References of "Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri 50022625"
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See detailA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Interventions for Sexual Health Promotion Involving Serious Digital Games.
DeSmet, Ann; Shegog, Ross; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL et al

in Games for health journal (2015), 4(2), 78-90

OBJECTIVE: Serious games may be effective in promoting sexual health behavior. Their confidential nature may encourage users to discuss sensitive sexuality topics. Furthermore, they can tailor messages to ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Serious games may be effective in promoting sexual health behavior. Their confidential nature may encourage users to discuss sensitive sexuality topics. Furthermore, they can tailor messages to the individual's needs and may be intrinsically motivating. This meta-analysis investigates the effectiveness of interventions for sexual health promotion that use serious games. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for publications before the end of July 2013. Serious digital games studies measuring effects on behavior or its determinants, using a control condition, allowing the calculation of an effect size (Hedges' g, random-effects model) were included. RESULTS: Seven game studies for sexual health promotion were included. These showed positive effects on determinants (g=0.242; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.129, 0.356), albeit of small effect size. The effects on behavior, measured in only two studies, were not significant (g=0.456; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.649, 1.561). Most games did not use many game features that are considered to be immersive or enhancing flow. Instead, there was a strong reliance on pure gamification features, such as rewards and feedback. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of the next generation of games may be enhanced by building on the behavioral change and educational gaming literatures (e.g., using role-play and simulation game formats, individual tailoring, offering adaptation in the difficulty of the challenge, and amount and timing of the feedback). There is a need for studies with rigorous evaluations of game effectiveness, longer-term follow-up, and using measures of behavior rather than merely their determinants. [less ▲]

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See detailThe relationship between adolescents' pain catastrophizing and attention bias to pain faces is moderated by attention control.
Heathcote, Lauren C.; Vervoort, Tine; Eccleston, Christopher et al

in Pain (2015), 156(7), 1334-41

This study considered the attentional functioning of adolescents with varying levels of pain catastrophizing. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and attention bias ... [more ▼]

This study considered the attentional functioning of adolescents with varying levels of pain catastrophizing. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and attention bias to pain facial expressions. Furthermore, drawing on dual process models in the context of pain, we investigated the moderating role of attention control on this relationship. Adolescents (N = 73; age, 16-18 years) performed a dot-probe task in which facial expressions of pain and neutral expressions were presented for 100 milliseconds and 1250 milliseconds. Participants also completed self-report pain catastrophizing and attention control measures. We found that although there was no main effect of pain catastrophizing on attention bias towards pain faces, attention control did significantly moderate this relationship. Further analysis revealed that lower levels of attention control were significantly associated with increasing attentional vigilance towards pain faces only within high catastrophizing adolescents. In addition, we found that poorer attention control was related to increased attention bias for pain faces (regardless of pain catastrophizing level) when these faces were presented for relatively longer durations (ie, 1250 milliseconds) but not for short durations (ie, 100 milliseconds). This study supports a dual process model of attentional processes in pain, thus replicating previous findings within the psychopathology literature but extending them to the study of pain. Theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Experience of Cognitive Intrusion of Pain: scale development and validation.
Attridge, Nina; Crombez, Geert; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL et al

in Pain (2015), 156(10), 1978-90

Patients with chronic pain often report their cognition to be impaired by pain, and this observation has been supported by numerous studies measuring the effects of pain on cognitive task performance ... [more ▼]

Patients with chronic pain often report their cognition to be impaired by pain, and this observation has been supported by numerous studies measuring the effects of pain on cognitive task performance. Furthermore, cognitive intrusion by pain has been identified as one of 3 components of pain anxiety, alongside general distress and fear of pain. Although cognitive intrusion is a critical characteristic of pain, no specific measure designed to capture its effects exists. In 3 studies, we describe the initial development and validation of a new measure of pain interruption: the Experience of Cognitive Intrusion of Pain (ECIP) scale. In study 1, the ECIP scale was administered to a general population sample to assess its structure and construct validity. In study 2, the factor structure of the ECIP scale was confirmed in a large general population sample experiencing no pain, acute pain, or chronic pain. In study 3, we examined the predictive value of the ECIP scale in pain-related disability in fibromyalgia patients. The ECIP scale scores followed a normal distribution with good variance in a general population sample. The scale had high internal reliability and a clear 1-component structure. It differentiated between chronic pain and control groups, and it was a significant predictor of pain-related disability over and above pain intensity. Repairing attentional interruption from pain may become a novel target for pain management interventions, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneral hypervigilance in fibromyalgia: one swallow does not make a summer.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Crombez, Geert

