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See detailPhysical activity of children and adolescents in Luxembourg during school, physical education and leisure time: An accelerometry-based study
Eckelt, Melanie UL; Bund, Andreas UL; Hutmacher, Djenna UL et al

Poster (2019, September 13)

Objectives: Due to its great importance for development and health, the physical activity (PA) of children has become a key issue in research over the last decade. Simultaneously, the measurement of PA ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Due to its great importance for development and health, the physical activity (PA) of children has become a key issue in research over the last decade. Simultaneously, the measurement of PA has been strongly improved through the development of user-friendly and reliably working accelerometer, which allow to track PA over several consecutive days in an objective way. Although the benefits of accelerometry are well documented also for children (e.g. Hager et al., 2015), especially cross-national studies such as the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) are still using questionnaires and are focused only on overall or leisure time PA. This study as part of the PALUX project (Physical Activity of Children and Youth in Luxembourg) aims to (1) measure children's daily PA patterns using up-to-date accelerometers while (2) differentiating between PA in school, physical education and leisure time. Methods: In total, 242 children and adolescents (134 girls and 108 boys) aged from 10-18 years from 9 different schools in Luxembourg wore the ActiGraph GT3X-BT- accelerometer at the hip for a period of seven consecutive days. Total time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was calculated using the cut-of points from Evenson et al. (2008). Time spent in school and physical education were determined based on timetables provided by the schools. Results: Mean overall MVPA of participants over seven consecutive days was 307.6 min, with 98.4 min (32 %) during school time and 190.7 min (62 %) during leisure time. Only 16.7 min (6 %) of the school time MVPA were performed in physical education. Boys had more overall MVPA than girls (367.9 vs. 258.9 min, t(240) = 6.76, p < .01) due to significant differences in all areas considered here (schooltime: t(215) = 6.26, p < .01; leisure time: t(215) = 6.18, p < .01; physical education: t(188) = 3.07, p < .01). Children spent 25.6 min of an average physical education class of 77 min in MVPA, which is 19.71 % and thus much less than the 50 % recommended by the U.S. Department for Health and Human Sciences. Only 0.5% of the participants (1.2% of the boys and 0% of the girls) achieved this value. Discussion: Overall, 25.6 % of the children and adolescents in Luxembourg met WHO's PA guideline of at least 60 min MVPA per day, which is in line with results from other European countries. According to our data, the achieved MVPA is mainly due to leisure time activities, whereas the potential of school and physical education in providing and promoting PA has apparently not been fully exploited yet. The consistency of these findings will be examined in a second survey in 2019 [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences in physical activity among children with physically active and inactive parents
Eckelt, Melanie UL; Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Steffgen, Georges UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, September 13)

Objectives: Parental physical activity is considered as positively related to children´s physical activity (PA; Sallis, Prochaska & Taylor, 2000). Since parents serve as role models, have the potential to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Parental physical activity is considered as positively related to children´s physical activity (PA; Sallis, Prochaska & Taylor, 2000). Since parents serve as role models, have the potential to influence the health-related behavior and, for instance, to alter a mainly sedentary lifestyle of their children (Beets, Cardinal & Alderman, 2010), the impact of parental PA has become a key issue in research. Many studies report associations between parental PA and the PA behavior of their children, e.g., the direct involvement of the parents in activities with their children is related to increased levels of their PA (Adkins, Sherwood, Story, & Davis, 2004; Beets, Vogel, Chapman, Pitetti, & Cardinal, 2007). However, the mechanisms of parental influence are still poorly understood and besides recent studies are based on self-reported data. Therefore, this study aims to examine if parental PA is related to the subjectively and objectively measured PA of their children. Methods: 237 Luxembourgish children and adolescents (134 girls and 103 boys) aged from 10-18 years participated in the study. Via a digital questionnaire, the children indicated if their mother and father are physically active on a regular basis and if they are active together with their parents. Furthermore, the children and adolescents indicated if they are active at least 60 minutes/ day and if they own a membership in a sports club (MoMo physical activity questionnaire). Additionally, children’s PA behavior was objectively assessed by wearing an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X-BT) for a period of seven consecutive days. Activity was categorized as sedentary, light physical activity or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using age-specific thresholds. Results: A multivariate ANOVA revealed significant differences in self-reported physical activity if the mother was physically active (F (2, 166) = 5.4, p < .01). Thus, children reported subjectively higher daily activity duration (p < .05) and more activities in a regular week (p < .01). There was no impact on self-reported PA if the father was active or the children were active with their parents together. Regarding the objective data, there were no significant differences between children with active parents and children with inactive parents. If the parents were active with their children together there were significant differences (F (3, 229) = 3.2, p < .05), thus MVPA per day was higher (p < .05) and the sedentary time was lower (p < .01). Neither subjective nor objective data revealed gender-specific differences. Discussion: In contrast to other studies, only the mother seems to have an influence on the subjective PA behavior of the children. The fact, that parents being active or in a sports club does not appear to enhance the PA of the children objectively. However, the objective PA is merely affected by being active together. According to this finding, joint activities of parents and children seem to be necessary to promote children’s PA effectively. It is important to note that in our study the parental PA was rated by the children. In future studies, parents should be included via self-report questionnaires and/or accelerometer. [less ▲]

