References of "Billieux, Joël 50025974"
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See detailProblematic Gaming Behaviour in Finnish Adolescents and Young Adults: Relation to Game Genres, Gaming Motives and Self-Awareness of Problematic Use
Männikkö, N.; Billieux, Joël UL; Nordström, T. et al

in International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (in press)

The aim of this study was to explore the relation between Problematic Gaming Behaviour (PGB) and specific psychological factors (gaming motives, self-awareness of problematic gaming behaviour) and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to explore the relation between Problematic Gaming Behaviour (PGB) and specific psychological factors (gaming motives, self-awareness of problematic gaming behaviour) and structural factors (game genres) among Finnish adolescents and young adults. A national survey of 271 respondents, aged 13 to 24, participated in the study. The study sample was randomly selected from the Population Register Center. Multiple regression analysis was used as a means of examining links between game genres, gaming motives and PGB. In addition, pairwise comparisons of a non-problematic gaming behavior group and a problematic gaming behavior group were used as a means of examining differences across game genre use and self-awareness of PGB. PGB was particularly associated with the use of a group of games encompassing role-playing, progression (e.g., character development), action and strategy features. The findings indicated that entertainment-achievement, social and escapism motives were associated with PGB. On the whole, this study emphasized that specific game genres and playing motives are involved in problematic use of digital game playing. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York [less ▲]

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See detailA multifactorial and integrative approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology: Insights from the UPPS model of impulsivity
Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL; Gagnon, Jean et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (in press)

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong ... [more ▼]

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). This model considers impulsivity as a multidimensional construct that includes four facets: urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. Furthermore, we discuss the psychological mechanisms underlying the dimensions of impulsivity, as well as the laboratory tasks designed to assess each mechanism and their neural bases. We then present a scale specifically designed to assess these four dimensions of impulsivity in patients with brain damage and examine the data regarding this multidimensional approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology. This review supports the need to adopt a multifactorial and integrative approach toward impulsive behaviors, and the model presented provides a valuable rationale to disentangle the nature of brain systems and mechanisms underlying impulsive behaviors in patients with brain damage. It may also foster further relevant research in the field of impulsivity and improve assessment and rehabilitation of impulsive behaviors in clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailAttentional Impairments in Huntington’s Disease: A Specific Deficit for the Executive Conflict
Maurage, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Lahaye, Magali et al

in Neuropsychology (in press)

Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments including memory, executive, and attentional functions. However, because earlier studies relied on multidetermined ... [more ▼]

Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments including memory, executive, and attentional functions. However, because earlier studies relied on multidetermined attentional tasks, uncertainty still abounds regarding the differential deficit across attentional subcomponents. Likewise, the evolution of these deficits during the successive stages of HD remains unclear. The present study simultaneously explored 3 distinct networks of attention (alerting, orienting, executive conflict) in preclinical and clinical HD. Method: Thirty-eight HD patients (18 preclinical) and 38 matched healthy controls completed the attention network test, an integrated and theoretically grounded task assessing the integrity of 3 attentional networks. Results: Preclinical HD was not characterized by any attentional deficit compared to controls. Conversely, clinical HD was associated with a differential deficit across the 3 attentional networks under investigation, showing preserved performance for alerting and orienting networks but massive and specific impairment for the executive conflict network. This indexes an impaired use of executive control to resolve the conflict between task-relevant stimuli and interfering task-irrelevant ones. Conclusion: Clinical HD does not lead to a global attentional deficit but rather to a specific impairment for the executive control of attention. Moreover, the absence of attentional deficits in preclinical HD suggests that these deficits are absent at the initial stages of the disease. In view of their impact on everyday life, attentional deficits should be considered in clinical contexts. Therapeutic programs improving the executive control of attention by neuropsychology and neuromodulation should be promoted. [less ▲]

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See detailHow can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel; Heeren, Alexandre; Schimmenti, Adriano et al

in Addiction (in press)

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and ... [more ▼]