in European journal of pain (London, England) (2015), 19(4), 447-8

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See detailAttentional bias and chronic pain: where to go from here?
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Crombez, Geert

in Pain (2014), 155(1), 6-7

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See detailA meta-analysis of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion.
DeSmet, Ann; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Compernolle, Sofie et al

in Preventive medicine (2014), 69

Several systematic reviews have described health-promoting effects of serious games but so far no meta-analysis has been reported. This paper presents a meta-analysis of 54 serious digital game studies ... [more ▼]

Several systematic reviews have described health-promoting effects of serious games but so far no meta-analysis has been reported. This paper presents a meta-analysis of 54 serious digital game studies for healthy lifestyle promotion, in which we investigated the overall effectiveness of serious digital games on healthy lifestyle promotion outcomes and the role of theoretically and clinically important moderators. Findings showed that serious games have small positive effects on healthy lifestyles (g=0.260, 95% CI 0.148; 0.373) and their determinants (g=0.334, 95% CI 0.260; 0.407), especially for knowledge. Effects on clinical outcomes were significant, but much smaller (g=0.079, 95% CI 0.038; 0.120). Long-term effects were maintained for all outcomes except for behavior. Serious games are best individually tailored to both socio-demographic and change need information, and benefit from a strong focus on game theories or a dual theoretical foundation in both behavioral prediction and game theories. They can be effective either as a stand-alone or multi-component programs, and appeal to populations regardless of age and gender. Given that effects of games remain heterogeneous, further explorations of which game features create larger effects are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe frequency of acute medication intake relates to its perceived effectiveness in chronic headache patients
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Wens, T.; Paemeleire, K. et al

in JOURNAL OF HEADACHE AND PAIN (2014), 15(1),

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See detailVicarious pain while observing another in pain: an experimental approach.
Vandenbroucke, S.; Crombez, G.; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL et al

in Frontiers in human neuroscience (2013), 7

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at developing an experimental paradigm to assess vicarious pain experiences. We further explored the putative moderating role of observer's characteristics such as ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at developing an experimental paradigm to assess vicarious pain experiences. We further explored the putative moderating role of observer's characteristics such as hypervigilance for pain and dispositional empathy. METHODS: Two experiments are reported using a similar procedure. Undergraduate students were selected based upon whether they reported vicarious pain in daily life, and categorized into a pain responder group or a comparison group. Participants were presented a series of videos showing hands being pricked whilst receiving occasionally pricking (electrocutaneous) stimuli themselves. In congruent trials, pricking and visual stimuli were applied to the same spatial location. In incongruent trials, pricking and visual stimuli were in the opposite spatial location. Participants were required to report on which location they felt a pricking sensation. Of primary interest was the effect of viewing another in pain upon vicarious pain errors, i.e., the number of trials in which an illusionary sensation was reported. Furthermore, we explored the effect of individual differences in hypervigilance to pain, dispositional empathy and the rubber hand illusion (RHI) upon vicarious pain errors. RESULTS: RESULTS of both experiments indicated that the number of vicarious pain errors was overall low. In line with expectations, the number of vicarious pain errors was higher in the pain responder group than in the comparison group. Self-reported hypervigilance for pain lowered the probability of reporting vicarious pain errors in the pain responder group, but dispositional empathy and the RHI did not. CONCLUSION: Our paradigm allows measuring vicarious pain experiences in students. However, the prevalence of vicarious experiences of pain is low, and only a small percentage of participants display the phenomenon. It remains however unknown which variables affect its occurrence. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren's selective attention to pain and avoidance behaviour: the role of child and parental catastrophizing about pain.
Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL

in Pain (2013), 154(10), 1979-88

The present study investigated selective attention to pain in children, its implications for child avoidance behaviour, and the moderating role of dimensions comprising child and parental catastrophizing ... [more ▼]

