References of "Beine, Michel 50000696"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImmmigration and Internal Mobility in Canada
Beine, Michel UL; Coulombe, Serge

in Journal of Population economics (2018), 31(1), 69-106

We analyze the impact of temporary foreign workers (TFWs) and permanent immigrants on interprovincial mobility in Canada. Particular attention is given to the Canadian program of TFWs that has intensified ... [more ▼]

We analyze the impact of temporary foreign workers (TFWs) and permanent immigrants on interprovincial mobility in Canada. Particular attention is given to the Canadian program of TFWs that has intensified enormously over the last 30 years. Results of the empirical analysis are analyzed through the lens of a small theoretical model that incorporates a job-matching framework (Pissaridès, 1985, 2000) in a migration model à la Harris and Todaro (1970). We find that the inflow of TFWs into a given province tends to substantially decrease net interprovincial mobility. This is not the case, however, for the inflow of permanent immigrants selected through the Canadian point system. On average, each inflow of 100 TFWs is found to decrease net interprovincial migrants within the year by about 50, a number substantially higher than is present in existing literature. This number increases to 180 in the long run. The negative impact of TFWs is ascribed to the fact that TFWs are hired directly by employers, take vacant jobs, and display employment and participation rates of close to 100 per cent. Our paper suggests that, in general, the impact of immigration on labor market conditions depends critically on the way immigrants are selected. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Role of Tuition Fees in Foreign Education: Evidence from Ital
Beine, Michel UL; Delogu, Marco; Ragot, Lionel

in Journal of Economic Geography (2018)

This paper studies the determinants of international students’ mobility at the uni- versity level, focusing specifically on the role of tuition fees. We derive a gravity model from a Random Utility ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the determinants of international students’ mobility at the uni- versity level, focusing specifically on the role of tuition fees. We derive a gravity model from a Random Utility Maximization model of location choice for international stu- dents in the presence of capacity constraints of the hosting institutions. The last layer of the model is estimated using new data on student migration flows at the university level for Italy. We control for the potential endogeneity of tuition fees through a clas- sical IV approach based on the status of the university. We obtain evidence for a clear and negative effect of fees on international student mobility and confirm the positive impact of the quality of the education. The estimations also support the important role of additional destination-specific variables such as host capacity, the expected return of education and the cost of living in the vicinity of the university. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClimatic factors as Determinants of Migration: Redux
Beine, Michel UL; Parsons, Christopher

in CESifo Economic Studies (2017), 63(4), 385-402

In this paper, we revisit the issue of environmental change as a potential determinant of international migration, thereby providing an extension of our earlier paper. In contrast to Beine and Parsons ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we revisit the issue of environmental change as a potential determinant of international migration, thereby providing an extension of our earlier paper. In contrast to Beine and Parsons (2015) and in light of recent empirical contributions, we adopt an alternative identification strategy in which we only include fixed effects together with our measures of climatic change in order to quantify the net partial effect of climatic change on bilateral migration. Again drawing on panel data from 1960-2000, we further exploit the dyadic dimension of our data to highlight the importance of neighbouring countries and former colonial powers in determining the direction of climate-induced emigration. Our baseline results suggest that climatic shocks affect individuals’ financial constraints more than their desire to move. Our key findings are that natural disasters tend to deter emigration but importantly spur emigration to neighbouring countries. For middle income origins, natural disasters, while deterring migration, foster emigration to former colonial powers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAggregate Fluctuations and International Migration
Beine, Michel UL; Bricongne, Jean-Charles; Bourgeon, Pauline

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (2017)

Traditional theories of integration such as the optimum currency area approach attribute a prominent role to international labour mobility in coping with relative economic fluctuations between countries ... [more ▼]

