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See detailFunctional impairment matters in the screening and diagnosis of gaming disorder
Billieux, Joël UL; King, Daniel Luke; Higuchi, Susumu et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (in press)

This commentary responds to Aarseth et al.’s (in press) criticisms that the ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal would result in “moral panics around the harm of video gaming” and “the treatment of abundant ... [more ▼]

This commentary responds to Aarseth et al.’s (in press) criticisms that the ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal would result in “moral panics around the harm of video gaming” and “the treatment of abundant false-positive cases.” The ICD-11 Gaming Disorder avoids potential “overpathologizing” with its explicit reference to functional impairment caused by gaming and therefore improves upon a number of flawed previous approaches to identifying cases with suspected gaming-related harms. We contend that moral panics are more likely to occur and be exacerbated by misinformation and lack of understanding, rather than proceed from having a clear diagnostic system [less ▲]

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See detailA multifactorial and integrative approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology: Insights from the UPPS model of impulsivity
Rochat, Lucien; Billieux, Joël UL; Gagnon, Jean et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (in press)

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong ... [more ▼]

Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). This model considers impulsivity as a multidimensional construct that includes four facets: urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. Furthermore, we discuss the psychological mechanisms underlying the dimensions of impulsivity, as well as the laboratory tasks designed to assess each mechanism and their neural bases. We then present a scale specifically designed to assess these four dimensions of impulsivity in patients with brain damage and examine the data regarding this multidimensional approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology. This review supports the need to adopt a multifactorial and integrative approach toward impulsive behaviors, and the model presented provides a valuable rationale to disentangle the nature of brain systems and mechanisms underlying impulsive behaviors in patients with brain damage. It may also foster further relevant research in the field of impulsivity and improve assessment and rehabilitation of impulsive behaviors in clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring gambling craving through the elaborated intrusion theory of desire: a mixed methods approach
Cornil, Aurélien; Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Devos, Gaëtan et al

in International Gambling Studies (in press)

Gambling disorder is a well-established behavioural addiction, which was classified with substance-related disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ... [more ▼]

Gambling disorder is a well-established behavioural addiction, which was classified with substance-related disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Although craving was introduced as a new diagnostic criterion for substance-related disorders, it was not included for gambling disorder. This study aimed to explore the experience of gambling craving and to evaluate whether the elaborated intrusion theory of desire (EIT), a cognitive model of craving, fits gambling craving. A mixed methods study was conducted among 31 non-clinical gamblers. The qualitative part consisted of open-ended questions targeting the components of the EIT. The quantitative part consisted of a questionnaire designed to assess triggers and descriptions of gambling craving. Qualitative analysis revealed six distinct conceptual categories related to gambling craving: positive and negative affect, external cues, mental imageries, thoughts and physiological sensations. The quantitative analysis highlighted the most relevant triggers (e.g. spontaneous thoughts) and experiential characteristics (e.g. visual imagery) of gambling craving. The present study allowed the authors to support the relevance of the EIT as it applies to gambling craving by disentangling its core features. Findings from this study suggest that the use of interventions derived from the EIT may be relevant for problem gambling treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a Qualitative Understanding of Binge-Watching Behaviors: A Focus Group Approach
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Billieux, Joël UL

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (in press)

Background and aims: Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors ... [more ▼]

Background and aims: Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. The present study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching. Methods: A focus group of regular TV series viewers (N=7) was established to explore a wide range of aspects related to TV series watching (e.g., motives, viewing practices, related behaviors). Results: A content analysis identified bingewatching features across three dimensions: TV series watching motivations, TV series watching engagement, and structural characteristics of TV shows. Most participants acknowledged that TV series watching can become addictive, but they all agreed having trouble recognizing themselves as truly being an “addict.” Although obvious connections could be established with substance addiction criteria and symptoms, such parallelism appeared to be insufficient, as several distinctive facets emerged (e.g., positive view, transient overinvolvement, context dependency, low everyday life impact). Discussion and conclusions: Research should go beyond the classic biomedical and psychological models of addictive behaviors to account for binge-watching in order to explore its specificities and generate first steps toward an adequate theoretical rationale for these emerging problematic behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailHow can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel; Heeren, Alexandre; Schimmenti, Adriano et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1709-1715