The present study investigated selective attention to pain in children, its implications for child avoidance behaviour, and the moderating role of dimensions comprising child and parental catastrophizing about pain (ie, rumination, magnification, and helplessness). Participants were 59 children (31 boys) aged 10-16 years and one of their parents (41 mothers). Children performed a dot-probe task in which child facial pain displays of varying pain expressiveness were presented. Child avoidance behaviour was indexed by child pain tolerance during a cold-pressor task. Children and parents completed measures of child and parent pain catastrophizing, respectively. Findings indicated that both the nature of child selective attention to pain and the impact of selective attention upon child avoidance behaviour were differentially sensitive to specific dimensions of child and parental catastrophizing. Specifically, findings showed greater tendency to shift attention away from pain faces (i.e.,, attentional avoidance) among children reporting greater pain magnification. A similar pattern was observed in terms of parental characteristics, such that children increasingly shifted attention away from pain with increasing levels of parental rumination and helplessness. Furthermore, child attentional avoidance was associated with greater avoidance behaviour (i.e., lower pain tolerance) among children reporting high levels of pain magnification and those whose parents reported greater rumination about pain. The current findings corroborate catastrophizing as a multidimensional construct that may differentially impact outcomes and attest to the importance of assessing both child and parental characteristics in relation to child pain-related attention and avoidance behaviour. Further research directions are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit associations between pain and self-schema in patients with chronic pain.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; De Houwer, Jan; Van Bockstaele, Bram et al

in Pain (2013), 154(12), 2700-6

Chronic pain often interferes with daily functioning, and may become a threat to an individual's sense of self. Despite the development of a recent theoretical account focussing upon the relationship ... [more ▼]

Chronic pain often interferes with daily functioning, and may become a threat to an individual's sense of self. Despite the development of a recent theoretical account focussing upon the relationship between the presence of chronic pain and a person's self, research investigating this idea is limited. In the present study we aimed to (1) compare the strength of association between self- and pain schema in patients with chronic pain and healthy control subjects and (2) research whether the strength of association between self- and pain-schema is related to particular pain-related outcomes and individual differences of patients with chronic pain. Seventy-three patients with chronic pain (M(age) = 49.95; SD = 9.76) and 53 healthy volunteers (M(age) = 48.53; SD = 10.37) performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess the strength of association between pain- and self-schema. Patients with chronic pain also filled out self-report measures of pain severity, pain suffering, disability, depression, anxiety, acceptance, and helplessness. Results indicated that the pain- and self-schema were more strongly associated in patients with chronic pain than in healthy control subjects. Second, results indicated that, in patients with chronic pain, a stronger association between self- and pain-schema, as measured with the IAT, is related to a heightened level of pain severity, pain suffering, anxiety, and helplessness. Current findings give first support for the use of an IAT to investigate the strength of association between self- and pain-schema in patients with chronic pain and suggest that pain therapies may incorporate techniques that intervene on the level of self-pain enmeshment. [less ▲]

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See detailKeeping pain out of your mind: the role of attentional set in pain.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Crombez, G.; Eccleston, C. et al

in European journal of pain (London, England) (2013), 17(3), 402-11

BACKGROUND: The involuntary capture of attention by pain may, to some extent, be controlled by psychological variables. In this paper, we investigated the effect of attentional set (i.e., the collection ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The involuntary capture of attention by pain may, to some extent, be controlled by psychological variables. In this paper, we investigated the effect of attentional set (i.e., the collection of task-related features that a person is monitoring in order to successfully pursue a goal) on pain. METHODS: Two experiments are reported in which the task relevance of the modality and spatial location of a target stimulus was manipulated. In both experiments, somatosensory and auditory stimuli were presented on each trial. In experiment 1, 29 participants were cued on each trial to localize either a somatosensory or an auditory target. In experiment 2, 37 participants were cued on each trial to identify either a somatosensory or an auditory target at a particular location. RESULTS: In experiment 1, self-reported pain intensity and unpleasantness were reduced when participants had to localize the auditory target. The location of the painful stimulus relative to the location of the auditory target did not affect pain. In experiment 2, again, pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings were reduced when participants identified the auditory target. Now, the location of the painful stimulus relative to the location of the auditory target moderated the effect. Pain intensity was less when the painful stimulus was at a different location than the auditory target. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed in terms of the attentional set hypothesis, and we argue that the effectiveness of distraction tasks depends on the degree to which the task-relevant features of the distraction task are distinct from pain-related features. [less ▲]