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework. [less ▲]

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See detailDo executive functions predict binge-drinking patterns? Evidence from a longitudinal study in young adulthood
Bø, Ragnhild; Billieux, Joël UL; Gjerde, Line C. et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (in press)

Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is ... [more ▼]

Background: Impairments in executive functions (EFs) are related to binge drinking in young adulthood, but research on how EFs influence future binge drinking is lacking. The aim of the current report is therefore to investigate the association between various EFs and later severity of, and change in, binge drinking over a prolonged period during young adulthood. Methods: At baseline, 121 students reported on their alcohol habits (the Alcohol use disorder identification test; Alcohol use questionnaire). Concurrently, EFs (working memory, reversal, set-shifting, response inhibition, response monitoring and decision-making (with ambiguity and implicit risk)) were assessed. Eighteen months later, information on alcohol habits for 103 of the participants were gathered. Data were analyzed by means of multilevel regression modeling. Results: Future severity of binge drinking was uniquely predicted by performance on the Information sampling task, assessing risky decision-making (β = -1.86, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.04). None of the study variables predicted severity or change in binge drinking. Conclusion: Future severity of binge was associated with making risky decisions in the prospect for gain, suggesting reward hypersensitivity. Future studies should aim at clarifying whether there is a causal association between decision-making style and binge drinking. Performance on all executive tasks was unrelated to change in binge drinking patterns; however, the finding was limited by overall small changes, and needs to be confirmed with longer follow-up periods. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnological addictions: Conceptualisation, measurement, etiology and treatment.
Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Addictive behaviors (2017), 64

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See detailShoot at First Sight! First Person Shooter Players Display Reduced Reaction Time and Compromised Inhibitory Control in Comparison to Other Video Game PlayersOriginal
Deleuze, Jory; Christiaens, Maxime; Nuyens, Filip et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 72

Studies have shown that regular video games use might improve cognitive and social skills. In contrast, other studies have documented the negative outcomes of excessive gaming vis-à-vis health and ... [more ▼]

Studies have shown that regular video games use might improve cognitive and social skills. In contrast, other studies have documented the negative outcomes of excessive gaming vis-à-vis health and socioprofessional spheres. Both positive and negative outcomes of video game use were linked to their structural characteristics (i.e., features that make the game appealing or are inducements for all gamers to keep playing regularly). The current study tested whether active video gamers from main genres (massively multiplayer online role-playing games, online first person shooter, multiplayer online battle arena) differed in a laboratory task that measured inhibitory control. Eighty-one gamers performed the Hybrid-Stop Task, assessing restraint (go/no-go trials) and cancellation (stop-signal trials) processes of a prepotent response. They completed additional self-reported questionnaires measuring demographics, problematic video game use, impulsivity traits, and depressive symptoms. Results showed that when confounding variables were controlled for, participants whose favorite game is online first person shooter were characterized by accelerated motor responses yet reduced abilities to cancel a prepotent response. No differences between groups were identified regarding the restraint process. The findings of this pilot study might have clear implications for video gaming research by supporting the critical importance of distinguishing between video game genres when considering their specific potential benefits and detrimental effects [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic cybersex: Conceptualization, assessment, and treatment.
Wery, A.; Billieux, Joël UL

in Addictive Behaviors (2017), 64

Problematic involvement in cybersex is generally considered to be an excessive and uncontrolled use of online sexual activities associated with tangible negative outcomes and functional impairment. To ... [more ▼]

