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See detailImpact of continuous glucose monitoring on quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and use of medical care resources: analyses from the SWITCH study
Hommel, E; Olsen, B; Battelino, T et al

in Acta Diabetologica (2014), 51(5), 845-851

To investigate the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), treatment satisfaction (TS) medical resource use, and indirect costs in the SWITCH study. SWITCH ... [more ▼]

To investigate the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), treatment satisfaction (TS) medical resource use, and indirect costs in the SWITCH study. SWITCH was a multicentre, randomized, crossover study. Patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 153) using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) were randomized to a 12 month sensor-On/Off or sensor-Off/On sequence (6 months each treatment), with a 4-month washout between periods. HRQOL in children and TS in adults were measured using validated questionnaires. Medical resource utilization data were collected. In adults, TS was significantly higher in the sensor-On arm, and there were significant improvements in ratings for treatment convenience and flexibility. There were no clinically significant differences in children’s HRQOL or parents’ proxy ratings. The incidence of severe hypoglycaemia, unscheduled visits, or diabetes-related hospitalizations did not differ significantly between the two arms. Adult patients made fewer telephone consultations during the sensor-On arm; children’s caregivers made similar numbers of telephone consultations during both arms, and calls were on average only 3 min longer during the sensor-On arm. Regarding indirect costs, children with [70 % sensor usage missed fewer school days, compared with the sensor-Off arm (P = 0.0046) but there was no significant difference in the adults days of work off. The addition of CGM to CSII resulted in better metabolic control without imposing an additional burden on the patient or increased medical resource use, and offered the potential for cost offsets. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use and efficacy of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump therapy: a randomised controlled trial
Battelino, T.; Conget, I.; Olsen, B. et al

in Diabetologia (2012), 55(12), 3155-3162

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this multicentre, randomised, controlled crossover study was to determine the efficacy of adding continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to insulin pump therapy (CSII) in type 1 ... [more ▼]

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this multicentre, randomised, controlled crossover study was to determine the efficacy of adding continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to insulin pump therapy (CSII) in type 1 diabetes. Methods Children and adults (n = 153) on CSII with HbA1c 7.5–9.5% (58.5–80.3 mmol/mol) were randomised to (CGM) a Sensor On or Sensor Off arm for 6 months. After 4 months’ washout, participants crossed over to the other arm for 6 months. Paediatric and adult participants were separately electronically randomised through the case report form according to a predefined randomisation sequence in eight secondary and tertiary centres. The primary outcome was the difference in HbA1c levels between arms after 6 months. Results Seventy-seven participants were randomised to the On/Off sequence and 76 to the Off/On sequence; all were included in the primary analysis. The mean difference in HbA1c was –0.43% (–4.74 mmol/mol) in favour of the Sensor On arm (8.04% [64.34 mmol/mol] vs 8.47% [69.08 mmol/mol]; 95% CI −0.32%, −0.55% [−3.50, −6.01 mmol/mol]; p < 0.001). Following cessation of glucose sensing, HbA1c reverted to baseline levels. Less time was spent with sensor glucose <3.9 mmol/l during the Sensor On arm than in the Sensor Off arm (19 vs 31 min/day; p = 0.009). The mean number of daily boluses increased in the Sensor On arm (6.8 ± 2.5 vs 5.8 ± 1.9, p < 0.0001), together with the frequency of use of the temporary basal rate (0.75 ± 1.11 vs 0.26 ± 0.47, p < 0.0001) and manual insulin suspend (0.91 ± 1.25 vs 0.70 ± 0.75, p < 0.018) functions. Four vs two events of severe hypoglycaemia occurred in the Sensor On and Sensor Off arm, respectively (p = 0.40). Conclusions/interpretation Continuous glucose monitoring was associated with decreased HbA1c levels and time spent in hypoglycaemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes using CSII. More frequent self-adjustments of insulin therapy may have contributed to these effects. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of continuous glucose monitoring in children and adolescents
Phillip, M.; Danne, T.; Shalitin, S. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2012), 13(3), 215-228