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See detailAttentional bias to pain-related information: a meta-analysis.
Crombez, Geert; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Eccleston, Christopher et al

in Pain (2013), 154(4), 497-510

This meta-analysis investigated whether attentional bias, that is, the preferential allocation of attention to information that is related to pain, is a ubiquitous phenomenon. We also investigated whether ... [more ▼]

This meta-analysis investigated whether attentional bias, that is, the preferential allocation of attention to information that is related to pain, is a ubiquitous phenomenon. We also investigated whether attentional bias effects are related to the methodological quality of the study, to procedural differences in their measurement, or to individual differences in pain severity, pain-related fear, anxiety, and depression. Results indicated that individuals who experience chronic pain (n=1023) display an attentional bias towards pain-related words or pictures, but this bias was of a small effect size (d=0.134), and did not differ from that in control groups (d=0.082; n=1398). No evidence was found for an attentional bias towards pain-related words and pictures for acute pain (d=0.049), procedural pain (d=0.142), and experimental pain (d=0.069). However, research in which attentional bias towards signals of impending experimental pain in healthy volunteers was investigated, revealed an attentional bias of medium effect size (d=0.676). Moderator analyses in the chronic pain group identified important procedural variables that affected the presence and magnitude of an attentional bias towards pain-related words and pictures, that is, type and exposure time of pain-related information. None of the individual difference variables affected the magnitude of the attentional bias. Implications of current findings and future directions are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe predictive value of attentional bias towards pain-related information in chronic pain patients: a diary study.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Crombez, Geert; Goubert, Liesbet et al

in Pain (2013), 154(3), 468-75

Theoretical accounts of chronic pain hypothesize that attentional bias towards pain-related information is a maintaining or exacerbating factor, fuelling further pain, disability, and distress. However ... [more ▼]

Theoretical accounts of chronic pain hypothesize that attentional bias towards pain-related information is a maintaining or exacerbating factor, fuelling further pain, disability, and distress. However, empirical research testing this idea is currently lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether attentional bias towards pain-related information predicts daily pain-related outcomes in a sample of chronic pain patients (n=69; M(age)=49.64 years; 46 females). During an initial laboratory session, attentional bias to pain-related information was assessed using a modified spatial cueing task. In advance, patients completed a number of self-report measures assessing current pain intensity, current disability, and pain duration. Subsequently, daily pain outcomes (self-reported pain severity, disability, avoidance behaviour, and distractibility) were measured for 2 weeks by means of an electronic diary. Results indicated that, although an attentional bias towards pain-related information was associated with the current level of disability and pain severity, it had no additional value above control variables in predicting daily pain severity, avoidance, distractibility, and disability. Attentional bias towards pain-related information did, however, moderate the relationship between daily pain severity and both daily disability and distractibility, indicating that, particularly in those patients with a strong attentional bias, increases in pain were associated with increased disability and distractibility. The use of interventions that diminish attentional bias may therefore be helpful to reduce daily disability and the level of distraction from current tasks despite the presence of pain in chronic pain patients. [less ▲]

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See detailNo pain no gain? Pursuing a competing goal inhibits avoidance behavior.
Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Wyffels, Fran et al

in Pain (2012), 153(4), 800-4

This experiment investigated pain-related avoidance behavior in context of competing goals. Participants (N=56) were presented trials of 2 different tasks of which 1 task could produce pain. They were ... [more ▼]