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and ... [more ▼]

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet Gaming Disorder as a formative construct: Implications for conceptualization and measurement.
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Van Looy, Jan; Billieux, Joël UL

in Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences (2017), 71(7), 445-458

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various ... [more ▼]

Some people have serious problems controlling their Internet and video game use. The DSM-5 now includes a proposal for 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a condition in need of further study. Various studies aim to validate the proposed diagnostic criteria for IGD and multiple new scales have been introduced that cover the suggested criteria. Using a structured approach, we demonstrate that IGD might be better interpreted as a formative construct, as opposed to the current practice of conceptualizing it as a reflective construct. Incorrectly approaching a formative construct as a reflective one causes serious problems in scale development, including: (i) incorrect reliance on item-to-total scale correlation to exclude items and incorrectly relying on indices of inter-item reliability that do not fit the measurement model (e.g., Cronbach's alpha); (ii) incorrect interpretation of composite or mean scores that assume all items are equal in contributing value to a sum score; and (iii) biased estimation of model parameters in statistical models. We show that these issues are impacting current validation efforts through two recent examples. A reinterpretation of IGD as a formative construct has broad consequences for current validation efforts and provides opportunities to reanalyze existing data. We discuss three broad implications for current research: (i) composite latent constructs should be defined and used in models; (ii) item exclusion and selection should not rely on item-to-total scale correlations; and (iii) existing definitions of IGD should be enriched further. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in binge drinking: impaired error-related but preserved feedback processing
Lannoy, Severine; D'Hondt, Fabien; Dormal, Valérie et al

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2017), 128

Objective: Performance monitoring, which allows efficient behavioral regulation using either internal (error processing) or external (feedback processing) cues, has not yet been explored in binge drinking ... [more ▼]

Objective: Performance monitoring, which allows efficient behavioral regulation using either internal (error processing) or external (feedback processing) cues, has not yet been explored in binge drinking despite its adaptive importance in everyday life, particularly in the regulation of alcohol consumption. Capitalizing on a theoretical model of risky behaviors, the present study aimed at determining the behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of the cognitive (inhibition) and motivational (reward sensitivity) systems during performance monitoring. Methods: Event-related potentials were recorded from 20 binge drinkers and 20 nonbinge drinkers during two experimental tasks, a speeded Go/No-Go Task [investigating internal error processing by Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe)] and a Balloon Analogue Risk Task [investigating external feedback processing by Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and P3]. Results: While no group differences were observed at the behavioral level, electrophysiological results showed that binge drinkers, despite having intact feedback-related components, presented modified error-monitoring components (i.e. larger ERN amplitude, delayed Pe latency). Conclusions: Internal performance monitoring is impaired in binge drinkers, showing an abnormal automatic processing of response errors (ERN) and a decreased processing of their motivational significance (Pe). Significance: These results suggest that the electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control allow identifying the specific binge drinking consumption pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailShoot at First Sight! First Person Shooter Players Display Reduced Reaction Time and Compromised Inhibitory Control in Comparison to Other Video Game Players
Deleuze, Jory; Christiaens, Maxime; Nuyens, Filip et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 72

Studies have shown that regular video games use might improve cognitive and social skills. In contrast, other studies have documented the negative outcomes of excessive gaming vis-à-vis health and ... [more ▼]