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See detailOverestimation of physical activity among young people: Does age and gender play a role?
Eckelt, Melanie UL; Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Steffgen, Georges UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, June 22)

Background and purpose: Due to the continuous decrease of physical activity (PA) of people in industrialized countries (Kohl et al., 2012), PA behavior and its psychological foundations has become a key ... [more ▼]

Background and purpose: Due to the continuous decrease of physical activity (PA) of people in industrialized countries (Kohl et al., 2012), PA behavior and its psychological foundations has become a key issue in health-related research. Studies show that most people tend to overesti-mate their habitual PA (Skender et al., 2016), however, there is very little research on the role of demographic variables in this respect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether age and/or gender affect the (over)estimation of PA among children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 75 students (38 girls and 37 boys, 10 to 18 years) of various primary and sec-ondary schools were randomly included in the study. Habitual PA was assessed through an online self-report questionnaire (Schmidt et al., 2017) as well as by wearing an accelerometer (Acti-Graph GT3X-BT) over seven consecutive days. A multiple regression analysis was used to ana-lyze the impact of age and gender on the accuracy of PA estimation. Results: The students reported being active for at least 60 minutes on average on 4,0 ± 2,1 days per week, whereas the accelerometer data verify only 1,8 ± 1,6 days per week. Thus, a majority of 76% of the children and adolescents overestimated and 9% underestimated their PA. Almost 15% were correct in their PA estimation. However, results of the regression analysis indicate neither an effect of age ( = .003, p > .1) nor of gender ( = -.070, p > .1). Conclusions: Overestimation of PA is common not only among adults but also among children and adolescents. However, this misperception appears to be independent of age and gender, at least in the age group considered here. Future studies should examine further demographic and psychological variables in order to explain why most of the people significantly overestimate their habitual PA. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivationsregulation im Sportunterricht und ihre Relevanz für die körperliche Aktivität in der Freizeit
Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Eckelt, Melanie UL; Bund, Andreas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, May 30)

Hintergrund: Angesichts der kontinuierlichen Abnahme der körperlichen Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen erweist sich die Stärkung der Motivation im Sportunterricht als ein bedeutsamer Ansatz zur ... [more ▼]

