References of "Thiele, Ines 50003192"
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See detailA compendium of inborn errors of metabolism mapped onto the human metabolic network
Sahoo, Swagatika UL; Franzson; Jonsson, Jon J et al

in Molecular Biosystems (2012), 8(10), 2545-2558

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are hereditary metabolic defects, which are encountered in almost all major metabolic pathways occurring in man. Many IEMs are screened for in neonates through ... [more ▼]

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are hereditary metabolic defects, which are encountered in almost all major metabolic pathways occurring in man. Many IEMs are screened for in neonates through metabolomic analysis of dried blood spot samples. To enable the mapping of these metabolomic data onto the published human metabolic reconstruction, we added missing reactions and pathways involved in acylcarnitine (AC) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) metabolism. Using literary data, we reconstructed an AC/FAO module consisting of 352 reactions and 139 metabolites. When this module was combined with the human metabolic reconstruction, the synthesis of 39 acylcarnitines and 22 amino acids, which are routinely measured, was captured and 235 distinct IEMs could be mapped. We collected phenotypic and clinical features for each IEM enabling comprehensive classification. We found that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism were most affected by the IEMs, while the brain was the most commonly affected organ. Furthermore, we analyzed the IEMs in the context of metabolic network topology to gain insight into common features between metabolically connected IEMs. While many known examples were identified, we discovered some surprising IEM pairs that shared reactions as well as clinical features but not necessarily causal genes. Moreover, we could also re-confirm that acetyl-CoA acts as a central metabolite. This network based analysis leads to further insight of hot spots in human metabolism with respect to IEMs. The presented comprehensive knowledge base of IEMs will provide a valuable tool in studying metabolic changes involved in inherited metabolic diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailThe human metabolic reconstruction Recon 1 directs hypotheses of novel human metabolic functions.
Rolfsson, Ottar; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Thiele, Ines UL

in BMC Systems Biology (2011), 5

BACKGROUND: Metabolic network reconstructions formalize our knowledge of metabolism. Gaps in these networks pinpoint regions of metabolism where biological components and functions are "missing." At the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Metabolic network reconstructions formalize our knowledge of metabolism. Gaps in these networks pinpoint regions of metabolism where biological components and functions are "missing." At the same time, a major challenge in the post genomic era involves characterisation of missing biological components to complete genome annotation. RESULTS: We used the human metabolic network reconstruction RECON 1 and established constraint-based modelling tools to uncover novel functions associated with human metabolism. Flux variability analysis identified 175 gaps in RECON 1 in the form of blocked reactions. These gaps were unevenly distributed within metabolic pathways but primarily found in the cytosol and often caused by compounds whose metabolic fate, rather than production, is unknown. Using a published algorithm, we computed gap-filling solutions comprised of non-organism specific metabolic reactions capable of bridging the identified gaps. These candidate solutions were found to be dependent upon the reaction environment of the blocked reaction. Importantly, we showed that automatically generated solutions could produce biologically realistic hypotheses of novel human metabolic reactions such as of the fate of iduronic acid following glycan degradation and of N-acetylglutamate in amino acid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate how metabolic models can be utilised to direct hypotheses of novel metabolic functions in human metabolism; a process that we find is heavily reliant upon manual curation and biochemical insight. The effectiveness of a systems approach for novel biochemical pathway discovery in mammals is demonstrated and steps required to tailor future gap filling algorithms to mammalian metabolic networks are proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative prediction of cellular metabolism with constraint-based models: the COBRA Toolbox v2.0.
Schellenberger, Jan; Que, Richard; Fleming, Ronan MT UL et al

in Nature Protocols (2011), 6(9), 1290-1307

Over the past decade, a growing community of researchers has emerged around the use of constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods to simulate, analyze and predict a variety of metabolic ... [more ▼]

Over the past decade, a growing community of researchers has emerged around the use of constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods to simulate, analyze and predict a variety of metabolic phenotypes using genome-scale models. The COBRA Toolbox, a MATLAB package for implementing COBRA methods, was presented earlier. Here we present a substantial update of this in silico toolbox. Version 2.0 of the COBRA Toolbox expands the scope of computations by including in silico analysis methods developed since its original release. New functions include (i) network gap filling, (ii) (13)C analysis, (iii) metabolic engineering, (iv) omics-guided analysis and (v) visualization. As with the first version, the COBRA Toolbox reads and writes systems biology markup language-formatted models. In version 2.0, we improved performance, usability and the level of documentation. A suite of test scripts can now be used to learn the core functionality of the toolbox and validate results. This toolbox lowers the barrier of entry to use powerful COBRA methods. [less ▲]

