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See detailA Multilayer Low-Altitude Airspace Model for UAV Traffic Management
Samir Labib, Nader UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Musial, Jedrzej et al

in Samir Labib, Nader; Danoy, Grégoire; Musial, Jedrzej (Eds.) et al 9th ACM Symposium on Design and Analysis of Intelligent Vehicular Networks and Applications (DIVANet '19) (in press)

Over the recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles' (UAVs) technology developed rapidly. In turn shedding light on a wide range of potential civil and commercial applications ranging from mapping and ... [more ▼]

Over the recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles' (UAVs) technology developed rapidly. In turn shedding light on a wide range of potential civil and commercial applications ranging from mapping and surveillance, parcel delivery to more demanding ones that require UAVs to operate in heterogeneous swarms. However, with the great advantages UAVs bring, they are expected to soon dominate the shared, low-altitude airspace over populated cities, introducing multiple new research challenges in safely managing the unprecedented traffic demands. The main contribution of this work is addressing the complex problem of UAV traffic management at an abstract level by proposing a structure for the uncontrolled low-altitude airspace. The paper proposes a model of the airspace as a weighted multilayer network of nodes and airways and presents a set of experimental simulations of UAV traffic for the verification and validation of the model. Finally, the paper outlines our intended future work. [less ▲]

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See detailA GP Hyper-Heuristic Approach for Generating TSP Heuristics
Duflo, Gabriel UL; Kieffer, Emmanuel UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL et al

in 33rd IEEE International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS 2019) (2019, May 20)

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See detailTransforming Collaboration Data into Network Layers for Enhanced Analytics
Esmaeilzadeh Dilmaghani, Saharnaz UL; Piyatumrong, Apivadee; Bouvry, Pascal UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, February 25)

We consider the problem of automatically generating networks from data of collaborating researchers. The objective is to apply network analysis on the resulting network layers to reveal supplemental ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of automatically generating networks from data of collaborating researchers. The objective is to apply network analysis on the resulting network layers to reveal supplemental patterns and insights of the research collaborations. In this paper, we describe our data-to-networks method, which automatically generates a set of logical network layers from the relational input data using a linkage threshold. We, then, use a series of network metrics to analyze the impact of the linkage threshold on the individual network layers. Moreover, results from the network analysis also provide beneficial information to improve the network visualization. We demonstrate the feasibility and impact of our approach using real-world collaboration data. We discuss how the produced network layers can reveal insights and patterns to direct the data analytics more intelligently. [less ▲]

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See detailA Memory-Based Label Propagation Algorithm for Community Detection
Fiscarelli, Antonio Maria UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Complex Networks and Their Applications VII (2019)

The objective of a community detection algorithm is to group similar nodes in a network into communities, while increasing the dissimilarity between them. Several methods have been proposed but many of ... [more ▼]

The objective of a community detection algorithm is to group similar nodes in a network into communities, while increasing the dissimilarity between them. Several methods have been proposed but many of them are not suitable for large-scale networks because they have high complexity and use global knowledge. The Label Propagation Algorithm (LPA) assigns a unique label to every node and propagates the labels locally, while applying the majority rule to reach a consensus. Nodes which share the same label are then grouped into communities. Although LPA excels with near linear execution time, it gets easily stuck in local optima and often returns a single giant community. To overcome these problems we propose MemLPA, a novel LPA where each node implements memory and the decision rule takes past states of the network into account. We demonstrate through extensive experiments on the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi benchmark and a set of real-world networks that MemLPA outperforms most of state-of-the-art community detection algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailA Memory-Based Label Propagation Algorithm for Community Detection
Fiscarelli, Antonio Maria UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Aiello, Luca Maria; Cherifi, Chantal; Cherifi, Hocine (Eds.) et al Complex Networks and Their Applications VII (2018, December 02)

The objective of a community detection algorithm is to group similar nodes in a network into communities, while increasing the dis- similarity between them. Several methods have been proposed but many of ... [more ▼]

