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See detailHydrolyzed infant formula and early β-cell autoimmunity: a randomized clinical trial
Knip, M.; Åkerblom, H.K.; Becker, D. et al

in JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association (2014), 311(22), 2279-2287

Importance The disease process leading to clinical type 1 diabetes often starts during the first years of life. Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of β-cell autoimmunity in ... [more ▼]

Importance The disease process leading to clinical type 1 diabetes often starts during the first years of life. Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of β-cell autoimmunity in children at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Extensively hydrolyzed formulas do not contain intact proteins. Objective To test the hypothesis that weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula decreases the cumulative incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in young children. Design, Setting, and Participants A double-blind randomized clinical trial of 2159 infants with HLA-conferred disease susceptibility and a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes recruited from May 2002 to January 2007 in 78 study centers in 15 countries; 1078 were randomized to be weaned to the extensively hydrolyzed casein formula and 1081 were randomized to be weaned to a conventional cows’ milk–based formula. The participants were observed to April 16, 2013. Interventions The participants received either a casein hydrolysate or a conventional cows’ milk formula supplemented with 20% of the casein hydrolysate. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome was positivity for at least 2 diabetes-associated autoantibodies out of 4 analyzed. Autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and the insulinoma-associated–2 (IA-2) molecule were analyzed using radiobinding assays and islet cell antibodies with immunofluorescence during a median observation period of 7.0 years (mean, 6.3 years). Results The absolute risk of positivity for 2 or more islet autoantibodies was 13.4% among those randomized to the casein hydrolysate formula (n = 139) vs 11.4% among those randomized to the conventional formula (n = 117). The unadjusted hazard ratio for positivity for 2 or more autoantibodies among those randomized to be weaned to the casein hydrolysate was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.94-1.54), compared with those randomized to the conventional formula, while the hazard ratio adjusted for HLA risk, duration of breastfeeding, vitamin D use, study formula duration and consumption, and region was 1.23 (95% CI, 0.96-1.58). There were no clinically significant differences in the rate of reported adverse events between the 2 groups. Conclusions and Relevance Among infants at risk for type 1 diabetes, the use of a hydrolyzed formula, when compared with a conventional formula, did not reduce the incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies after 7 years. These findings do not support a benefit from hydrolyzed formula. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes: experiences from the Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR)
Knip, M; Virtanen, S.M.; Becker, D. et al

in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011), 96(6), 1814-1820

Short-term breastfeeding and early exposure to complex dietary proteins, such as cow milk proteins and cereals, or to fruit, berries, and roots have been implicated as risk factors for β cell autoimmunity ... [more ▼]

Short-term breastfeeding and early exposure to complex dietary proteins, such as cow milk proteins and cereals, or to fruit, berries, and roots have been implicated as risk factors for β cell autoimmunity, clinical type 1 diabetes, or both. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) is an international, randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial designed to answer the question of whether weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula in infancy will decrease the risk of type 1 diabetes later in childhood. In our pilot study, weaning to a highly hydrolyzed formula decreased by ≈ 50% the cumulative incidence of one or more diabetes-associated autoantibodies by a mean age of 4.7 y. This finding was confirmed in a recent follow-up analysis to 10 y of age. Currently, the full-scale TRIGR takes place in 77 centers in 15 countries. The TRIGR initially recruited 5606 newborn infants with a family member affected by type 1 diabetes and enrolled 2159 eligible subjects who carried a risk-conferring HLA genotype. All recruited mothers were encouraged to breastfeed. The intervention lasted for 6-8 mo with a minimum study formula exposure time of 2 mo, and hydrolyzed casein and standard cow milk-based weaning formulas were compared. Eighty percent of the participants were exposed to the study formula. The overall retention rate over the first 5 y was 87%, and protocol compliance was 94%. The randomization code will be opened when the last recruited child turns 10 y of age (ie, in 2017). PMID: 21653795 [Pub [less ▲]

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See detailThe Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) study: recruitment, intervention and follow-up.
Akerblom, H.K.; Krischer, J; Virtanen, SM et al

in Diabetologia (2011), 54(3), 627-633

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) study was designed to establish whether weaning to a highly hydrolysed formula in infancy subsequently reduces the risk of type ... [more ▼]

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) study was designed to establish whether weaning to a highly hydrolysed formula in infancy subsequently reduces the risk of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The study population comprises newborn infants who have first-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes and meet the increased risk HLA inclusion, but not exclusion criteria. The study is being performed in 15 countries in three continents. First-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes were identified from diabetes clinics, diabetes registries, and from other endocrinology or obstetrics offices and websites. HLA typing was performed at birth from cord or heel stick blood, and the results sent to the study's Data Management Unit within 2 weeks for communication of eligibility to the clinical study centre. All mothers recruited were encouraged to breastfeed. The intervention lasted for 6 to 8 months, and weaning formulas based on hydrolysed casein and standard cow's milk were compared. RESULTS: TRIGR recruited 5,606 infants, of whom 2,160 were enrolled as eligible participants, 6% more than the target of 2,032. Of those enrolled, 80% were exposed to the study formula. The overall retention rate over the first 5 years is 87%, with protocol compliance at 94%. The randomisation code will be opened when the last recruited child turns 10 years of age, i.e. in 2017. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The TRIGR experience demonstrates the feasibility and successful implementation of an international dietary intervention study. TRIGR is the first ever primary prevention trial for type 1 diabetes and, if completed successfully, will provide a definite answer to the research question. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00179777 FUNDING: The study was funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH) (grant numbers HD040364, HD042444 and HD051997), Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International and the Commission of the European Communities (specific RTD programme 'Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources', contract number QLK1-2002-00372 'Diabetes Prevention'. Other funding came from the EFSD/JDRF/Novo Nordisk Focused Research Grant, Academy of Finland, Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation and Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation). [less ▲]

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See detailThe TRIGR Trial: Testing the Potential Link between Weaning Diet and Type 1 Diabetes
Akerblom, H.K.; Knip, M.; Becker, D. et al

in Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents - Medicinal Chemistry (2007), 7

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See detailThe Fourth International Workshop on the Standardisation of Insulin Autoantibody Measurement
Kolb, H.; Arnaiz-Villena, A.; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Diabetologia (1990), 33(10), 638-639

[No abstract available]

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