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See detailvon Bertalanffy 1.0: a COBRA toolbox extension to thermodynamically constrain metabolic models.
Fleming, Ronan MT UL; Thiele, Ines UL

in Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) (2011), 27(1), 142-3

MOTIVATION: In flux balance analysis of genome scale stoichiometric models of metabolism, the principal constraints are uptake or secretion rates, the steady state mass conservation assumption and ... [more ▼]

MOTIVATION: In flux balance analysis of genome scale stoichiometric models of metabolism, the principal constraints are uptake or secretion rates, the steady state mass conservation assumption and reaction directionality. Here, we introduce an algorithmic pipeline for quantitative assignment of reaction directionality in multi-compartmental genome scale models based on an application of the second law of thermodynamics to each reaction. Given experimental or computationally estimated standard metabolite species Gibbs energy and metabolite concentrations, the algorithms bounds reaction Gibbs energy, which is transformed to in vivo pH, temperature, ionic strength and electrical potential. RESULTS: This cross-platform MATLAB extension to the COnstraint-Based Reconstruction and Analysis (COBRA) toolbox is computationally efficient, extensively documented and open source. AVAILABILITY: http://opencobra.sourceforge.net. [less ▲]

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See detailA community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2.
Thiele, Ines UL; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Steeb, Benjamin et al

in BMC Systems Biology (2011), 5

BACKGROUND: Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. RESULTS: Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i) development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii) incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii) use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. CONCLUSION: Taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailrBioNet: A COBRA toolbox extension for reconstructing high-quality biochemical networks.
Thorleifsson, Stefan Gretar; Thiele, Ines UL

in Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) (2011), 27(14), 2009-10

MOTIVATION: Genome-scale metabolic networks are widely used in systems biology. However, to date no freely available tool exists that ensures quality control during the reconstruction process. RESULTS ... [more ▼]

MOTIVATION: Genome-scale metabolic networks are widely used in systems biology. However, to date no freely available tool exists that ensures quality control during the reconstruction process. RESULTS: Here, we present a COBRA toolbox extension, rBioNet, enabling the construction of publication-level biochemical networks while enforcing necessary quality control measures. rBioNet has an intuitive user interface facilitating the reconstruction process for novices and experts. AVAILABILITY: The rBioNet is freely available from http://opencobra.sourceforge.net. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.
Fleming, Ronan MT UL; Thiele, Ines UL; Provan, G. et al

in Journal of Theoretical Biology (2010), 264(3), 683-92

The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for ... [more ▼]

The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailA detailed genome-wide reconstruction of mouse metabolism based on human Recon 1
Sigurdsson, Martin I.; Jamshidi, Neema; Steingrimsson, Eirikur et al

in BMC Systems Biology (2010), 4

BACKGROUND: Well-curated and validated network reconstructions are extremely valuable tools in systems biology. Detailed metabolic reconstructions of mammals have recently emerged, including human ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Well-curated and validated network reconstructions are extremely valuable tools in systems biology. Detailed metabolic reconstructions of mammals have recently emerged, including human reconstructions. They raise the question if the various successful applications of microbial reconstructions can be replicated in complex organisms. RESULTS: We mapped the published, detailed reconstruction of human metabolism (Recon 1) to other mammals. By searching for genes homologous to Recon 1 genes within mammalian genomes, we were able to create draft metabolic reconstructions of five mammals, including the mouse. Each draft reconstruction was created in compartmentalized and non-compartmentalized version via two different approaches. Using gap-filling algorithms, we were able to produce all cellular components with three out of four versions of the mouse metabolic reconstruction. We finalized a functional model by iterative testing until it passed a predefined set of 260 validation tests. The reconstruction is the largest, most comprehensive mouse reconstruction to-date, accounting for 1,415 genes coding for 2,212 gene-associated reactions and 1,514 non-gene-associated reactions.We tested the mouse model for phenotype prediction capabilities. The majority of predicted essential genes were also essential in vivo. However, our non-tissue specific model was unable to predict gene essentiality for many of the metabolic genes shown to be essential in vivo. Our knockout simulation of the lipoprotein lipase gene correlated well with experimental results, suggesting that softer phenotypes can also be simulated. CONCLUSIONS: We have created a high-quality mouse genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, iMM1415 (Mus Musculus, 1415 genes). We demonstrate that the mouse model can be used to perform phenotype simulations, similar to models of microbe metabolism. Since the mouse is an important experimental organism, this model should become an essential tool for studying metabolic phenotypes in mice, including outcomes from drug screening. [less ▲]