The objective of a community detection algorithm is to group similar nodes in a network into communities, while increasing the dis- similarity between them. Several methods have been proposed but many of them are not suitable for large-scale networks because they have high complexity and use global knowledge. The Label Propagation Algorithm (LPA) assigns a unique label to every node and propagates the labels locally, while applying the majority rule to reach a consensus. Nodes which share the same label are then grouped into communities. Although LPA excels with near linear execution time, it gets easily stuck in local optima and often returns a single giant community. To overcome these problems we propose MemLPA, a novel LPA where each node imple- ments memory and the decision rule takes past states of the network into account. We demonstrate through extensive experiments on the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi benchmark and a set of real-world net- works that MemLPA outperforms most of state-of-the-art community detection algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailA Standardized Broker Model in Smart Cities
Liu, Chao UL; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL et al

Poster (2018, May)

As urban residents are expected to represent more than 60 per cent of the world’s population by 2050, the current developments and interests in the “Smart City” concept are essential to enable the ... [more ▼]

As urban residents are expected to represent more than 60 per cent of the world’s population by 2050, the current developments and interests in the “Smart City” concept are essential to enable the successful transition to this new era. This paradigm relies on the integration of emerging Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud Computing, Big Data to manage assets and resources efficiently while facilitating the planning, construction, management and smart services within cities. While smart cities aim to enhance the quality, performance and interactivity of urban services at reduced cost, their realization is faced by many regulatory and technical challenges. Among these challenges, is the integration of renewable energy resources to the utility system of smart cities motivated by the increasingclimate change concerns. Adding further to its complexity, is the challenge of incorporating multiple renewable energy retailers in the same region each with their own pricing strategies due to the lack of a standardized metering indicator and billing system. These challenges create a need for an intelligent and standardized cloud-based energy broker to satisfying the end-user requests, and minimize expenses by efficiently selecting the most suitable energy retailer. In our work, a particular focus is raised towards the optimization of such energy brokering service which is motivated by the orchestration of a brokering role aiming to improve user experience and interaction with smart city services. Hence our main contribution is proposing a standardized intelligent broker model with smart trading strategies to cope with the dynamics and complexity of the energy retail market, while allocating energy resources based on endusers’ demands. This is achieved through the following steps: 1) studying a complete model of the broker service and involved parties within the exposed framework. 2) proposing a multiobjective heuristic to provide a dynamic optimization of the grid operations and resources, with full cyber-security, within the boundaries of the city. 3) analyzing the gaps among industry practices, market requirements and current technical standardization efforts at ISO/IEC JTC 1/ SC 38 (Cloud Computing and distributed platform) in order to pave the way to establishing standards in metering indicators and billing principles for cloud services this while keeping in mind privacy and data protection risks and regulations enforced by ISO JT1/SC 27 and EU General Data Protection Regulation effective May 2018. This research was conducted in collaboration with ILNAS - the Institut Luxem- bourgeois de la Normalisation, de l’Accréditation, de la Sécurité et qualité des produits et services (ILNAS) under the authority of the Minister of Economy, Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Standardised UAV Localisation and Tracking Systems in Smart Cities
Samir Labib, Nader UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

Poster (2018, May)

In the near future, more than two thirds of the world’s population is expected to be living in cities and hence, with the aim of being proactive and finding innovative and sustainable solutions ... [more ▼]