Studies have shown that regular video games use might improve cognitive and social skills. In contrast, other studies have documented the negative outcomes of excessive gaming vis-à-vis health and socioprofessional spheres. Both positive and negative outcomes of video game use were linked to their structural characteristics (i.e., features that make the game appealing or are inducements for all gamers to keep playing regularly). The current study tested whether active video gamers from main genres (massively multiplayer online role-playing games, online first person shooter, multiplayer online battle arena) differed in a laboratory task that measured inhibitory control. Eighty-one gamers performed the Hybrid-Stop Task, assessing restraint (go/no-go trials) and cancellation (stop-signal trials) processes of a prepotent response. They completed additional self-reported questionnaires measuring demographics, problematic video game use, impulsivity traits, and depressive symptoms. Results showed that when confounding variables were controlled for, participants whose favorite game is online first person shooter were characterized by accelerated motor responses yet reduced abilities to cancel a prepotent response. No differences between groups were identified regarding the restraint process. The findings of this pilot study might have clear implications for video gaming research by supporting the critical importance of distinguishing between video game genres when considering their specific potential benefits and detrimental effects [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelates of social exclusion in social anxiety Disorder: An fMRI study
Heeren, Alexandre; Dricot, Laurence; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased informationprocessing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature ... [more ▼]

Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased informationprocessing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the selfreport and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game (“Cyberball”) during fMRI recording. Participants were frst included by other players, then excluded, and fnally re-included. At the behavioral level, patients with SAD exhibited signifcantly higher levels of social exclusion feelings than nonanxious controls. At the brain level, patients with SAD exhibited signifcantly higher activation within the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to nonanxious controls during the re-inclusion phase. Moreover, self-report of social exclusion correlates with the activity of this cluster among individuals qualifying for SAD diagnosis. Our pattern of fndings lends strong support to the notion that SAD may be better portrayed by a poor ability to recover following social exclusion than during social exclusion per se. These fndings value social neuroscience as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic smartphone use and its relation with anxiety and depression: a survey in a large sample of undergraduates
Liu, Yueheng; Long, Jiang; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Chinese Journal of Psychiatry (2017), 50(4), 270-275

[Objective] To investigate the differences of socio-demographics and smartphone use features among Chinese college students between problematic smartphone user (PSU) and non-PSU, and to clarify the link ... [more ▼]

[Objective] To investigate the differences of socio-demographics and smartphone use features among Chinese college students between problematic smartphone user (PSU) and non-PSU, and to clarify the link between PSU and psychopathological symptoms (anxiety and depression). [Methods] A total of 1 205 undergraduates from 35 classes of 8 universities or colleges, stratified with different school levels, were selected using the cluster random sampling strategy. The Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire (PCPUQ) was used to identify problematic use of smartphone use, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. [Results] The prevalence of PSU among undergraduates was estimated to be 20.6% (207/1 006). There were significant differences between PSU and non-PSU on their major of either science category or humanities category (χ2=11.424 ,P<0.01), grade (χ2=5.868 ,P<0.05), monthly living expense supported by their family (χ2=12.713 ,P<0.01), daily time spent on their smartphones (χ2=20.052, P<0.01), frequency of changing the mobile phones (χ2=14.511 ,P<0.01) and monthly smartphone bill (χ2=13.107, P< 0.01). Furthermore, the self rated anxiety (34.8% (72/207) vs. 14.6% (117/799),χ2=43.704, P<0.01) and depression (36.2%(75/207) vs. 15.4%(123/799), χ2=45.159,P<0.01) were both found more elevated in PSU than non-PSU. [Conclusion] Some common sociodemographic variables and smartphone usage patterns were identified in undergraduates displaying PSU. Moreover, PSU is associated with more elevated anxiety and depression symptoms. Problematic smartphone use and its relation with anxiety and depression: a survey in a large sample of undergraduates (Article in Chinese). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318762637_Problematic_smartphone_use_and_its_relation_with_anxiety_and_depression_a_survey_in_a_large_sample_of_undergraduates_Article_in_Chinese [accessed Aug 2, 2017]. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey.
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J.; Romo, Lucia et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2017), 6(2), 168-177

Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of ... [more ▼]

Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18-29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage. [less ▲]