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See detailComputationally efficient flux variability analysis
Gudmundsson, Steinn; Thiele, Ines UL

in BMC Bioinformatics (2010), 11

BACKGROUND: Flux variability analysis is often used to determine robustness of metabolic models in various simulation conditions. However, its use has been somehow limited by the long computation time ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Flux variability analysis is often used to determine robustness of metabolic models in various simulation conditions. However, its use has been somehow limited by the long computation time compared to other constraint-based modeling methods. RESULTS: We present an open source implementation of flux variability analysis called fastFVA. This efficient implementation makes large-scale flux variability analysis feasible and tractable allowing more complex biological questions regarding network flexibility and robustness to be addressed. CONCLUSIONS: Networks involving thousands of biochemical reactions can be analyzed within seconds, greatly expanding the utility of flux variability analysis in systems biology. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is flux balance analysis?
Orth, Jeffrey D.; Thiele, Ines UL; Palsson, Bernhard O.

in Nature Biotechnology (2010), 28(3), 245-8

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See detailA protocol for generating a high-quality genome-scale metabolic reconstruction.
Thiele, Ines UL; Palsson, Bernhard O.

in Nature Protocols (2010), 5(1), 93-121

Network reconstructions are a common denominator in systems biology. Bottom-up metabolic network reconstructions have been developed over the last 10 years. These reconstructions represent structured ... [more ▼]

Network reconstructions are a common denominator in systems biology. Bottom-up metabolic network reconstructions have been developed over the last 10 years. These reconstructions represent structured knowledge bases that abstract pertinent information on the biochemical transformations taking place within specific target organisms. The conversion of a reconstruction into a mathematical format facilitates a myriad of computational biological studies, including evaluation of network content, hypothesis testing and generation, analysis of phenotypic characteristics and metabolic engineering. To date, genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for more than 30 organisms have been published and this number is expected to increase rapidly. However, these reconstructions differ in quality and coverage that may minimize their predictive potential and use as knowledge bases. Here we present a comprehensive protocol describing each step necessary to build a high-quality genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, as well as the common trials and tribulations. Therefore, this protocol provides a helpful manual for all stages of the reconstruction process. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstruction annotation jamborees: a community approach to systems biology.
Thiele, Ines UL; Palsson, Bernhard O.

in Molecular Systems Biology (2010), 6

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See detailFunctional characterization of alternate optimal solutions of Escherichia coli's transcriptional and translational machinery.
Thiele, Ines UL; Fleming, Ronan MT UL; Bordbar, Aarash et al

in Biophysical Journal (2010), 98(10), 2072-81

The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis approach has recently been extended to describe Escherichia coli's transcriptional and translational machinery. Here, we introduce the concept of reaction ... [more ▼]

The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis approach has recently been extended to describe Escherichia coli's transcriptional and translational machinery. Here, we introduce the concept of reaction coupling to represent the dependency between protein synthesis and utilization. These coupling constraints lead to a significant contraction of the feasible set of steady-state fluxes. The subset of alternate optimal solutions (AOS) consistent with maximal ribosome production was calculated. The majority of transcriptional and translational reactions were active for all of these AOS, showing that the network has a low degree of redundancy. Furthermore, all calculated AOS contained the qualitative expression of at least 92% of the known essential genes. Principal component analysis of AOS demonstrated that energy currencies (ATP, GTP, and phosphate) dominate the network's capability to produce ribosomes. Additionally, we identified regulatory control points of the network, which include the transcription reactions of sigma70 (RpoD) as well as that of a degradosome component (Rne) and of tRNA charging (ValS). These reactions contribute significant variance among AOS. These results show that constraint-based modeling can be applied to gain insight into the systemic properties of E. coli's transcriptional and translational machinery. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative assignment of reaction directionality in constraint-based models of metabolism: application to Escherichia coli.
Fleming, Ronan MT UL; Thiele, Ines UL; Nasheuer, H. P.

in Biophysical Chemistry (2009), 145(2-3), 47-56

Constraint-based modeling is an approach for quantitative prediction of net reaction flux in genome-scale biochemical networks. In vivo, the second law of thermodynamics requires that net macroscopic flux ... [more ▼]