In the near future, more than two thirds of the world’s population is expected to be living in cities and hence, with the aim of being proactive and finding innovative and sustainable solutions, governments have made smart cities one of their priority areas of research. Smart cities are sustainable, inclusive and prosperous greener cities that foster enabling smart Information and Communication Technologies (smart ICT) like Internet-of-Things (IoT), cloud computing and big data to facilitate services such as mobility, governance, utility and energy management. As these services depend heavily on data collected by sensors, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have quickly become one of the promising IoT devices for smart cities thanks to their mobility, agility and customizability of onboard sensors. UAVs found use in a wide array of applications expanding beyond military to more commercial ones, ranging from monitoring, surveillance, mapping to parcel delivery and more demanding applications that require UAVs to operate in heterogeneous swarms in a shared low-altitude airspace over populated cities. However, as the number of UAVs continues to grow and as their sensing, actuation, communication and control capabilities become increasingly sophisticated, UAV deployment in smart cities is faced with a set of fundamental challenges in their safe operation and management. These challenges emphasize the need for establishing globally-harmonised regulations and internationally-agreed-upon technical standards to govern the rapid technological advancements, as well as ensure a fair economy by encouraging market competition and lowering barriers to entry for newcomers. As various Standardisation Development Organisations (SDOs) recently recognised the need, importance and potential of such regulations, most have established dedicated working groups addressing UAVs. However, most current SDO committees focus on aspects such as vehicle categorisation, specifications and operational procedures, but one usually overlooked elementary topic is UAV localisation. Due to its importance and close relation to other technical subsystems, the lack of a resilient, scalable and efficient standardised UAV localisation and tracking system is one of the main obstructing barriers hindering the integration and interoperability of UAV swarms in smart cities and hence impeding the realisation of their vast application benefits. In this work, we focus on studying the fundamental technical requirements, specifications and functions of such UAV localisation and tracking system, and explore its relationship to and importance in 1) optimising path planning, flight scheduling and utilising shared airspace, 2) collision avoidance and conflict resolution in highly populated residential areas and 3) addressing privacy and data protection concerns that could arise from UAV monitoring and surveillance applications. Furthermore, for each of the three aspects, we analyse current SDOs efforts such as those put forth by EASA, EUCARE WG73 and ISO TC20/SC16 on UAV systems, ISO JTC1/SC41 on IoT and related technologies and ISO JTC1/SC27, EU Directive 95/46 EC and GDPR on security, privacy and data protection, in order to identify and prioritise future research questions in relation to UAV localisation, aiming to make a contribution towards narrowing the gap between research and existing technical standards by encouraging multimode standardisation. This research was conducted in collaboration with ILNAS - the Institut Luxembourgeois de la Normalisation, de l’Accréditation, de la Sécurité et qualité des produits et services (ILNAS) under the authority of the Minister of Economy, Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailLightweight Key Agreement for Wireless Sensor Networks
Mesit, Jaruwan; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C) (2018)

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See detailDetecting Target-Area Link-Flooding DDoS Attacks using Traffic Analysis and Supervised Learning
Rezazad, Mostafa; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Akbari, Mohammad et al

in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (2018)

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See detailA Game Theoretic Analysis of the Twitter Follow-Unfollow Mechanism
Chen, Jundong; Hossain, Md Shafaeat; Brust, Matthias R. UL et al

in International Conference on Decision and Game Theory for Security (2018)

Twitter users often crave more followers to increase their social popularity. While a variety of factors have been shown to attract the followers, very little work has been done to analyze the mechanism ... [more ▼]

Twitter users often crave more followers to increase their social popularity. While a variety of factors have been shown to attract the followers, very little work has been done to analyze the mechanism how Twitter users follow or unfollow each other. In this paper, we apply game theory to modeling the follow-unfollow mechanism on Twitter. We first present a two-player game which is based on the Prisoner’s Dilemma, and subsequently evaluate the payoffs when the two players adopt different strategies. To allow two players to play multiple rounds of the game, we propose a multi-stage game model. We design a Twitter bot analyzer which follows or unfollows other Twitter users by adopting the strategies from the multi-stage game. We develop an algorithm which enables the Twitter bot analyzer to automatically collect and analyze the data. The results from analyzing the data collected in our experiment show that the follow-back ratios for both of the Twitter bots are very low, which are 0.76% and 0.86%. This means that most of the Twitter users do not cooperate and only want to be followed instead of following others. Our results also exhibit the effect of different strategies on the follow-back followers and on the non-following followers as well. [less ▲]

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See detailCoverage optimization with connectivity preservation for UAV swarms applying chaotic dynamics
Rosalie, Martin UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Autonomic Computing (ICAC), Columbus 17-21 July 2017 (2017, August 11)

Cooperative usage of multiple UAVs as a swarm can deliver high-quality surveillance performance. However, the communication capabilities within the UAV swarm must be maintained for local data propagation ... [more ▼]

Cooperative usage of multiple UAVs as a swarm can deliver high-quality surveillance performance. However, the communication capabilities within the UAV swarm must be maintained for local data propagation to swarm members in favor of achieving an efficient global behavior. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing two adversary criteria for such a UAV swarm: (a) maximizing the area coverage, while (b) preserving network connectivity. Our approach, called CACOC², solves the problem with a novel chaotic ant colony optimization approach, which combines an Ant Colony Optimization approach (ACO) with a chaotic dynamical system. CACOC² employs swarming behavior to obtain UAV clustering that result in maximized area coverage and preserved network connectivity. We show by extensive simulations how the size of the UAV swarm influences the coverage and connectivity. A metrics comparison chart shows the correlation of coverage and connectivity metrics. [less ▲]