This experiment investigated pain-related avoidance behavior in context of competing goals. Participants (N=56) were presented trials of 2 different tasks of which 1 task could produce pain. They were free to decide whether or not to perform trials of these tasks. In half of the participants, a competing goal was activated by instructing them that they would receive a monetary reward corresponding to the number of pain task trials actually performed (competition group). In the other half of the participants, no competing goal was installed (control group). Results showed that the competition group showed less frequent avoidance behavior than the control group. Furthermore, the association between pain-related avoidance behavior and fear of pain was smaller in the competition group than in the control group. The findings indicate that the emergence of pain-related avoidance behavior depends upon the motivational context, and that the association between pain-related fear and avoidance is not stable. This study has implications for our understanding of disability, and points to the need to consider avoidance behavior within a broad context of multiple, often competing, goals. [less ▲]

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See detailPain catastrophizing influences the use and the effectiveness of distraction in schoolchildren.
Verhoeven, K.; Goubert, L.; Jaaniste, T. et al

in European journal of pain (London, England) (2012), 16(2), 256-67

Distraction is an intuitive way of coping with pain and is often used in children's pain treatment programs. However, empirical evidence concerning the effectiveness of distraction is equivocal. One ... [more ▼]

Distraction is an intuitive way of coping with pain and is often used in children's pain treatment programs. However, empirical evidence concerning the effectiveness of distraction is equivocal. One potential explanation might be that distraction does not work for everyone in every situation. In the current series of studies, we examined the role of pain catastrophizing as an influencing factor of distraction effectiveness. In the first study, we investigated the use of pain coping strategies (including distraction) in schoolchildren (N = 828, aged 8-18 years) by means of a questionnaire. Results indicated that children with higher levels of pain catastrophizing reported using less distraction strategies in daily life than children with lower levels of pain catastrophizing. In the second study, a subsample (N = 81, aged 9-18 years) performed a painful cold pressor task (CPT) (12 degrees C). Participants were randomly assigned to a distraction group, in which an attention-demanding tone-detection task was performed during the CPT, or a control group, in which no distraction task was performed. Results showed that participants in the distraction group were engaged in the distraction task, and reported to have paid less attention to pain than participants in the control group. However, distraction was ineffective in reducing cold pressor pain, and even intensified the pain experience in high catastrophizing children. Caution may be warranted in using distraction as a 'one size fits all' method, especially in high catastrophizing children. [less ▲]

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See detailAttentional bias towards pain-related information diminishes the efficacy of distraction.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Crombez, Geert; Van Hulle, Lore et al

in Pain (2012), 153(12), 2345-51

Distraction is a strategy that is commonly used to cope with pain. Results concerning the efficacy of distraction from both experimental and clinical studies are variable, however, and indicate that its ... [more ▼]

Distraction is a strategy that is commonly used to cope with pain. Results concerning the efficacy of distraction from both experimental and clinical studies are variable, however, and indicate that its efficacy may depend on particular circumstances. Several models propose that distraction may be less effective for people who display a large attentional bias towards pain-related information. This hypothesis was tested in an experimental context with 53 pain-free volunteers. First, attentional bias towards cues signalling the occurrence of pain (electrocutaneous stimuli) and towards words describing the sensory experience of this painful stimulus was independently assessed by means of 2 behavioural paradigms (respectively, spatial cueing task and dot-probe task). This was followed by a subsequent distraction task during which the efficacy of distraction, by directing attention away from the electrocutaneous stimuli, was tested. In addition, state-trait anxiety, catastrophic thinking, and initial pain intensity were measured. Results indicated that people who display a large attentional bias towards predictive cues of pain or who initially experience the pain as more painful benefit less from distraction on a subsequent test. No effects were found between attentional bias towards pain words, state-trait anxiety, catastrophic thinking, and the efficacy of distraction. Current findings suggest that distraction should not be used as a 'one size fits all' method to control pain, but only under more specific conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe interruptive effect of pain in a multitask environment: an experimental investigation.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Crombez, Geert; Eccleston, Christopher et al

in The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society (2012), 13(2), 131-8

UNLABELLED: Daily life is characterized by the need to stop, start, repeat, and switch between multiple tasks. Here, we experimentally investigate the effects of pain, and its anticipation, in a multitask ... [more ▼]