Constraint-based modeling is an approach for quantitative prediction of net reaction flux in genome-scale biochemical networks. In vivo, the second law of thermodynamics requires that net macroscopic flux be forward, when the transformed reaction Gibbs energy is negative. We calculate the latter by using (i) group contribution estimates of metabolite species Gibbs energy, combined with (ii) experimentally measured equilibrium constants. In an application to a genome-scale stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism, iAF1260, we demonstrate that quantitative prediction of reaction directionality is increased in scope and accuracy by integration of both data sources, transformed appropriately to in vivo pH, temperature and ionic strength. Comparison of quantitative versus qualitative assignment of reaction directionality in iAF1260, assuming an accommodating reactant concentration range of 0.02-20mM, revealed that quantitative assignment leads to a low false positive, but high false negative, prediction of effectively irreversible reactions. The latter is partly due to the uncertainty associated with group contribution estimates. We also uncovered evidence that the high intracellular concentration of glutamate in E. coli may be essential to direct otherwise thermodynamically unfavorable essential reactions, such as the leucine transaminase reaction, in an anabolic direction. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolic network analysis integrated with transcript verification for sequenced genomes.
Manichaikul, Ani; Ghamsari, Lila; Hom, Erik F. Y. et al

in Nature Methods (2009), 6(8), 589-592

With sequencing of thousands of organisms completed or in progress, there is a growing need to integrate gene prediction with metabolic network analysis. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model, we ... [more ▼]

With sequencing of thousands of organisms completed or in progress, there is a growing need to integrate gene prediction with metabolic network analysis. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model, we describe a systems-level methodology bridging metabolic network reconstruction with experimental verification of enzyme encoding open reading frames. Our quantitative and predictive metabolic model and its associated cloned open reading frames provide useful resources for metabolic engineering. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of potential pathway mediation targets in Toll-like receptor signaling.
Li, Fan; Thiele, Ines UL; Jamshidi, Neema et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2009), 5(2), 1000292

Recent advances in reconstruction and analytical methods for signaling networks have spurred the development of large-scale models that incorporate fully functional and biologically relevant features. An ... [more ▼]

Recent advances in reconstruction and analytical methods for signaling networks have spurred the development of large-scale models that incorporate fully functional and biologically relevant features. An extended reconstruction of the human Toll-like receptor signaling network is presented herein. This reconstruction contains an extensive complement of kinases, phosphatases, and other associated proteins that mediate the signaling cascade along with a delineation of their associated chemical reactions. A computational framework based on the methods of large-scale convex analysis was developed and applied to this network to characterize input-output relationships. The input-output relationships enabled significant modularization of the network into ten pathways. The analysis identified potential candidates for inhibitory mediation of TLR signaling with respect to their specificity and potency. Subsequently, we were able to identify eight novel inhibition targets through constraint-based modeling methods. The results of this study are expected to yield meaningful avenues for further research in the task of mediating the Toll-like receptor signaling network and its effects. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstruction of biochemical networks in microorganisms.
Feist, Adam M.; Herrgard, Markus J.; Thiele, Ines UL et al

in Nature Reviews. Microbiology (2009), 7(2), 129-43

Systems analysis of metabolic and growth functions in microbial organisms is rapidly developing and maturing. Such studies are enabled by reconstruction, at the genomic scale, of the biochemical reaction ... [more ▼]

Systems analysis of metabolic and growth functions in microbial organisms is rapidly developing and maturing. Such studies are enabled by reconstruction, at the genomic scale, of the biochemical reaction networks that underlie cellular processes. The network reconstruction process is organism specific and is based on an annotated genome sequence, high-throughput network-wide data sets and bibliomic data on the detailed properties of individual network components. Here we describe the process that is currently used to achieve comprehensive network reconstructions and discuss how these reconstructions are curated and validated. This review should aid the growing number of researchers who are carrying out reconstructions for particular target organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailThree-dimensional structural view of the central metabolic network of Thermotoga maritima.
Zhang, Ying; Thiele, Ines UL; Weekes, Dana et al

in Science (New York, N.Y.) (2009), 325(5947), 1544-1549

Metabolic pathways have traditionally been described in terms of biochemical reactions and metabolites. With the use of structural genomics and systems biology, we generated a three-dimensional ... [more ▼]