Traditional theories of integration such as the optimum currency area approach attribute a prominent role to international labour mobility in coping with relative economic fluctuations between countries. However, recent studies on international migration have overlooked the role of short-run factors such as business cycles or changes in employment rates in explaining international migration flows. This paper aims to fill that gap. We first derive a model of optimal migration choice based on an extension of the traditional Random Utility Model. Our model predicts that an improvement in the economic activity in a potential destination country relative to any origin country may trigger some additional migration flows on top of the impact exerted by long-run factors such as the wage differential or the bilateral distance. Compiling a dataset with annual gross migration flows between most developed countries over the 1980-2010 period, we empirically test the magnitude of the effect of these short-run factors on bilateral flows. Our econometric results indicate that aggregate fluctuations and employment rates affect the intensity of bilateral migration flows. We also provide compelling evidence that the Schengen agreement and the introduction of the euro significantly raised the international mobility of workers between the member countries. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMoving Parts: Immigration Policy, Internal Migration and Natural resource Shocks
Coulombe, Serge; Boadway, Robin; Beine, Michel UL

in CD Howe Institute Commentary (2016), (446),

The Canadian government made major changes in 2014 to both the Temporary Foreign Worker (TFW) Program and the permanent economic immigration system. Under the previous system and its enforcement ... [more ▼]

The Canadian government made major changes in 2014 to both the Temporary Foreign Worker (TFW) Program and the permanent economic immigration system. Under the previous system and its enforcement, temporary foreign workers were in competition with some Canadian residents, resulting in major political backlash. In addition, permanent immigrants to Canada were not generally moving to locations with the strongest demand for jobs. The federal changes to the TFW Program limited the kinds of workers companies could bring in, made the applications more rigorous, and set an employer-specific cap on the use of TFWs. These changes will lead to a decrease in the number of TFWs working in Canada. In the permanent immigration system, the government modified the traditional points system and created the Express Entry System. International applicants must meet a threshold of points before the government will invite them to apply for immigration. The system is skewed toward labour-market demand. It rewards workers who have skills that the federal government determines the labour market needs. It also rewards permanent immigrants who have a Canadian job offer. We expect that the changes to the permanent immigration system will have many positive results. Immigrants will have better skills and improved job-market outcomes, and they will meet employer needs more closely than permanent immigrants did in the past. Likewise, recent changes to the TFW Program will improve the labour market for existing residents. However, the changes in the immigration system may have some unintended consequences. First, they make it difficult for international students at Canadian universities to become permanent residents. Further, whereas TFWs were the main source of labour-market competition for Canadian residents until 2014, new permanent immigrants will increasingly compete with Canadian residents. This change will have profound implications for interprovincial migration. Lastly, the permanent immigration policy prioritizes skills currently in demand, and that preference may decrease the immigration of workers whose skills may be more important in the longer term. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe role of networks for migration flows: an update
Beine, Michel UL

in International Journal of manpower (2016), 37(7), 1154-1171

This paper covers the literature on the role migrants networks in explaining aggregate migration flows between countries. We first provide a small review of the literature and the issues at stake. We then ... [more ▼]

This paper covers the literature on the role migrants networks in explaining aggregate migration flows between countries. We first provide a small review of the literature and the issues at stake. We then provide an update of the estimates of the network elasticities using the dataset on migration stocks and flows from Ozden et al. (2011). Using micro-founded gravity models, we estimate the network elasticities and discuss the key driving mechanisms explaining their size as well the variation in the amplitude across categories of destination and over time. We emphasize the specific role of family immigration policies. To that purpose, we cover briefly the recent experience of four receiving countries to highlight the importance of these policies in explaining part of the observed network elasticities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 307 (23 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDissecting Network externalities in International Migration
Beine, Michel UL; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar

in Journal of Demographic Economics (2015), 81(4), 379-408

Migrant networks play an important role in explaining the size and structure of migration flows. They affect the private costs and benefits of migration (assimilation channel) and lower legal entry ... [more ▼]