Problematic involvement in cybersex is generally considered to be an excessive and uncontrolled use of online sexual activities associated with tangible negative outcomes and functional impairment. To date, there is no consensus in the literature regarding the conceptualization and labeling of this disorder, or of its diagnosis and assessment (e.g., screening questionnaires and diagnostic criteria). Through a systematic examination of the literature, we emphasize that problematic cybersex is an umbrella construct that regroups various types of distinct dysfunctional online behaviors. Despite a considerable increase in studies on problematic cybersex, no clear diagnostic guidelines exist for clinicians and researchers. Moreover, the factors involved in the development and maintenance of the disorder remain poorly examined, and the evidence regarding valid assessment and treatment are lacking. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes the construct of Internet addiction reflect a single entity or a spectrum of disorders?
Starcevic, Vladan; Billieux, Joël UL

in Clinical Neuropsychiatry (2017), 14(1), 5-10

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See detailAlcohol-cue exposure decreases response inhibition towards alcohol-related stimuli in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.
Kreusch, Fanny; Billieux, Joël UL; Quertemont, Etienne

in Psychiatry research (2017), 249

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol ... [more ▼]

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol relapse. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the induction of a craving state, using an alcohol cue exposure paradigm, influences response inhibition towards both neutral stimuli and alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were exposed to either their preferred alcoholic beverage or to a glass of water. They then performed a modified stop signal task, which used alcohol-related words, neutral words and non-words, and a lexical decision as the Go response. The alcohol-cue exposure group reported significantly higher alcohol craving and showed higher percentages of commission errors towards alcohol-related words than the control group. All participants, but especially those of the alcohol-cue exposure group, showed also shorter reaction times when alcohol words were used as targets in go trials. The induction of alcohol craving in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients increases the motivational salience value of alcohol stimuli, leading them to automatically approach alcohol-related cues and therefore impairing response inhibition towards those stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailTraumatic experiences, alexithymia, and Internet addiction symptoms among late adolescents: A moderated mediation analysis.
Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Caretti, Vincenzo et al

in Addictive behaviors (2017), 64

The association between traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and substance abuse is well established. Less is known about the role of traumatic experiences and alexithymia in the onset and maintenance of ... [more ▼]

The association between traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and substance abuse is well established. Less is known about the role of traumatic experiences and alexithymia in the onset and maintenance of Internet-related disorders. In the present study, self-report measures on traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and problematic Internet use were administered to 358 high school students (57% females) aged 18-19years old, to test whether alexithymic traits mediated the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, and whether gender moderated the proposed mediation in the sample. While partial mediation occurred in the entire sample, gender directly affected the relationship between the investigated constructs: Internet addiction symptoms were independently related to traumatic experiences among males, and to alexithymic traits among females. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that trauma memories among males, and problems with affect regulation among females, may increase the risk of problematic Internet use during late adolescence. Such findings might have relevant implications to inform any treatment plan for late adolescent students who are overinvolved with online activities, pointing out that tailored approaches to their problems and difficulties are particularly needed in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation and validation of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial (GMQ-F) in a sample of French-speaking gamblers
Devos, G.; Challet-Bouju, G.; Burnay, J. et al

in International Gambling Studies (2017), 17(1), 87-101

Previous research has identified specific gambling motives and linked them with both healthy and disordered gambling. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) is currently the most widely used measure for ... [more ▼]

Previous research has identified specific gambling motives and linked them with both healthy and disordered gambling. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) is currently the most widely used measure for these motives. The present study aimed to offer a French validation of the latest version of this scale, the GMQ-Financial (GMQ-F), which measures four distinct motives (enhancement, social, coping, financial). The French GMQ-F was completed by 278 gamblers from the community and 22 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, along with scales assessing gambling cognitions, impulsivity, disordered gambling symptoms and psychopathological symptoms. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the expected four-factor model. The GMQ-F subscales have good internal reliability. Validity of the GMQ-F is supported by specific correlations with the other constructs measured. Pathological gamblers differed from gamblers from the community on all but one (social) of the GMQ-F subscales. The French GMQ-F presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a reliable instrument for measuring gambling motives in research and clinical practice. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group [less ▲]

