References of "Berger, K"
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See detailExtended mutation analysis and association studies of Nurr1 (NR4A2) in Parkinson disease.
Hering, R.; Petrovic, S.; Mietz, E.-M. et al

in Neurology (2004), 62(7), 1231-2

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See detailModulation of disease risk according to a cathepsin D / apolipoprotein E genotype in Parkinson's disease.
Schulte, T.; Bohringer, S.; Schols, L. et al

in Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2003), 110(7), 749-55

Aspartyl protease Cathepsin D (CTSD) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to interference with protein degradation mechanisms. A C224T (A38V ... [more ▼]

Aspartyl protease Cathepsin D (CTSD) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to interference with protein degradation mechanisms. A C224T (A38V) polymorphism in exon 2 of the CTSD gene is reported to be associated with an increased risk for AD. The partially overlapping pathology between AD and Parkinson's disease (PD) led us to investigate the role of this polymorphism in PD. Using association studies in 457 German PD patients and 340 controls we found no evidence for direct association between the CTSD genotype and PD. However, stratification for the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele suggests a protective effect of the CTSD T-allele in PD (OR = 0.24, p = 0.002). Our findings suggest interference of CTSD and APOE polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of PD, in the sense of modulating disease risk. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphisms of the alpha-synuclein promoter: expression analyses and association studies in Parkinson's disease.
Holzmann, C.; Krüger, Rejko UL; Saecker, A. M. M. Vieira et al

in Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2003), 110(1), 67-76

Mutations of the alpha-synuclein gene have shown to be relevant in some rare families with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, alpha-synuclein protein is a major component of the ... [more ▼]

Mutations of the alpha-synuclein gene have shown to be relevant in some rare families with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, alpha-synuclein protein is a major component of the Lewy bodies also in sporadic PD patients. Increased levels of wildtype alpha-synuclein in the cell leads to increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels and causes death of dopaminergic neurons in rat primary culture. Subsequently, oxidative stress has been directly linked with alpha-synuclein aggregation in vitro. This raises the question whether increased alpha-synuclein expression might be linked to higher susceptibility to PD and whether alpha-synuclein promoter polymorphisms are associated with PD. Here, two polymorphisms (-116C>G and -668T>C) of the alpha-synuclein promoter defining four haplotypes have been characterized in 315 German PD patients. The influence of the four haplotypes on gene expression was studied by CAT reporter gene assays in neuronal SK-N-AS cells. The -668C/-116G haplotype revealed significant higher CAT expression than the -668T/-116G or the -668T/-116C haplotype, respectively. Although the -668C/-116G haplotype was more common in PD patients, this difference was not significant. [less ▲]

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See detailMutation analysis and association studies of the UCHL1 gene in German Parkinson's disease patients.
Wintermeyer, P.; Krüger, Rejko UL; Kuhn, W. et al

in Neuroreport (2000), 11(10), 2079-82

Recently, an Ile93Met substitution has been identified in the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene in a single German PD family with autosomal dominant inheritance. To determine whether ... [more ▼]

Recently, an Ile93Met substitution has been identified in the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene in a single German PD family with autosomal dominant inheritance. To determine whether mutations in the UCHL1 gene are causative for Parkinson's disease (PD) a detailed mutation analysis was performed in a large sample of German sporadic and familial PD patients. We found no disease-causing mutation in the coding region of the UCHL1 gene. Direct sequencing revealed six intronic polymorphisms in the UCHL1 gene. Analysis of an S18Y polymorphism in exon 3 of the UCHL1 gene in sporadic PD patients and controls showed carriers of allele 2 (tyrosine) significantly less frequent in patients with a reduced risk of 0.57 (CI = 0.36-0.88; p = 0.012, p(c) = 0.047, chi2 = 6.31). Our study shows that sequence variations in the coding region of UCHL1 are a rare event. A protective effect of a certain UCHL1 variant in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is suggested, underlining the relevance of UCHL1 in neurodegeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic analysis of the alpha2-macroglobulin gene in early- and late-onset Parkinson's disease.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Menezes-Saecker, A. M.; Schols, L. et al

in Neuroreport (2000), 11(11), 2439-42

Recent association studies investigating polymorphisms in the alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) gene provided evidence for an involvement of this protease inhibitor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD ... [more ▼]

Recent association studies investigating polymorphisms in the alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) gene provided evidence for an involvement of this protease inhibitor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The partially overlapping pathology between AD and Parkinson's disease (PD) led us to investigate the role of A2M in PD. We performed association studies in a large sample of 328 German PD patients and 322 closely matched healthy controls. Analyzing the Val1000Ile polymorphism and a pentanucleotide deletion in the 5' splice site of exon 18 of the A2M gene we found an excess of homozygosity for the A2M deletion in early-onset PD (EOPD) patients (age at onset < 50 years) compared to late-onset PD (LOPD) patients (age at onset > 50 years; p = 0.008, p(p)c = 0.064, chi2 = 7.017). Therefore our data might indicate an age at onset modulating effect of the homozygous A2M deletion in PD. [less ▲]

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