Migrant networks play an important role in explaining the size and structure of migration flows. They affect the private costs and benefits of migration (assimilation channel) and lower legal entry barriers through family reunification programs (policy channel). This paper presents a microfounded identification strategy allowing to disentangle the relative importance of these two channels. Our empirical analysis exploits U.S. immigration data by metropolitan area and country of origin. We first confirm that the overall network externality is strong (the elasticity of migration flows to network size is around one). More interestingly, we show that only a quarter of this elasticity is accounted for by the policy channel for the 1990-2000 period, and the magnitudes of the total network effect and the policy channel are greater for low-skilled migrants. Our results are strongly robust to sample selection, identification assumptions, and treatment for unobserved bilateral heterogeneity. Finally, the policy channel was stronger in the 1990s than in the 1980s, possibly reflecting the changes in the U.S. family reunification policy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDutch Disease and The Mitigation Effect of Migration: Evidence from Canadian Provinces
Beine, Michel UL; Coulombe, Serge; Vermeulen, Wessel

in Economic Journal (2015), 152(589), 1574-1615

This paper evaluates whether immigration can mitigate the Dutch disease effects associated with booms in natural resource sectors. We derive predicted changes in the size of the non-tradable sector from a ... [more ▼]

This paper evaluates whether immigration can mitigate the Dutch disease effects associated with booms in natural resource sectors. We derive predicted changes in the size of the non-tradable sector from a small general-equilibrium model `a la Obstfeld-Rogoff. Using data for Canadian provinces, we find evidence that aggregate immigration mitigates the increase in the size of the non-tradable sector in booming regions. The mitigation effect is due mostly to interprovincial migration and temporary foreign workers. There is no evidence of such an effect for permanent international immigration. Interprovincial migration also results in a spreading effect of Dutch disease from booming to non-booming provinces. JEL Classi [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 128 (14 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClimatic Factors as Determinants of International Migration
Beine, Michel UL; Parsons, Christopher

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (2015), 117(2), 723-767

We examine natural disasters and long-run climatic factors as potential determinants of international migration, implementing a panel dataset of bilateral migration flows, 1960- 2000. We find no direct ... [more ▼]

We examine natural disasters and long-run climatic factors as potential determinants of international migration, implementing a panel dataset of bilateral migration flows, 1960- 2000. We find no direct impact of long-run climatic factors on international migration across our entire sample. These results are robust when conditioning on origin country characteristics and when considering migrants returning home and the potential endogeneity of migrant networks. Rather we find evidence of indirect effects of environmental factors operating through wages. We find that epidemics and miscellaneous incidents spur international migration and strong evidence that natural disasters beget greater flows of migrants to urban environs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 232 (15 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMeasuring Immigration Policies: Preliminary Evidence from IMPALA
Beine, Michel UL; Burgoon, Brian; Crock, Mary et al

in CESifo Economic Studies (2015), 61(3/4),

This paper presents the methods and preliminary findings from IMPALA, a database that systematically measures the character and stringency of immigration policies. Based on a selection of data for six ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the methods and preliminary findings from IMPALA, a database that systematically measures the character and stringency of immigration policies. Based on a selection of data for six pilot countries between 1990 and 2008, we document the variation of immigration policies across countries and over time. We focus on three specific dimensions: the number of entry tracks for economic workers; the measurement and role of bilateral agreements that complement unilateral immigration policies; and aggregation procedures that allow for gauging the stringency of immigration regulations comparatively. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 165 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe determinants of International Mobility of Students
Ragot, Lionel; Noel, Romain; Beine, Michel UL

in Economics of Education Review (2014), 41(C), 40-54

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends in international migration of students, we identify the various factors ... [more ▼]