Metabolic pathways have traditionally been described in terms of biochemical reactions and metabolites. With the use of structural genomics and systems biology, we generated a three-dimensional reconstruction of the central metabolic network of the bacterium Thermotoga maritima. The network encompassed 478 proteins, of which 120 were determined by experiment and 358 were modeled. Structural analysis revealed that proteins forming the network are dominated by a small number (only 182) of basic shapes (folds) performing diverse but mostly related functions. Most of these folds are already present in the essential core (approximately 30%) of the network, and its expansion by nonessential proteins is achieved with relatively few additional folds. Thus, integration of structural data with networks analysis generates insight into the function, mechanism, and evolution of biological networks. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-scale reconstruction of Escherichia coli's transcriptional and translational machinery: a knowledge base, its mathematical formulation, and its functional characterization.
Thiele, Ines UL; Jamshidi, Neema; Fleming, Ronan MT UL et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2009), 5(3), 1000312

Metabolic network reconstructions represent valuable scaffolds for '-omics' data integration and are used to computationally interrogate network properties. However, they do not explicitly account for the ... [more ▼]

Metabolic network reconstructions represent valuable scaffolds for '-omics' data integration and are used to computationally interrogate network properties. However, they do not explicitly account for the synthesis of macromolecules (i.e., proteins and RNA). Here, we present the first genome-scale, fine-grained reconstruction of Escherichia coli's transcriptional and translational machinery, which produces 423 functional gene products in a sequence-specific manner and accounts for all necessary chemical transformations. Legacy data from over 500 publications and three databases were reviewed, and many pathways were considered, including stable RNA maturation and modification, protein complex formation, and iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. This reconstruction represents the most comprehensive knowledge base for these important cellular functions in E. coli and is unique in its scope. Furthermore, it was converted into a mathematical model and used to: (1) quantitatively integrate gene expression data as reaction constraints and (2) compute functional network states, which were compared to reported experimental data. For example, the model predicted accurately the ribosome production, without any parameterization. Also, in silico rRNA operon deletion suggested that a high RNA polymerase density on the remaining rRNA operons is needed to reproduce the reported experimental ribosome numbers. Moreover, functional protein modules were determined, and many were found to contain gene products from multiple subsystems, highlighting the functional interaction of these proteins. This genome-scale reconstruction of E. coli's transcriptional and translational machinery presents a milestone in systems biology because it will enable quantitative integration of '-omics' datasets and thus the study of the mechanistic principles underlying the genotype-phenotype relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailA genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440: iJN746 as a cell factory.
Nogales, Juan; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Thiele, Ines UL

in BMC Systems Biology (2008), 2

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas putida is the best studied pollutant degradative bacteria and is harnessed by industrial biotechnology to synthesize fine chemicals. Since the publication of P. putida KT2440's ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas putida is the best studied pollutant degradative bacteria and is harnessed by industrial biotechnology to synthesize fine chemicals. Since the publication of P. putida KT2440's genome, some in silico analyses of its metabolic and biotechnology capacities have been published. However, global understanding of the capabilities of P. putida KT2440 requires the construction of a metabolic model that enables the integration of classical experimental data along with genomic and high-throughput data. The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) approach has been successfully used to build and analyze in silico genome-scale metabolic reconstructions. RESULTS: We present a genome-scale reconstruction of P. putida KT2440's metabolism, iJN746, which was constructed based on genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. This manually-curated reconstruction accounts for 746 genes, 950 reactions, and 911 metabolites. iJN746 captures biotechnologically relevant pathways, including polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis and catabolic pathways of aromatic compounds (e.g., toluene, benzoate, phenylacetate, nicotinate), not described in other metabolic reconstructions or biochemical databases. The predictive potential of iJN746 was validated using experimental data including growth performance and gene deletion studies. Furthermore, in silico growth on toluene was found to be oxygen-limited, suggesting the existence of oxygen-efficient pathways not yet annotated in P. putida's genome. Moreover, we evaluated the production efficiency of polyhydroxyalkanoates from various carbon sources and found fatty acids as the most prominent candidates, as expected. CONCLUSION: Here we presented the first genome-scale reconstruction of P. putida, a biotechnologically interesting all-surrounder. Taken together, this work illustrates the utility of iJN746 as i) a knowledge-base, ii) a discovery tool, and iii) an engineering platform to explore P. putida's potential in bioremediation and bioplastic production. [less ▲]

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