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See detailUrgency
Billieux, Joël UL

in Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Shackelford, Todd K. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (2017)

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See detailImpulsivity influences betting under stress in laboratory gambling
Canale, Natale; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Vieno, Alessio et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Although recent research suggests that acute stress influences subsequent decision-making under ambiguity, less is known about the role of personality variables in this relationship. This study tested ... [more ▼]

Although recent research suggests that acute stress influences subsequent decision-making under ambiguity, less is known about the role of personality variables in this relationship. This study tested whether impulsivity traits and acute stress differentially influence the way in which a prior feedback is incorporated into further decisions involving ambiguity. Sixty college students (50% male; aged 18–25 years) were randomly assigned to a stress versus a non-stress condition before completing a laboratory gambling task. The results revealed that independently of the stress condition, subjects behaved as if the odds of winning increase after a single loss. Additionally, stress effects varied as a function of impulsivity traits. Individuals who lacked perseverance (i.e., had difficulty focusing on a difficult or boring task) gambled more after experiencing a loss in the stress condition than did those in the control condition. The present study supports that impulsivity traits can explain the differential effect of stress on the relationship between prior feedback and choices made under ambiguity [less ▲]

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See detailAttentional Impairments in Huntington’s Disease: A Specific Deficit for the Executive Conflict
Maurage, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Lahaye, Magali et al

in Neuropsychology (2017), 31(4), 424-436

Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments including memory, executive, and attentional functions. However, because earlier studies relied on multidetermined ... [more ▼]

Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments including memory, executive, and attentional functions. However, because earlier studies relied on multidetermined attentional tasks, uncertainty still abounds regarding the differential deficit across attentional subcomponents. Likewise, the evolution of these deficits during the successive stages of HD remains unclear. The present study simultaneously explored 3 distinct networks of attention (alerting, orienting, executive conflict) in preclinical and clinical HD. Method: Thirty-eight HD patients (18 preclinical) and 38 matched healthy controls completed the attention network test, an integrated and theoretically grounded task assessing the integrity of 3 attentional networks. Results: Preclinical HD was not characterized by any attentional deficit compared to controls. Conversely, clinical HD was associated with a differential deficit across the 3 attentional networks under investigation, showing preserved performance for alerting and orienting networks but massive and specific impairment for the executive conflict network. This indexes an impaired use of executive control to resolve the conflict between task-relevant stimuli and interfering task-irrelevant ones. Conclusion: Clinical HD does not lead to a global attentional deficit but rather to a specific impairment for the executive control of attention. Moreover, the absence of attentional deficits in preclinical HD suggests that these deficits are absent at the initial stages of the disease. In view of their impact on everyday life, attentional deficits should be considered in clinical contexts. Therapeutic programs improving the executive control of attention by neuropsychology and neuromodulation should be promoted. [less ▲]

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See detailL’impact des nouvelles technologies sur le développement
Danet, Marie; Billieux, Joël UL

in Miljkovitch, Raphaele; Morange-Majoux, Françoise; Emmanuel, Sander (Eds.) Traité de psychologie du développement (2017)

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See detailPreserved crossmodal integration of emotional signals in binge drinking
Lannoy, Séverine; Dormal, Valérie; Brion, Mélanie et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8

Binge drinking is an alcohol consumption pattern with various psychological and cognitive consequences. As binge drinking showed qualitatively comparable cognitive impairments to those reported in alcohol ... [more ▼]