This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends in international migration of students, we identify the various factors associated to the attraction of migrants as well as the costs of moving abroad. Using new data capturing the number of students from a large set of origin countries studying in a set of 13 OECD countries, we assess the importance of the various factors identified in the theory. We find support for a significant network effect in the migration of students, a result so far undocumented in the literature. We also find a significant role for cost factors such as housing prices and for attractiveness variables such as the reported quality of universities. In contrast, we do not find an important role for registration fees. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 181 (8 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInternational migration, transfer of norms and home country fertility
Beine, Michel UL; Docquier, Frédéric; Schiff, Maurice

in Canadian Journal of Economics (2013), 46(4), 1406-1430

This paper examines the relationship between international migration and source country fertility. The impact of international migration on source country fertility may have a number of causes, including ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the relationship between international migration and source country fertility. The impact of international migration on source country fertility may have a number of causes, including a transfer of destination countries’ fertility norms. We provide a rigorous test of the diffusion of fertility norms using highly detailed original data on migration. Our results provide evidence of a significant transfer of destination countries’ fertility norms from migrants to their country of origin: a 1% decrease (increase) in the fertility norm to which migrants are exposed reduces (raises) home country fertility by about 0.3%. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 198 (122 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNetwork Effect in International Migration: Does Education Matter More than Gender?
Beine, Michel UL; Salomone, Sara

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (2013), 115(2), 354-380

In this paper, we analyze the impact that networks have on the structure of international migration flows. In particular, we investigate whether diaspora externalities are different across education ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we analyze the impact that networks have on the structure of international migration flows. In particular, we investigate whether diaspora externalities are different across education levels and gender. Using new data that include both dimensions, we analyze the respective impact that networks have on the proportion of each category of migrant. Therefore, in contrast to the preceding body of literature on the macro determinants of international migration, we can identify the factors that influence the selection in terms of skills and in terms of gender. We find that network effects vary by education level, but not by gender. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 196 (123 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSkilled migration and the transfer of institutional norms
Beine, Michel UL; Sekkat, Khalid

in IZA : Journal of Migration (2013), 2(9), 2-19

We examine two impacts of international emigration on the evolution of the institutions in the origin countries. The first impact concerns the influence of emigration per se (i.e. people who left the ... [more ▼]

We examine two impacts of international emigration on the evolution of the institutions in the origin countries. The first impact concerns the influence of emigration per se (i.e. people who left the country can voice more or less from abroad). The second impact relates to the transfer of the norms of the host country to the home country. The existence of both impacts is confirmed using different indicators of institutional quality. The effects appear stronger when skilled emigration is considered. The main conclusions are robust to alternative econometric methods and to the use of subsamples involving developing countries only. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 215 (124 UL)
Full Text
See detailTHE NETWORK EFFECT IN International Migration
Beine, Michel UL

Report (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (8 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDoes the Canadian economy suffer from Dutch disease?
Beine, Michel UL; Bos, Charles S.; Coulombe, Serge

in Resource and Energy Economics (2012), 34(4), 468-492

We argue that the failure to disentangle the evolution of the Canadian currency from the U.S. currency leads to potentially incorrect conclusions regarding the case of Dutch disease in Canada. We propose ... [more ▼]

We argue that the failure to disentangle the evolution of the Canadian currency from the U.S. currency leads to potentially incorrect conclusions regarding the case of Dutch disease in Canada. We propose a new approach that is aimed at extracting both currency components and energy- and commodity-price components from observed exchange rates and prices. We first analyze the separate influence of commodity prices on the Canadian and the U.S. currency components. We then estimate the separate impact of the two currency components on the shares of manufacturing employment in Canada. We show that between 33 and 39 per cent of the manufacturing employment loss that was due to exchange rate developments between 2002 and 2007 is related to the Dutch disease phenomenon. The remaining proportion of the employment loss can be ascribed to the weakness of the U.S. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 133 (8 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFinancial Integration and Remittances
Beine, Michel UL; Lodigiani, Elisabetta; Vermeulen, Robert John Gerard UL

in Regional Science & Urban Economics (2012), 42(5),

Migrant remittances increased strongly since the 1980s, becoming an important and reliable source of funds for many developing countries. Therefore, there is a strong incentive for receiving countries to ... [more ▼]