[No abstract available]

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See detailThe SWITCH study (sensing with insulin pump therapy to control HbA(1c)): design and methods of a randomized controlled crossover trial on sensor-augmented insulin pump efficacy in type 1 diabetes suboptimally controlled with pump therapy
Conget, I.; Battelino, T.; Giménez, M. et al

in Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics (2011), 13(1), 49-54

BACKGROUND: studies investigating the effect of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) combined with pump therapy on glycemic outcomes in type 1 diabetes are increasing. Pump therapy is well ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: studies investigating the effect of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) combined with pump therapy on glycemic outcomes in type 1 diabetes are increasing. Pump therapy is well established as a "gold standard" for insulin delivery, offering improvements over multiple daily insulin injections. However, there is still a proportion of subjects using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in whom goals for metabolic control are far from achieved or benefits of this type of insulin therapy are transient. The SWITCH (Sensing With Insulin pump Therapy to Control HbA(1c) [hemoglobin A1c]) study is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, crossover study to evaluate if adding CGM to experienced pump patients with suboptimal metabolic control will provide additional insight enabling clinical and therapeutic benefit. METHODS: subjects meeting the inclusion criteria were randomized to Sensor On or Sensor Off arms for 6 months, after a 1-month run-in period. Following a 4-month washout period, the subjects crossed over to the other study arm for 6 months. The primary end point was the between arm difference in HbA(1c) levels. Among others, additional end points include time spent in different glycemic ranges, percentage of patients with HbA(1c) <7%, number of hypoglycemic events, glucose variability parameters, safety outcomes, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life. RESULTS: recruitment occurred between January 2008 and February 2009. A total of 153 patients were randomized. Study completion is anticipated in July 2010. CONCLUSIONS: the results will establish if adding CGM to existing, capable, insulin pump users can enable better metabolic control. [less ▲]

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See detailA cross-sectional international survey of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in 377 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus from 10 countries
Danne, T.; Battelino, T.; Kordonouri, O. et al

in Pediatric Diabetes (2005), 6

OBJECTIVE: To document current practices using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by downloading electronically the 90-d pump data held within the pump memory and relating that to clinical ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To document current practices using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by downloading electronically the 90-d pump data held within the pump memory and relating that to clinical data from children and adolescents in different pediatric diabetes centers from Europe and Israel. METHODS: Data of patients (1-18 yr) treated with CSII in 23 centers from nine European countries and Israel were recorded with the encapture software (PEC International, Frankfurt, Germany). The number of patients who participated was 377 (48% female; mean diabetes duration +/- SD: 6.8 +/- 3.7 yr; age: 12.9 +/- 3.8 yr, preschool n = 33; prepubertal n = 95; adolescent n = 249; CSII duration: 1.6 +/- 1.2 yr; local HbA1c: 8.1 +/- 1.2%). RESULTS: The total insulin dose was lower than previously reported for injection therapy (0.79 +/- 0.20 U/kg/d). Covariance coefficient of daily total insulin was high in all age groups (adolescents 19 +/- 9%, prepubertal 18 +/- 8 and preschool 17 +/- 8). The distribution of basal insulin infusion rates over 24 hr (48 +/- 12% of total dose) varied significantly between centers and age groups. The number of boluses per day (7 +/- 3) was not significantly different between the age groups (average daily bolus amount: 0.42 +/- 0.16 U/kg). The rate of severe hypoglycemia (coma/convulsions) was 12.4 episodes per 100 patient-years and the number of diabetes-related hospital days was 124 per 100 patient-years. DISCUSSION: Pediatric CSII patients show a high variability in their insulin therapy. This relates both to age-dependent differences in the distribution of basal insulin as to the age-independent day-to-day variation in prandial insulin. [less ▲]

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