Binge drinking is an alcohol consumption pattern with various psychological and cognitive consequences. As binge drinking showed qualitatively comparable cognitive impairments to those reported in alcohol-dependence, a continuum hypothesis suggests that this habit would be a first step toward alcohol-related disorders. Besides these cognitive impairments, alcohol-dependence is also characterized by large-scale deficits in emotional processing, particularly in crossmodal contexts, and these abilities have scarcely been explored in binge drinking. Emotional decoding, most often based on multiple modalities (e.g., facial expression, prosody or gesture), yet represents a crucial ability for efficient interpersonal communication and social integration. The present study is the first exploration of crossmodal emotional processing in binge drinking, in order to test whether binge drinkers already present the emotional impairments described among alcohol-dependent patients, in line with the continuum hypothesis. Twenty binge drinkers and 20 matched controls performed an experimental task requiring the identification of two emotions (happiness or anger) presented in two modalities (visual or auditory) within three conditions (unimodal, crossmodal congruent or crossmodal incongruent). In accordance with previous research in binge drinking and alcohol-dependence, this study was based on two main hypotheses. First, binge drinkers would present a reduced facilitation effect (i.e., classically indexed in healthy populations by faster reaction times when two congruent modalities are presented simultaneously). Second, binge drinkers would have higher difficulties to inhibit interference in incongruent modalities. Results showed no significant difference between groups in emotional decoding ability, whatever the modality or condition. Control participants, however, appeared slower than binge drinkers in recognizing facial expressions, also leading to a stronger facilitation effect when the two modalities were presented simultaneously. However, findings did not show a disrupted facilitation effect in binge drinkers, whom also presented preserved performance to inhibit incongruence during emotional decoding. The current results thus suggest that binge drinkers do not demonstrate a deficit for emotional processing, both in unimodal and crossmodal contexts. These results imply that binge drinking might not be characterized by impairments for the identification of primary emotions, which could also indicate that these emotional processing abilities are well-preserved at early stages of excessive alcohol consumption [less ▲]

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See detailSchizotypal personality traits and problematic use of massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs)
Schimmenti, Adriano; Infanti, Alexandre; Badoud, Déborah et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 74

A link between maladaptive personality traits and an excessive use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has been documented. However, the role of schizotypal personality traits in ... [more ▼]

A link between maladaptive personality traits and an excessive use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has been documented. However, the role of schizotypal personality traits in MMORPG use is understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the potential links between schizotypal traits, motivations for playing MMORPGs, and symptoms of problematic MMORPG use. Eighty-three MMORPG gamers were enrolled in the study. They filled out questionnaires measuring schizotypal personality traits and an adapted version of the same scale designed to measure in-game schizotypal traits. All participants also filled out questionnaires assessing motivations for gaming and disordered use of MMORPGs. Results of the study showed that the disorganized and interpersonal traits of schizotypy decreased when participants were thinking about themselves in the virtual world. Schizotypal traits, together with achievement and immersion motives, predicted problematic use of MMORPGs. The findings of this study may suggest that schizotypal traits and motivations for playing can interact and play a relevant role in the onset and maintenance of problematic gaming [less ▲]

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See detailIs medicine use for nervousness associated with adolescent at-risk or problem gambling ?
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in European Addiction Research (2017), 23(4), 171-176

Objective: To examine the association between adolescent at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG) and medicine used to treat nervousness in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents ... [more ▼]

Objective: To examine the association between adolescent at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG) and medicine used to treat nervousness in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents. Study design: Data from the 2013 to 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey was used for cross-sectional analyses (a sample of 20,791 15-year-old students). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a representative sample of high-school students. Respondents’ ARPG, use of medicine for nervousness and potential confounding factors were assessed. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between medicine use to treat nervousness and ARPG. Results: The overall prevalence of adolescents reporting medicine use for nervousness in the last month was 6.3%. The odds of ARPG were 3 times higher among adolescents who used medicine for nervousness compared to that among adolescents who did not take such medicine (OR 2.96, 95% CI 2.07–4.25). Importantly, the association between medicine used to treat nervousness and ARPG did not vary significantly when viewed in light of psychological symptoms. Conclusions: Medicine use to treat nervousness is associated with increased risk of gambling-related harm. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioural Addiction Open Definition 2.0 – Using the open science framework for collaborative and transparent theoretical development
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Rooij, Antonius J; Heeren, Alexandre et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1723-1724

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