References of "Bahlawane, Christelle 50000547"
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See detailGenome-wide analysis of chromosomal import patterns after natural 2 transformation of Helicobacter pylori
Sebastian, Bubendorfer; Juliane, Krebes; Ines, Yang et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7

Recombination plays a dominant role in the evolution of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori, but its dynamics remain incompletely understood. Here we use an in vitro transformation system combined ... [more ▼]

Recombination plays a dominant role in the evolution of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori, but its dynamics remain incompletely understood. Here we use an in vitro transformation system combined with genome sequencing to study chromosomal integration patterns after natural transformation. A single transformation cycle results in up to 21 imports, and repeated transformations generate a maximum of 92 imports (8% sequence replacement). Import lengths show a bimodal distribution with averages of 28 and 1,645bp. Reanalysis of paired H. pylori genomes from chronically infected people demonstrates the same bimodal import pattern in vivo. Restriction endonucleases (REases) of the recipient bacteria fail to inhibit integration of homeologous DNA, independently of methylation. In contrast, REases limit the import of heterologous DNA. We conclude that restriction-modification systems inhibit the genomic integration of novel sequences, while they pose no barrier to homeologous recombination, which reconciles the observed stability of the H. pylori gene content and its highly recombinational population structure. [less ▲]

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See detailA Probabilistic Boolean Network Approach for the Analysis of Cancer-Specific Signalling: A Case Study of Deregulated PDGF Signalling in GIST.
Trairatphisan, Panuwat UL; Wiesinger, Monique UL; Bahlawane, Christelle UL et al

in PloS one (2016), 11(5), 0156223

BACKGROUND: Signal transduction networks are increasingly studied with mathematical modelling approaches while each of them is suited for a particular problem. For the contextualisation and analysis of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Signal transduction networks are increasingly studied with mathematical modelling approaches while each of them is suited for a particular problem. For the contextualisation and analysis of signalling networks with steady-state protein data, we identified probabilistic Boolean network (PBN) as a promising framework which could capture quantitative changes of molecular changes at steady-state with a minimal parameterisation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In our case study, we successfully applied the PBN approach to model and analyse the deregulated Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) signalling pathway in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST). We experimentally determined a rich and accurate dataset of steady-state profiles of selected downstream kinases of PDGF-receptor-alpha mutants in combination with inhibitor treatments. Applying the tool optPBN, we fitted a literature-derived candidate network model to the training dataset consisting of single perturbation conditions. Model analysis suggested several important crosstalk interactions. The validity of these predictions was further investigated experimentally pointing to relevant ongoing crosstalk from PI3K to MAPK signalling in tumour cells. The refined model was evaluated with a validation dataset comprising multiple perturbation conditions. The model thereby showed excellent performance allowing to quantitatively predict the combinatorial responses from the individual treatment results in this cancer setting. The established optPBN pipeline is also widely applicable to gain a better understanding of other signalling networks at steady-state in a context-specific fashion. [less ▲]

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See detailConstitutive activation of oncogenic PDGFRalpha-mutant proteins occurring in GIST patients induces receptor mislocalisation and alters PDGFRalpha signalling characteristics.
Bahlawane, Christelle UL; Eulenfeld, Rene; Wiesinger, Monique UL et al

in Cell Communication and Signaling (2015), 13

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are mainly characterised by the presence of activating mutations in either of the two receptor tyrosine kinases c-KIT or platelet-derived growth factor ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are mainly characterised by the presence of activating mutations in either of the two receptor tyrosine kinases c-KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRalpha). Most mechanistic studies dealing with GIST mutations have focused on c-KIT and far less is known about the signalling characteristics of the mutated PDGFRalpha proteins. Here, we study the signalling capacities and corresponding transcriptional responses of the different PDGFRalpha proteins under comparable genomic conditions. RESULTS: We demonstrate that the constitutive signalling via the oncogenic PDGFRalpha mutants favours a mislocalisation of the receptors and that this modifies the signalling characteristics of the mutated receptors. We show that signalling via the oncogenic PDGFRalpha mutants is not solely characterised by a constitutive activation of the conventional PDGFRalpha signalling pathways. In contrast to wild-type PDGFRalpha signal transduction, the activation of STAT factors (STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5) is an integral part of signalling mediated via mutated PDGF-receptors. Furthermore, this unconventional STAT activation by mutated PDGFRalpha is already initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas the conventional signalling pathways rather require cell surface expression of the receptor. Finally, we demonstrate that the activation of STAT factors also translates into a biologic response as highlighted by the induction of STAT target genes. CONCLUSION: We show that the overall oncogenic response is the result of different signatures emanating from different cellular compartments. Furthermore, STAT mediated responses are an integral part of mutated PDGFRalpha signalling. [less ▲]

