspective. The method consists in, first, constructing and clumping the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) that links each building to its neighbours in order to obtain connected urban and suburban graph subsets, and second, measuring a Local Index of Spatial Association (LISA) on inter-building distances in order to characterise patterns. The method differentiates heterogeneous settlements from statistically significant homogeneous clusters with either long or short connections between buildings. The method is applied to the Southern periphery of Brussels (Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation résidentielle de la population étrangère selon la nationalité et la structure urbaine au Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Presentation (2017, June 19)

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the ... [more ▼]

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the different nationalities living in Luxembourg. It seeks to underline differences through indicators built from the 2011 census data. We focus on the territorial distribution of the different nationalities by taking into account the urban structure and distance to jobs. If differences according to nationalities in the residential behavior of households can be empirically identified they may raise issues of spatial equity and (un)equal accessibility to job market. We analyse whether the geographic location of different nationalities in Luxembourg is linked to urbanisation level, the distance to the “poles d´emploi” or general accessibility to jobs. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation résidentielle de la population étrangère selon la nationalité et la structure urbaine au Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the ... [more ▼]

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the different nationalities living in Luxembourg. It seeks to underline differences through indicators built from the 2011 census data. We focus on the territorial distribution of the different nationalities by taking into account the urban structure and distance to jobs. If differences according to nationalities in the residential behavior of households can be empirically identified they may raise issues of spatial equity and (un)equal accessibility to job market. We analyse whether the geographic location of different nationalities in Luxembourg is linked to urbanisation level, the distance to the “poles d´emploi” or general accessibility to jobs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (4 UL)