Hintergrund: Angesichts der kontinuierlichen Abnahme der körperlichen Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen erweist sich die Stärkung der Motivation im Sportunterricht als ein bedeutsamer Ansatz zur Sportaktivierung (Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2005). Die Selbstbestimmungstheorie (Deci & Ryan, 2000) postuliert, dass ein eher intrinsischer Regulationstyp sowie ein autonomie-förderndes Klima im Sportunterricht die Intention körperlicher Aktivität steigern. Basierend auf dem trans-kontextuellen Modell (Hagger, Chatzisarantis, Culverhouse, & Biddle, 2003) wird in der vorliegenden Studie geprüft, ob der motivationale Regulationstyp aus dem Sportunterricht selbigen hinsichtlich der körperlichen Aktivität im Freizeitbereich vorhersagen kann. Methode: 264 Schüler von 11 bis 21 Jahren (52.6% Mädchen) aus Luxemburg nahmen an der Studie teil. Neben der Bedürfnisunterstützung (Autonomie, Geselligkeit und Kompetenz; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumis, 2005), dem Regulationstyp im Sportunterricht (BPNES; Vlachopoulos, Ntoumanis, & Smith, 2010) sowie zur körperlichen Aktivität in der Freizeit (BREQ-II; Markland & Tobin, 2004) wurde auch die Intention zu körperlicher Aktivität erfasst (Hagger, et al. 2003). Ergebnisse: Eine SEM-Analyse belegt einen signifikanten Zusammenhang zwischen dem intrinsischen Regulationstyp im Sportunterricht und der intrinsischen Regulation zur körperlichen Aktivität in der Freizeit. Letztere erweist sich hierbei als positiver Prädiktor der Intentionsbildung. Zudem geht die Unterstützung der drei Grundbedürfnisse durch den Sportlehrer mit einer signifikant höheren intrinsischen Regulation sowie niedrigeren Amotivation im Sportunterricht einher. Schlussfolgerung: Die Befunde zeigen auf, dass ein intrinsischer Regulationstyp im Sportunterricht kontextübergreifend mit dem Regulationstyp im Freizeitbereich zusammenhängt, welcher wiederum die Aktivitätsintention erhöht. Die Implikationen dieser Befunde für den Sportunterricht werden im Rahmen des Vortrags diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetence support in physical education: a predictor towards a more self-determined physical activity behavior?
Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Eckelt, Melanie UL; Bund, Andreas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, May 22)

Objectives: Given a widespread continuous decrease in children’s and adolescents’ physical activity (PA), the potential of physical education (PE) in promoting young people’s PA motivation and behavior ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Given a widespread continuous decrease in children’s and adolescents’ physical activity (PA), the potential of physical education (PE) in promoting young people’s PA motivation and behavior has become a key issue. Research in line with the trans-contextual model highlights the support of perceived autonomy in PE as a significant predictor for self-determined PA behavior in a leisure-time (LT) context (Hagger et al., 2003). However, the impact of competence and relatedness support still remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of support during PE, differentiated into three basic needs for behavioral regulation in PE and LT. It was expected that, in addition to perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness would be relevant predictors. Method: 244 students (139 girls) from Luxembourg, ranging from 11 to 21 years, participated in the study. Via a digital questionnaire, the scales need support (perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2005), basic needs (BPNES; Vlachopoulos, Ntoumanis, & Smith, 2010), and external and intrinsic motivation in PE (PLOC-R; Vlachopoulos et al., 2011) as well as in LT (BREQ-II; Markland & Tobin, 2004) were applied in the classroom. With regard to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985), the attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and intentions toward PA were assessed (Hagger et al., 2003). Results: A SEM analysis showed that competence support in PE was the major predictor for self-determined behavior in PE, while perceived autonomy produced mixed findings. Relatedness support had a negative effect on external regulated behavior in PE. In accordance with the assumptions of the trans-contextual model, similar behavioral regulations in PE and LT were found. Furthermore, a more self-determined behavior in LT predicted higher attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control towards PA, which increased the intention of doing sports. Discussion: Results suggest that the children’s perceived support of competence from the teacher during PE is an important factor to increase self-determined PA behavior. Further intervention programs may focus on improving the perception of competence during PE in order to increase motivation. In addition, these findings underline the importance for future research to consider the different roles of perceived support of competence, autonomy and relatedness in PE. [less ▲]

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See detailReview for "Journal of Sports Sciences"
Bund, Andreas UL

in Journal of Sports Sciences (2019)

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See detailComparing Intra-Limb Coordination and Timing of Performing a Baseball-Pitch in Skilled and Unskilled Pitchers with Emphasis on Different Movement Phases
Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas UL

in Motor Behavior (2019), 10(34), 29-48

The coordination of body limbs and the timing during performing of a Baseball-pitch and its different movement phases are relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to describe and compare ... [more ▼]