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See detailThe oncogenic FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha fusion protein displays skewed signaling properties compared to its wild-type PDGFRalpha counterpart.
Haan, Serge UL; Bahlawane, Christelle UL; Wang, Jiali UL et al

in JAK-STAT (2015), 4(1), 1062596

Aberrant activation of oncogenic kinases is frequently observed in human cancers, but the underlying mechanism and resulting effects on global signaling are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate ... [more ▼]

Aberrant activation of oncogenic kinases is frequently observed in human cancers, but the underlying mechanism and resulting effects on global signaling are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the oncogenic FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha kinase exhibits a significantly different signaling pattern compared to its PDGFRalpha wild type counterpart. Interestingly, the activation of primarily membrane-based signal transduction processes (such as PI3-kinase- and MAP-kinase- pathways) is remarkably shifted toward a prominent activation of STAT factors. This diverging signaling pattern compared to classical PDGF-receptor signaling is partially coupled to the aberrant cytoplasmic localization of the oncogene, since membrane targeting of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha restores activation of MAPK- and PI3K-pathways. In stark contrast to the classical cytokine-induced STAT activation process, STAT activation by FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha does neither require Janus kinase activity nor Src kinase activity. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism of STAT5 activation via FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha in more detail and found that STAT5 activation does not involve an SH2-domain-mediated binding mechanism. We thus demonstrate that STAT5 activation occurs via a non-canonical activation mechanism in which STAT5 may be subject to a direct phosphorylation by FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha. [less ▲]

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See detailThe nucleotide excision repair (NER) system of Helicobacter pylori: Roles of NER components in mutation prevention and chromosomal import patterns after natural transformation
Moccia, Claudia; Kulick, Stefan; Krebes, Juliane et al

in BMC Microbiology (2012), 6(12), 67

Extensive genetic diversity and rapid allelic diversification are characteristics of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and are believed to contribute to its ability to cause chronic ... [more ▼]

Extensive genetic diversity and rapid allelic diversification are characteristics of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and are believed to contribute to its ability to cause chronic infections. Both a high mutation rate and frequent imports of short fragments of exogenous DNA during mixed infections play important roles in generating this allelic diversity. In this study, we used a genetic approach to investigate the roles of nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway components in H. pylori mutation and recombination. [less ▲]

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See detailThe structure of the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator Fur reveals three functional metal binding sites.
Dian, Cyril; Vitale, Sylvia; Leonard, Gordon A. et al

in Molecular microbiology (2011), 79(5), 1260-75

Fur, the ferric uptake regulator, is a transcription factor that controls iron metabolism in bacteria. Binding of ferrous iron to Fur triggers a conformational change that activates the protein for ... [more ▼]

Fur, the ferric uptake regulator, is a transcription factor that controls iron metabolism in bacteria. Binding of ferrous iron to Fur triggers a conformational change that activates the protein for binding to specific DNA sequences named Fur boxes. In Helicobacter pylori, HpFur is involved in acid response and is important for gastric colonization in model animals. Here we present the crystal structure of a functionally active HpFur mutant (HpFur2M; C78S-C150S) bound to zinc. Although its fold is similar to that of other Fur and Fur-like proteins, the crystal structure of HpFur reveals a unique structured N-terminal extension and an unusual C-terminal helix. The structure also shows three metal binding sites: S1 the structural ZnS(4) site previously characterized biochemically in HpFur and the two zinc sites identified in other Fur proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis and spectroscopy analyses of purified wild-type HpFur and various mutants show that the two metal binding sites common to other Fur proteins can be also metallated by cobalt. DNA protection and circular dichroism experiments demonstrate that, while these two sites influence the affinity of HpFur for DNA, only one is absolutely required for DNA binding and could be responsible for the conformational changes of Fur upon metal binding while the other is a secondary site. [less ▲]