UNLABELLED: Daily life is characterized by the need to stop, start, repeat, and switch between multiple tasks. Here, we experimentally investigate the effects of pain, and its anticipation, in a multitask environment. Using a task-switching paradigm, participants repeated and switched between 3 tasks, of which 1 predicted the possible occurrence of pain. Half of the participants received low intensity pain (N = 30), and half high intensity pain (N = 30). Results showed that pain interferes with the performance of a simultaneous task, independent of the pain intensity. Furthermore, pain interferes with the performance on a subsequent task. These effects are stronger with high intensity pain than with low intensity pain. Finally, and of particular importance in this study, interference of pain on a subsequent task was larger when participants switched to another task than when participants repeated the same task. PERSPECTIVE: This article is concerned with the interruptive effect of pain on people's task performance by using an adapted task-switching paradigm. This adapted paradigm may offer unique possibilities to investigate how pain interferes with task performance while people repeat and switch between multiple tasks in a multitask environment. [less ▲]

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See detailDistraction from pain and executive functioning: an experimental investigation of the role of inhibition, task switching and working memory.
Verhoeven, Katrien; Van Damme, Stefaan; Eccleston, Christopher et al

in European journal of pain (London, England) (2011), 15(8), 866-73

Although many studies have investigated the effectiveness of distraction as a method of pain control, the cognitive processes by which attentional re-direction is achieved, remain unclear. In this study ... [more ▼]

Although many studies have investigated the effectiveness of distraction as a method of pain control, the cognitive processes by which attentional re-direction is achieved, remain unclear. In this study the role of executive functioning abilities (inhibition, task switching and working memory) in the effectiveness of distraction is investigated. We hypothesized that the effectiveness of distraction in terms of pain reduction would be larger in participants with better executive functioning abilities. Ninety-one undergraduate students first performed executive functioning tasks, and subsequently participated in a cold pressor task (CPT). Participants were randomly assigned to (1) a distraction group, in which an attention-demanding tone-detection task was performed during the CPT, or (2) a control group, in which no distraction task was performed. Participants in the distraction group reported significantly less pain during the CPT, but the pain experience was not influenced by executive functioning abilities. However, the performance on the distraction task improved with better inhibition abilities, indicating that inhibition abilities might be important in focussing on a task despite the pain. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen you dislike patients, pain is taken less seriously.
De Ruddere, Lies; Goubert, Liesbet; Prkachin, Ken Martin et al

in Pain (2011), 152(10), 2342-7

This study examined the influence of patients' likability on pain estimations made by observers. Patients' likability was manipulated by means of an evaluative conditioning procedure: pictures of patients ... [more ▼]

This study examined the influence of patients' likability on pain estimations made by observers. Patients' likability was manipulated by means of an evaluative conditioning procedure: pictures of patients were combined with either positive, neutral, or negative personal traits. Next, videos of the patients were presented to 40 observers who rated the pain. Patients were expressing no, mild-, or high-intensity pain. Results indicated lower pain estimations as well as lower perceptual sensitivity toward pain (i.e., lower ability to discriminate between varying levels of pain expression) with regard to patients who were associated with negative personal traits. The effect on pain estimations was only found with regard to patients expressing high-intensity pain. There was no effect on response bias (i.e., the overall tendency to indicate pain). These findings suggest that we take the pain of patients we do not like less seriously than the pain of patients we like. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of spatial attention in attentional control over pain: an experimental investigation.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Van Damme, Stefaan; Crombez, Geert et al

in Experimental brain research (2011), 208(2), 269-75

Distraction is a common method of pain control that is often found to be effective. However, it is still largely unexplored which components of distraction are responsible for its effects. This study ... [more ▼]

Distraction is a common method of pain control that is often found to be effective. However, it is still largely unexplored which components of distraction are responsible for its effects. This study investigated the role of the spatial location of task-relevant stimuli in the effectiveness of distraction. Two experiments were performed in which the spatial location of visual stimuli during nociceptive input was manipulated. In a first experiment, we tested whether the reaction to nociceptive information is slower when visual stimuli are presented at a different spatial location than at the same spatial location. In a second experiment, we examined whether the manipulation of spatial location affects the experience of pain. Overall, results indicated that directing attention away from the pain location results in a slower response to painful stimuli and a reduction in pain. It may be concluded that the analgesic effect of distraction is at least partly the result of the spatial location of the distracting information. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 UL)