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See detailImpulsivity traits and gambling cognitions associated with gambling preferences and clinical status
Navas, J. F.; Billieux, Joël UL; Perandrés-Gómez, A. et al

in International Gambling Studies (2017), 17(1), 102-124

Impulsivity (and related traits reward/punishment sensitivity and tolerance to delayed rewards) and gambling cognitions have been linked to gambling. However, their independent associations with gambling ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity (and related traits reward/punishment sensitivity and tolerance to delayed rewards) and gambling cognitions have been linked to gambling. However, their independent associations with gambling preferences and clinical status have never been dissociated. The current study applied a data-driven strategy to identify gambling preferences, based on gambling frequency in several modalities. The two resulting factors were used to classify gambling disorder patients (GDPs) and non-problem recreational gamblers (RGs) into Type I (preferring cards, casino games and skill-based bets) and Type II (preferring slot machines, lotteries/pools and bingo). Participants were assessed in impulsivity, delay discounting, reward/punishment sensitivity, gambling-related cognitions, gambling severity, gambling frequency and average amount gambled per episode. GDPs scored higher than RGs in positive and negative urgency, delay discounting, reward sensitivity and intensity of gambling-related cognitions, but less in lack of perseverance. Additionally, Type II gamblers had greater difficulties delaying gratification, whereas Type I gamblers showed higher cognitive distortion and reward sensitivity levels. In practical terms, the finding that some characteristics are equally pervasive in disordered gamblers independently of their preferences (affect-driven impulsivity), whereas others (distorted cognitions, reward sensitivity, delay discounting) are more prominent in one type or the other, provides a basis to establish targets’ priority in therapy. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of transcranial direct current stimulation on attentional bias for threat: a proof-of-concept study among individuals with social anxiety disorder.
Heeren, Alexandre; Billieux, Joël UL; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Social cognitive and affective neuroscience (2017), 21

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with and maintained by attentional bias (AB) for social threat. However, over the last years, it has been suggested that AB in SAD ... [more ▼]

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with and maintained by attentional bias (AB) for social threat. However, over the last years, it has been suggested that AB in SAD may result from a decreased activation of the left prefrontal cortex, and particularly of its dorsolateral part (dlPFC). Accordingly, a transient increase of neural activity within the left dlPFC via non-invasive brain stimulation decreases AB in non-anxious control participants. Yet, none of these studies focused on SAD. This is especially unfortunate as SAD constitutes the main target for which a genuine reduction of AB may be most appropriate. In this experiment, we sought to investigate the causal influence of left dlPFC neuromodulation on AB among 19 female individuals with a DSM-5 diagnosis of SAD. We adopted a double-blind within-subject protocol in which we delivered a single-session of anodal versus sham transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the left dlPFC during the completion of a probe discrimination task assessing AB. Consistent with our hypothesis, participants demonstrated a significant decrease in AB during the anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC relative to the sham stimulation. These findings value tDCS as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential impairments across attentional networks in binge drinking.
Lannoy, Severine; Heeren, Alexandre; Moyaerts, Nathalie et al

in Psychopharmacology (2017), 234

RATIONALE: The cognitive deficits observed in young binge drinkers have been largely documented during the last decade. Yet, these earlier studies have mainly focused on high-level cognitive abilities ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: The cognitive deficits observed in young binge drinkers have been largely documented during the last decade. Yet, these earlier studies have mainly focused on high-level cognitive abilities (particularly memory and executive functions), and uncertainty thus still abounds regarding the integrity of less complex cognitive processes in binge drinking. This is particularly true for attentional abilities, which play a crucial role in behavior regulation and are impaired in other alcohol-related disorders. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To specify the attentional deficits associated with binge drinking, two groups of university students (40 binge drinkers and 40 matched controls) performed the Attention Network Task, a theoretically grounded test assessing three independent attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive control. RESULTS: Binge drinkers displayed preserved orienting performance but impaired alerting and executive control. Binge drinking is thus not related to a general attentional impairment but rather to specific impairments of the alerting and executive control networks. CONCLUSIONS: These results underline that, beyond the already explored high-level deficits, binge drinking is also related to impairments for attentional abilities. In view of the role played by attentional impairments in alcohol dependence, the present data also suggest that rehabilitation programs should be developed to improve attentional abilities at the early stages of alcohol-related disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelates of social exclusion in social anxiety Disorder: An fMRI study
Heeren, Alexandre; Dricot, Laurence; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased informationprocessing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature ... [more ▼]