Migrant remittances increased strongly since the 1980s, becoming an important and reliable source of funds for many developing countries. Therefore, there is a strong incentive for receiving countries to attract more remittances, especially through formal channels that turn out to be either less expensive and/or less risky than informal ones. One way of doing so is to increase their country's financial openness, but this policy option might also generate additional costs in terms of macroeconomic volatility. In this paper we investigate the link between remittance receipts and financial openness. We statistically test for the existence of such a relationship with a sample of 66 mostly developing countries from 1980–2005. Empirically we use a dynamic generalized ordered logit model to deal with the categorical nature of financial openness policy. We apply a two-step method akin to two stage least squares to deal with the endogeneity of remittances and potential measurement errors. We find a strong positive statistical and economic effect of remittances on financial openness. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Panel Data Analysis of the Brain Gain
Beine, Michel UL; Defoort, Cécily; Docquier, Frederic

in World Development Forum (2011), 39(4)

In this paper, we revisit the impact of skilled emigration on human cap- ital accumulation using new panel data covering 147 countries on the period 1975-2000. We derive testable predictions from a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we revisit the impact of skilled emigration on human cap- ital accumulation using new panel data covering 147 countries on the period 1975-2000. We derive testable predictions from a stylized theoretical model and test them in dynamic regression models. Our empirical analysis predicts con- ditional convergence of human capital indicators. Our ndings also reveal that skilled migration prospects foster human capital accumulation in low-income countries. In these countries, a net brain gain can be obtained if the skilled emigration rate is not too large (i.e. does not exceed 20 to 30 percent depend- ing on other country characteristics). On the contrary, we find no evidence of a signi ficant incentive mechanism in middle-income and, unsuprisingly, in high-income countries. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 120 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA panel data analysis of the Brain drain
Beine, Michel UL; Docquier, Frédéric; Defoort, cécily

in World Development : The Multi-Disciplinary International Journal Devoted to the Study and Promotion of World Development (2011), 39(4),

In this paper, we revisit the impact of skilled emigration on human capital accumulation using new panel data covering 147 12 countries during the period 1975–2000. We derive testable predictions from a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we revisit the impact of skilled emigration on human capital accumulation using new panel data covering 147 12 countries during the period 1975–2000. We derive testable predictions from a stylized theoretical model and test them in dynamic regres- 13 sion models. Our empirical analysis predicts conditional convergence of human capital indicators. Our findings also reveal that skilled 14 migration prospects foster human capital accumulation in low-income countries. In these countries, a net brain gain can be obtained if 15 the skilled emigration rate is not too large (i.e., it does not exceed 20–30% depending on other country characteristics). In contrast, we 16 find no evidence of a significant incentive mechanism in middle-income, and not surprisingly, high-income countries. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 191 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDiasporas
Beine, Michel UL; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar

in Journal of Development Economics (2011), 95

Migration flows are shaped by a complex combination of self-selection and out-selection mechanisms, both of which are affected by the presence of a diaspora abroad. In this paper, we analyze how existing ... [more ▼]

Migration flows are shaped by a complex combination of self-selection and out-selection mechanisms, both of which are affected by the presence of a diaspora abroad. In this paper, we analyze how existing diasporas (the stock of people born in a country and living in another one) affect the size and human-capital structure of current bilateral migration flows. Our analysis exploits a bilateral data set on international migration by educational attainment from 195 countries to 30 OECD countries in 1990 and 2000. Based on simple microfoundations and controlling for various determinants of migration, we found that diasporas increase migration flows and lower their average educational level. Interestingly, diasporas explain majority of the variability of migration flows and selection. This suggests that, without changing the generosity of family reunion programs, education-based selection rules are likely to have moderate impact. Our results are highly robust to the econometric techniques, accounting for the large proportion of zeros and endogeneity problems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 146 (2 UL)