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See detailHierarchical regulation of the NikR-mediated nickel response in Helicobacter pylori.
Muller, Cecile; Bahlawane, Christelle UL; Aubert, Sylvie et al

in Nucleic acids research (2011), 39(17), 7564-75

Nickel is an essential metal for Helicobacter pylori, as it is the co-factor of two enzymes crucial for colonization, urease and hydrogenase. Nickel is taken up by specific transporters and its ... [more ▼]

Nickel is an essential metal for Helicobacter pylori, as it is the co-factor of two enzymes crucial for colonization, urease and hydrogenase. Nickel is taken up by specific transporters and its intracellular homeostasis depends on nickel-binding proteins to avoid toxicity. Nickel trafficking is controlled by the Ni(II)-dependent transcriptional regulator NikR. In contrast to other NikR proteins, NikR from H. pylori is a pleiotropic regulator that depending on the target gene acts as an activator or a repressor. We systematically quantified the in vivo Ni(2+)-NikR response of 11 direct NikR targets that encode functions related to nickel metabolism, four activated and seven repressed genes. Among these, four targets were characterized for the first time (hpn, hpn-like, hydA and hspA) and NikR binding to their promoter regions was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We found that NikR-dependent repression was generally set up at higher nickel concentrations than activation. Kinetics of the regulation revealed a gradual and temporal NikR-mediated response to nickel where activation of nickel-protection mechanisms takes place before repression of nickel uptake. Our in vivo study demonstrates, for the first time, a chronological hierarchy in the NikR-dependent transcriptional response to nickel that is coherent with the control of nickel homeostasis in H. pylori. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural and mechanistic insights into Helicobacter pylori NikR activation.
Bahlawane, Christelle UL; Dian, C.; Muller, Christian UL et al

in Nucleic acids research (2010), 38(9), 3106-18

NikR is a transcriptional metalloregulator central in the mandatory response to acidity of Helicobacter pylori that controls the expression of numerous genes by binding to specific promoter regions. NikR ... [more ▼]

NikR is a transcriptional metalloregulator central in the mandatory response to acidity of Helicobacter pylori that controls the expression of numerous genes by binding to specific promoter regions. NikR/DNA interactions were proposed to rely on protein activation by Ni(II) binding to high-affinity (HA) and possibly secondary external (X) sites. We describe a biochemical characterization of HpNikR mutants that shows that the HA sites are essential but not sufficient for DNA binding, while the secondary external (X) sites and residues from the HpNikR dimer-dimer interface are important for DNA binding. We show that a second metal is necessary for HpNikR/DNA binding, but only to some promoters. Small-angle X-ray scattering shows that HpNikR adopts a defined conformation in solution, resembling the cis-conformation and suggests that nickel does not trigger large conformational changes in HpNikR. The crystal structures of selected mutants identify the effects of each mutation on HpNikR structure. This study unravels key structural features from which we derive a model for HpNikR activation where: (i) HA sites and an hydrogen bond network are required for DNA binding and (ii) metallation of a unique secondary external site (X) modulates HpNikR DNA binding to low-affinity promoters by disruption of a salt bridge. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroevolution of Helicobacter pylori during prolonged infection of single hosts and within families.
Morelli, Giovanna; Didelot, Xavier; Kusecek, Barica et al

in PLoS genetics (2010), 6(7), 1001036

Our understanding of basic evolutionary processes in bacteria is still very limited. For example, multiple recent dating estimates are based on a universal inter-species molecular clock rate, but that ... [more ▼]