The coordination of body limbs and the timing during performing of a Baseball-pitch and its different movement phases are relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to describe and compare the coordination between the shoulder-elbow joints and timing during execution of a Baseball-pitch by skilled and unskilled subjects emphasizing movement phases. The subjects consisted of a skilled male pitcher and eight beginner pitchers. Intra-limb coordination was obtained for the shoulder-elbow joints and was shown by angle-angle plots. Start and end points of all pitchers were normalized by linear interpolation method to 250 points. Timing, angles of the beginning and end of each phase, and the minimum and maximum angles of shoulder and elbow joints in each phase were compared between skilled and unskilled pitchers. The results indicated that there is a relatively clear difference in the coordination patterns between the joints of the shoulder-elbow, especially in the first and second phases between skilled and unskilled pitchers. There were also many differences between unskilled pitchers with the skilled pitcher at the beginning and end as well as the minimum and maximum angles of shoulder and elbow joints in different phases. Considering the timing variable, the time of performing the whole movement and the first, fourth, and fifth phases in unskilled pitchers was significantly shorter than that of the skilled pitcher. The results were discussed with regard to spatiotemporal characteristics of the performing Baseball-pitch in skilled and unskilled pitchers. Also, were discussed practical considerations for improving skills and preventing injury. [less ▲]

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See detailReview for "German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research"
Bund, Andreas UL

in Voelcker-Rehage (Ed.) German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research (2019)

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See detailMotor tests for primary school aged children: A systematic review
Scheuer, Claude UL; Herrmann, Christian; Bund, Andreas UL

in Journal of Sports Sciences (2019)

Motor testing in education has gained in relevance in light of recent developments in educational systems (Köller & Baumert, 2012). The purpose of this systematic review was to identify studies using ... [more ▼]

Motor testing in education has gained in relevance in light of recent developments in educational systems (Köller & Baumert, 2012). The purpose of this systematic review was to identify studies using motor tests in primary school children aged 4 to 12 years and to synthetize information about the quality and application of the test instruments used. A systematic review of 910 records identified by a search of nine databases yielded 144 papers reporting motor testing in primary school age children,including 25 articles reporting on the quality of 20 test instruments. In the selected articles, tests grounded on the constructs of “motor abilities” and/or “motor skills” are the most frequent and are mostly used for monitoring purposes or for impact research. Tests based on the construct “motor competencies” have become popular only recently, being relevant for educational motor testing due to their curricular validity. The test instruments have been investigated towards their validity and reliability to different extents. However, for several test instruments factorial validity has not been established and more validation studies are needed to improve their psychometric quality especially if used in educational contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailGender differences with regard to physical activity motivation and behavior in physical education and leisure time
Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Eckelt, Melanie UL; Bund, Andreas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, January)

Objectives: Given a widespread continuous decrease in children’s and adoles-cents’ physical activity (PA), the potential of physical education (PE) in promoting young people’s PA motivation and behavior ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Given a widespread continuous decrease in children’s and adoles-cents’ physical activity (PA), the potential of physical education (PE) in promoting young people’s PA motivation and behavior has become a key issue in research. Based on the self-determination theory (SDT) of Deci and Ryan (1985), the present study aimed to ex-amine gender differences with regard to PA motivation and behavior during PE and lei-sure time (LT). Previously, girls were found to be more self-determined than boys (Wil-liams & Deci, 1996), but showed lower self-reported PA and were meeting the PA guide-lines of the WHO to a lesser extent (Trost et al., 2002). Method: 244 students (139 girls and 125 boys) from 11 to 21 years participated in the study. PA motivation was assessed via a digital questionnaire containing the scales need support (Standage, Duda and Ntoumanis, 2005), basic needs (BPNES; Vlachopou-los, Ntoumanis & Smith, 2010), external and intrinsic motivation in PE (PLOC-R; Vla-chopoulos et al., 2011) and in LT (BREQ-II; Markland & Tobin, 2004). PA behavior was measured through a self-report questionnaire (Schmidt, Will, Henn, Reimers & Woll, 2016). Additionally, 76 students (38 girls and 38 boys) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X-BT) over seven consecutive days to measure PA behavior objectively, too. Results: With regard to PA motivation, girls reported a lower fulfillment in the basic need of competence during PE and scored higher in the external motivation during PE and LT than boys. In contrast, boys reported higher rates of intrinsic motivation during PE and LT. Concerning PA behavior, boys showed higher PA than girls for self-reported and objectively measured PA in PE and LT. Independently of gender, higher levels of intrinsic motivation were associated with increased self-reported PA. Discussion: In conflict with previous findings, girls reported a lower intrinsic motiva-tion in PA than boys. As girls simultaneously show lower self-reported and objectively measured PA, future intervention programs should focus on strengthening the more in-ternally driven behavior of girls in order to foster regular PA. Key Reference: Deci, E.L. & Ran, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behav-ior. New York: Plenum Press. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis and Monitoring of Basic Motor Competencies among Third-Graders in Luxembourg. An Assessment Tool for Teachers
Scheuer, Claude UL; Bund, Andreas UL; Herrmann, Christian

in Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science (2019), 23(3), 258-271

Basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen; MOBAK) are performance dispositions empowering children to participate in the movement culture. For the diagnosis of basic motor ... [more ▼]

Basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen; MOBAK) are performance dispositions empowering children to participate in the movement culture. For the diagnosis of basic motor competencies, a test instrument consisting of 15 test items for assessing third graders’ basic motor competencies was developed (MOBAK-LUX-3) and validated empirically. Basic motor competencies were operationalized as test items in the form of basic motor qualifications, which are cultural tools formulated as a minimum standard. Data (MOBAK-LUX-3, age, gender, migration background, weight, height, sport club membership, weekly physical activity) were collected in 2015 amongst third-graders in elementary school in Luxembourg (N = 488; 50.4% female; M age = 8.8 years, SD = .51). A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a four-factor structure (locomotion, object control, moving in water, object locomotion; CFI = .94; TLI = .92; RMSEA = .036; WRMR = 0.89). Five classes with different competence profiles were determined through latent class analysis. The MOBAK-LUX-3 test instrument satisfies test theory requirements and can be used to determinate motor competence profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailMotorische Basiskompetenzen Luxemburger Grundschüler und Grundschülerinnen - Ausgewählte Forschungsergebnisse
Scheuer, Claude UL; Bund, Andreas UL

in Luxembourg Center for Educational Testing (LUCET) (Ed.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht (2018)

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See detailForword by the Editors
Scheuer, Claude; Bund, Andreas UL; Holzweg, Martin

in Scheuer, Claude; Bund, Andreas; Holzweg, Martin (Eds.) Changes in Childhood and Adolescence: Challenges for Physical Education (2018)

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See detailDas Palux-Projekt in Luxemburg: Forschungsdesign und erste Ergebnisse einer Pilotstudie
Eckelt, Melanie UL; Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Steffgen, Georges UL et al

in Bartsch, Fabienne; Mombeck, Mona; Müller, Merle (Eds.) et al Tägliche Herausforderungen meistern - Sportlehrkräfte im Fokus (2018, October)

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See detailCurrent Challenges for Physical Education. Keynotes, Invited Symposia and Selected Contributions of the 12th FIEP European Congress
Scheuer, Claude UL; Bund, Andreas UL; Holzweg, Martin

Book published by Logos Verlag (2018)

At the 12th FIEP European Congress in Luxembourg, leading researchers and educationalists from all over Europe and beyond addressed current challenges and developments in the field of physical education ... [more ▼]

At the 12th FIEP European Congress in Luxembourg, leading researchers and educationalists from all over Europe and beyond addressed current challenges and developments in the field of physical education. The present book includes contributions from all keynote speakers, as well as from the invited symposia hosted by international umbrella organizations, such as FIEP, the International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE), the European Physical Education Association (EUPEA), the European Primary Physical Education Network (EPPEN) or the International Federation for Adapted Physical Activity (IFAPA). Furthermore, selected contributions to the parallel oral sessions and the FIEP New Leaders Program were included. All the contributions focus on the following congress key topics: • Physical Education in Early Childhood and Primary Education • Physical Education in Secondary Education • Physical Literacy • Physical Education Teacher Education • Physical Education and Physical Activity in Active School Communities • Intercultural Learning and Inclusion in Physical Education • Physical Education and New Technologies [less ▲]

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See detailPeer review for "International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching"
Bund, Andreas UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2018)

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See detailPeer review for the journal "International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching"
Bund, Andreas UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2018)

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