References of "Ali, Shaukat"
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See detailImproving the Performance of OCL Constraint Solving with Novel Heuristics for Logical Operations: A SearchBased Approach
Ali, Shaukat; Iqbal, Zohaib; Khalid, Maham et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2015)

A common practice to specify constraints on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) models is using the Object Constraint Language (OCL). Such constraints serve various purposes, ranging from simply providing ... [more ▼]

A common practice to specify constraints on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) models is using the Object Constraint Language (OCL). Such constraints serve various purposes, ranging from simply providing precise meaning to the models to supporting complex verification and validation activities. In many applications, these constraints have to be solved to obtain values satisfying the constraints, for example, in the case of modelbased testing (MBT) to generate test data for the purpose of generating executable test cases. In our previous work, we proposed novel heuristics for various OCL constructs to efficiently solve them using search algorithms. These heuristics are enhanced in this paper to further improve the performance of OCL constraint solving. We performed an empirical evaluation comprising of three case studies using three search algorithms: Alternating Variable Method (AVM), (1+1) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA), and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and in addition Random Search (RS) was used as a comparison baseline. In the first case study, we evaluated each heuristics using carefully designed artificial problems. In the second case study, we evaluated the heuristics on various constraints of Cisco’s Video Conferencing Systems defined to support MBT. Finally, the third case study is about EURent Car Rental specification and is obtained from the literature. The results of the empirical evaluation showed that (1+1) EA and AVM with the improved heuristics significantly outperform the rest of the algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailApplying UML/MARTE on industrial projects: challenges, experiences, and guidelines
Iqbal, Zohaib; Ali, Shaukat; Yue, Tao et al

in Software & Systems Modeling (2014)

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See detailModel-Based Testing of Obligations
Rubab, Iram; Ali, Shaukat; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in 14th Annual International Conference on Quality Software (QSIC) (2014)

Obligations are mandatory actions that users must perform, addressing access control requirements. To ensure that such obligations are implemented correctly, an automated and systematic testing approach ... [more ▼]

Obligations are mandatory actions that users must perform, addressing access control requirements. To ensure that such obligations are implemented correctly, an automated and systematic testing approach is often recommended. One such approach is Model-Based Testing (MBT) that allows defining cost-effective testing strategies to support rigorous testing via automation. In this paper, we present MBT for obligations by extending the Unified Modeling Language (UML) via a profile called the Obligations Profile. Based on the profile, we define a modeling methodology utilizing the concepts of Obligations Class Diagrams (OCDs) and Obligations State Machines (OSMs), which are standard UML Class Diagrams and UML State Machines with stereotypes from the Obligations Profile. Our methodology, using OCDs and OSMs, is automatically enforced by the validation of constraints defined in the profile. To assess the completeness and applicability of the profile and methodology, we modeled 47 obligations from four different systems. The results of our case study show that we successfully modeled all the obligations and used 75% of the stereotypes that we defined in the profile. In addition, using OCDs and OSMs, we automatically generate executable test cases using a standard state machine structural coverage criterion and common test data generation strategies. The effectiveness of generated test cases is assessed using mutation analysis on two systems, using mutation operators specifically designed for obligation faults. Test case execution killed 75% of the mutants and a careful analysis further suggests that more sophisticated testing strategies must be defined to further improve testing effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailGenerating Test Data from OCL Constraints with Search Techniques
Ali, Shaukat; Iqbal, Zohaib; Arcuri, Andrea UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (2013), 39(10),

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See detailAssessing Quality and Effort of Applying Aspect State Machines for Robustness Testing: A Controlled Experiment
Ali, Shaukat; Yue, Tao; Briand, Lionel UL

in IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and Validation, Luxembourg (2013)

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See detailComparing Six Modeling Approaches
Mussbacher, Gunter; Al Abed, Wisam; Alam, Omar et al

in Kienzle, Joerg (Ed.) Models in Software Engineering (2012)

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See detailDoes aspect-oriented modeling help improve the readability of UML state machines?
Ali, Shaukat; Yue, Tao; Briand, Lionel UL

in Software & Systems Modeling (2012)

Aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) is a relatively recent and very active field of research, whose application has, however, been limited in practice. AOM is assumed to yield several potential benefits such ... [more ▼]

Aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) is a relatively recent and very active field of research, whose application has, however, been limited in practice. AOM is assumed to yield several potential benefits such as enhanced modularization, easier evolution, increased reusability, and improved readability of models, as well as reduced modeling effort. However, credible, solid empirical evidence of such benefits is lacking. We evaluate the “readability” of state machines when modeling crosscutting behavior using AOM and more specifically AspectSM, a recently published UML profile. This profile extends the UML state machine notation with mechanisms to define aspects using state machines. Readability is indirectly measured through defect identification and fixing rates in state machines, and the scores obtained when answering a comprehension questionnaire about the system behavior. With AspectSM, crosscutting behavior is modeled using so-called “aspect state machines”. Their readability is compared with that of system state machines directly modeling crosscutting and standard behavior together. An initial controlled experiment and a much larger replication were conducted with trained graduate students, in two different institutions and countries, to achieve the above objective. We use two baselines of comparisons—standard UML state machines without hierarchical features (flat state machines) and standard state machines with hierarchical/concurrent features (hierarchical state machines). The results showed that defect identification and fixing rates are significantly better with AspectSM than with both flat and hierarchical state machines. However, in terms of comprehension scores and inspection effort, no significant difference was observed between any of the approaches. Results of the experiments suggest that one should use, when possible, aspect state machines along with hierarchical and/or concurrent features of UML state machines to model crosscutting behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailExperiences of applying UML/MARTE on three industrial projects
Iqbal, Muhammad Zohaib; Ali, Shaukat; Yue, Tao et al

in ACM/IEEE 15th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages & Systems (2012)

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See detailA Product Line Modeling and Configuration Methodology to Support Model-based Testing: An Industrial Case Study
Ali, Shaukat; Yue, Tao; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in ACM/IEEE 15th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages & Systems (2012)

Product Line Engineering (PLE) is expected to enhance quality and productivity, speed up time-to-market and decrease development effort, through reuse—the key mechanism of PLE. In addition, one can also ... [more ▼]

Product Line Engineering (PLE) is expected to enhance quality and productivity, speed up time-to-market and decrease development effort, through reuse—the key mechanism of PLE. In addition, one can also apply PLE to support systematic testing and more specifically model-based testing (MBT) of product lines—the original motivation behind this work. MBT has shown to be cost-effective in many industry sectors but at the expense of building models of the system under test (SUT). However, the modeling effort to support MBT can significantly be reduced if an adequate product line modeling and configuration methodology is followed, which is the main motivation of this paper. The initial motivation for this work emerged while working with MBT for a Video Conferencing product line at Cisco Systems, Norway. In this paper, we report on our experience in modeling product family models and various types of behavioral variability in the Saturn product line. We focus on behavioral variability in UML state machines since the Video Conferencing Systems (VCSs) exhibit strong state-based behavior and these models are the main drivers for MBT; however, the approach can be also tailored to other UML diagrams. We also provide a mechanism to specify and configure various types of variability using stereotypes and Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM). Results of applying our methodology to the Saturn product line modeling and configuration process show that the effort required for modeling and configuring products of the product line family can be significantly reduced. [less ▲]

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