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased informationprocessing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the selfreport and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game (“Cyberball”) during fMRI recording. Participants were frst included by other players, then excluded, and fnally re-included. At the behavioral level, patients with SAD exhibited signifcantly higher levels of social exclusion feelings than nonanxious controls. At the brain level, patients with SAD exhibited signifcantly higher activation within the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to nonanxious controls during the re-inclusion phase. Moreover, self-report of social exclusion correlates with the activity of this cluster among individuals qualifying for SAD diagnosis. Our pattern of fndings lends strong support to the notion that SAD may be better portrayed by a poor ability to recover following social exclusion than during social exclusion per se. These fndings value social neuroscience as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD. [less ▲]

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See detailBinging at the campus: motivations and impulsivity influence binge drinking profiles in university students
Lannoy, Séverine; Billieux, Joël UL; Poncin, Marie et al

in Psychiatry Research (2017), 250

This study explored the involvement of two key psychological factors, drinking motives and impulsivity traits, in binge drinking. On the basis of a large screening phase (N=4424), 867 binge drinkers were ... [more ▼]

This study explored the involvement of two key psychological factors, drinking motives and impulsivity traits, in binge drinking. On the basis of a large screening phase (N=4424), 867 binge drinkers were selected and were first compared with 924 non-binge drinkers. Then, a cluster analysis was performed, focusing on the binge drinker sample, to explore the respective involvement of four drinking motives (DMQ-R model) and four impulsivity facets (UPPS model) in this habit. Centrally, the cluster analysis identified three clusters of binge drinkers presenting distinct psychological characteristics and alcohol consumption patterns: emotional, recreational, and hazardous binge drinkers. Hazardous binge drinkers were characterized by strong drinking motives but moderate impulsivity. Binge drinking should thus no more be considered as a unitary drinking pattern but rather as a habit encompassing a variety of psychological profiles. Moreover, risky drinking habits in young people might be mainly related to disproportionate drinking motives. Future studies should thus consider binge drinking heterogeneity, and prevention programs focusing on drinking motivations should be developed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe benefits of using the UPPS model of impulsivity rather than the Big Five when assessing the relationship between personality and problem gambling.
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(2), 372-373

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See detailInternet Gaming Disorder as a formative construct: Implications for conceptualization and measurement.
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Van Looy, Jan; Billieux, Joël UL

in Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences (2016)

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various ... [more ▼]

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various studies aim to validate the proposed diagnostic criteria for IGD and multiple new scales have been introduced that cover the suggested criteria. Using a structured approach, we demonstrate that IGD might be better interpreted as a formative construct, as opposed to the current practice of conceptualizing it as a reflective construct. Incorrectly approaching a formative construct as a reflective one causes serious problems in scale development, including: (i) incorrect reliance on item-to-total scale correlation to exclude items and incorrectly relying on indices of inter-item reliability that do not fit the measurement model (e.g., Cronbach's alpha); (ii) incorrect interpretation of composite or mean scores that assume all items are equal in contributing value to a sum score; and (iii) biased estimation of model parameters in statistical models. We show that these issues are impacting current validation efforts through two recent examples. A reinterpretation of IGD as a formative construct has broad consequences for current validation efforts and provides opportunities to reanalyze existing data. We discuss three broad implications for current research: (i) composite latent constructs should be defined and used in models; (ii) item exclusion and selection should not rely on item-to-total scale correlations; and (iii) existing definitions of IGD should be enriched further. [less ▲]

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See detailAddiction à Internet – Le cas des jeux vidéo en ligne (chapitre 120)
Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe et al

in Reynaud, M.; Karila, L.; Aubin, H.-A. (Eds.) et al Traité d’Addictologie (2ème édition) (2016)

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