Our understanding of basic evolutionary processes in bacteria is still very limited. For example, multiple recent dating estimates are based on a universal inter-species molecular clock rate, but that rate was calibrated using estimates of geological dates that are no longer accepted. We therefore estimated the short-term rates of mutation and recombination in Helicobacter pylori by sequencing an average of 39,300 bp in 78 gene fragments from 97 isolates. These isolates included 34 pairs of sequential samples, which were sampled at intervals of 0.25 to 10.2 years. They also included single isolates from 29 individuals (average age: 45 years) from 10 families. The accumulation of sequence diversity increased with time of separation in a clock-like manner in the sequential isolates. We used Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate the rates of mutation, recombination, mean length of recombination tracts, and average diversity in those tracts. The estimates indicate that the short-term mutation rate is 1.4 x 10(-6) (serial isolates) to 4.5 x 10(-6) (family isolates) per nucleotide per year and that three times as many substitutions are introduced by recombination as by mutation. The long-term mutation rate over millennia is 5-17-fold lower, partly due to the removal of non-synonymous mutations due to purifying selection. Comparisons with the recent literature show that short-term mutation rates vary dramatically in different bacterial species and can span a range of several orders of magnitude. [less ▲]

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See detailSinorhizobium meliloti regulator MucR couples exopolysaccharide synthesis and motility.
Bahlawane, Christelle UL; McIntosh, Matthew; Krol, Elizaveta et al

in Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI (2008), 21(11), 1498-509

In order to enter symbiosis with its legume partner, Sinorhizobium meliloti requires regulatory systems for the appropriate responses to its environment. For example, motility is required for the ... [more ▼]

In order to enter symbiosis with its legume partner, Sinorhizobium meliloti requires regulatory systems for the appropriate responses to its environment. For example, motility is required for the chemotactic movement of bacteria toward the compounds released by its host, and exopolysaccharides (EPS) are required for bacterial attachment to the root or for invasion of the infection thread. Previous research has shown that ExoR/ExoS/ChvI as well as the ExpR/Sin quorum-sensing system inversely regulate both motility and EPS production, although the regulation mechanisms were unknown. We were able to attribute the ExpR-mediated regulation of motility to the ability of ExpR to bind a DNA sequence upstream of visN when activated by N-acyl-homoserine lactone. Furthermore, MucR, previously characterized as a regulator of EPS production, also affected motility. MucR inhibited expression of rem encoding an activator of motility gene expression and, consequently, the expression of Rem-regulated genes such as flaF and flgG. Binding of MucR to the rem promoter region was demonstrated and a sequence motif similar to the previously identified MucR binding consensus was identified within this region. The swarming ability of S. meliloti Rm2011 was shown to depend on a functional ExpR/Sin quorum-sensing system and the production of both flagella and EPS. Finally, we propose a model for the coordination of motility and EPS synthesis in S. meliloti. [less ▲]

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See detailFine-tuning of galactoglucan biosynthesis in Sinorhizobium meliloti by differential WggR (ExpG)-, PhoB-, and MucR-dependent regulation of two promoters.
Bahlawane, Christelle UL; Baumgarth, Birgit; Serrania, Javier et al

in Journal of bacteriology (2008), 190(10), 3456-66

Depending on the phosphate concentration encountered in the environment Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 synthesizes two different exopolysaccharides (EPS). Galactoglucan (EPS II) is produced under phosphate ... [more ▼]

Depending on the phosphate concentration encountered in the environment Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 synthesizes two different exopolysaccharides (EPS). Galactoglucan (EPS II) is produced under phosphate starvation but also in the presence of extra copies of the transcriptional regulator WggR (ExpG) or as a consequence of a mutation in mucR. The galactoglucan biosynthesis gene cluster contains the operons wga (expA), wge (expE), wgd (expD), and wggR (expG). Two promoters, differentially controlled by WggR, PhoB, and MucR, were identified upstream of each of these operons. The proximal promoters of the wga, wge, and wgd transcription units were constitutively active when separated from the upstream regulatory sequences. Promoter activity studies and the positions of predicted PhoB and WggR binding sites suggested that the proximal promoters are cooperatively induced by PhoB and WggR. MucR was shown to strongly inhibit the distal promoters and bound to the DNA in the vicinity of the distal transcription start sites. An additional inhibitory effect on the distal promoter of the structural galactoglucan biosynthesis genes was identified as a new feature of WggR in a mucR mutant. A regulatory model of the fine-tuning of galactoglucan production is proposed. [less ▲]

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