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See detailTarget Tracking Optimization of UAV Swarms Based on Dual-Pheromone Clustering
Brust, Matthias R. UL; Zurad, Maciej UL; Hentges, Laurent Philippe UL et al

in CYBCONF 2017-12-13 09:39:53 +0000 2017-12-13 09:39:53 +0000 (2017)

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See detailDefending Against Intrusion of Malicious UAVs with Networked UAV Defense Swarms
Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL et al

in 42nd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (2017)

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See detailThe Privacy Exposure Problem in Mobile Location-Based Services
Wu, Fang-Jing; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Chen, Yiwen UL et al

in 2016 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (2016)

Mobile location-based services (LBSs) empowered by mobile crowdsourcing provide users with context- aware intelligent services based on user locations. As smartphones are capable of collecting and ... [more ▼]

Mobile location-based services (LBSs) empowered by mobile crowdsourcing provide users with context- aware intelligent services based on user locations. As smartphones are capable of collecting and disseminating massive user location-embedded sensing information, privacy preservation for mobile users has become a crucial issue. This paper proposes a metric called privacy exposure to quantify the notion of privacy, which is subjective and qualitative in nature, in order to support mobile LBSs to evaluate the effectiveness of privacy-preserving solutions. This metric incorporates activity coverage and activity uniformity to address two primary privacy threats, namely activity hotspot disclosure and activity transition disclosure. In addition, we propose an algorithm to minimize privacy exposure for mobile LBSs. We evaluate the proposed metric and the privacy-preserving sensing algorithm via extensive simulations. Moreover, we have also implemented the algorithm in an Android-based mobile system and conducted real-world experiments. Both our simulations and experimental results demonstrate that (1) the proposed metric can properly quantify the privacy exposure level of human activities in the spatial domain and (2) the proposed algorithm can effectively cloak users' activity hotspots and transitions at both high and low user-mobility levels. [less ▲]

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See detailVBCA: A Virtual Forces Clustering Algorithm for Autonomous Aerial Drone Systems
Brust, Matthias R. UL; Akbas, M. Ilhan; Turgut, Damla

in 2016 Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon) (2016)

We consider the positioning problem of aerial drone systems for efficient three-dimensional (3-D) coverage. Our solution draws from molecular geometry, where forces among electron pairs surrounding a ... [more ▼]

We consider the positioning problem of aerial drone systems for efficient three-dimensional (3-D) coverage. Our solution draws from molecular geometry, where forces among electron pairs surrounding a central atom arrange their positions. In this paper, we propose a 3-D clustering algorithm for autonomous positioning (VBCA) of aerial drone networks based on virtual forces. These virtual forces induce interactions among drones and structure the system topology. The advantages of our approach are that (1) virtual forces enable drones to self-organize the positioning process and (2) VBCA can be implemented entirely localized. Extensive simulations show that our virtual forces clustering approach produces scalable 3-D topologies exhibiting near-optimal volume coverage. VBCA triggers efficient topology rearrangement for an altering number of nodes, while providing network connectivity to the central drone. We also draw a comparison of volume coverage achieved by VBCA against existing approaches and find VBCA up to 40% more efficient. [less ▲]

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See detailConnectivity Stability in Autonomous Multi-level UAV Swarms for Wide Area Monitoring
Danoy, Grégoire UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proceedings of the Fifth ACM International Symposium on Development and Analysis of Intelligent Vehicular Networks and Applications (2015)

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See detailTopology control and small-worlds in hybrid wireless networks
Brust, Matthias R. UL

Doctoral thesis (2007)

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See detailA taxonomic Approach to Topology Control in Ad-hoc and Wireless Networks
Brust, Matthias R. UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Networking, ICN 2007 (2007)

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See detailWACA: A Hierarchical Weighted Clustering Algorithm optimized for Mobile Hybrid Networks
Brust, Matthias R. UL; Andronache, Adrian UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in Proceedings The Third International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Communications (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (2 UL)