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See detailA Hybrid Cognitive Transceiver Architecture: Sensing-Throughput Tradeoff
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks (2014, June)

Spectrum Sensing (SS) and underlay have been considered as two important techniques for enabling the spectral coexistence of the licensed and unlicensed wireless communication systems. The SS only ... [more ▼]

Spectrum Sensing (SS) and underlay have been considered as two important techniques for enabling the spectral coexistence of the licensed and unlicensed wireless communication systems. The SS only approach ignores the interference tolerance capability of the Primary Users (PUs) while assuming the bursty PU traffic whereas the possibility of having secondary transmission with full power is neglected in an underlay based approach. To address this, it’s crucial to investigate suitable hybrid spectrum awareness and transmission strategies which can overcome the aforementioned drawbacks and achieve higher secondary throughput while protecting the PUs. In this context, we propose a hybrid cognitive transceiver which combines the SS approach with the power control based underlay approach. Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of the proposed hybrid approach considering both periodic sensing and simultaneous sensing/transmission schemes. Moreover, sensing-throughput tradeoff for the proposed hybrid approach is investigated and the performance is compared with the conventional SS only approaches in terms of the achievable throughput. It is shown that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant improvement in the secondary throughput over the conventional approaches while respecting the interference constraints of the PUs. [less ▲]

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See detailCompressive Sparsity Order Estimation for Wideband Cognitive Radio Receiver
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (2014, June)

Compressive Sensing (CS) has been widely investigated in the Cognitive Radio (CR) literature in order to reduce the hardware cost of sensing wideband signals assuming prior knowledge of the sparsity ... [more ▼]

Compressive Sensing (CS) has been widely investigated in the Cognitive Radio (CR) literature in order to reduce the hardware cost of sensing wideband signals assuming prior knowledge of the sparsity pattern. However, the sparsity order of the channel occupancy is time-varying and the sampling rate of the CS receiver needs to be adjusted based on its value in order to fully exploit the potential of CS-based techniques. In this context, investigating blind Sparsity Order Estimation (SOE) techniques is an open research issue. To address this, we study an eigenvalue based compressive SOE technique using asymptotic Random Matrix Theory. We carry out detailed theoretical analysis for the signal plus noise case to derive the asymptotic eigenvalue probability distribution function (aepdf) of the measured signal’s covariance matrix for sparse signals. Subsequently, based on the derived aepdf expression, we present a technique to estimate the sparsity order of the wideband spectrum with compressive measurements using the maximum eigenvalue of the measured signal’s covariance matrix. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated in terms of normalized SOE Error (SOEE). It is shown that the sparsity order of the wideband spectrum can be reliably estimated using the proposed technique. [less ▲]

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See detailFP7 PROJECT CoRaSat intermediate results and standardization strategy: Cognitive radio techniques in Ka band SatCom context
Chumberre, Nicolas; Evans, Barry; Vanelli-Coralli, Alessandro et al

in Proc. European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC) (2014, June)

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See detailTechnical Challenges for Cognitive Radio Application in Satellite Communications
Tarchi, Daniele; Guidotti, Alessandro; Icolari, Vincenzo et al

in 9th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CROWNCOM), 2014 (2014, June)

During the last years, spectrum scarcity has become one of the major issues for the development of new communication systems. Cognitive Radio (CR) approaches have gained an ever increasing attention from ... [more ▼]

During the last years, spectrum scarcity has become one of the major issues for the development of new communication systems. Cognitive Radio (CR) approaches have gained an ever increasing attention from system designers and operators, as they promise a more efficient utilization of the available spectral resources. In this context, while the application of CRs in terrestrial scenarios has been widely considered from both theoretical and practical viewpoints, their exploitation in satellite communications is still a rather unexplored area. In this paper, we address the definition of several satellite communications scenarios, where cognitive radio techniques promise to introduce significant benefits, and we discuss the major enablers and the associated challenges [less ▲]

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See detailMaximum Eigenvalue Detection for Spectrum Sensing Under Correlated Noise
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 2014 (2014, May)

Herein, we consider the problem of detecting primary users’ signals in the presence of noise correlation, which may arise due to imperfections in filtering and oversampling operations in a Cognitive Radio ... [more ▼]

Herein, we consider the problem of detecting primary users’ signals in the presence of noise correlation, which may arise due to imperfections in filtering and oversampling operations in a Cognitive Radio (CR) receiver. In this context, we study a Maximum Eigenvalue (ME) detection technique using recent results from Random Matrix Theory (RMT) for characterizing the distribution of the maximum eigenvalue of a class of sample covariance matrices. Subsequently, we derive a theoretical expression for a sensing threshold as a function of the probability of false alarm and evaluate the sensing performance in terms of probability of correct decision. It is shown that the proposed approach significantly improves the sensing performance of the ME detector in correlated noise scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailCompressive SNR Estimation for Wideband Cognitive Radio under Correlated Scenarios
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (2014, April)

Estimating the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the Primary Users’ (PUs) signals over a wideband spectrum accurately is crucial in order to fully exploit an under-utilized primary spectrum using underlay ... [more ▼]

Estimating the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the Primary Users’ (PUs) signals over a wideband spectrum accurately is crucial in order to fully exploit an under-utilized primary spectrum using underlay Cognitive Radio (CR) techniques. In this context, we study an SNR estimation problem for a wideband CR under practical correlated scenarios in compressive settings. We carry out detailed theoretical analysis for the considered scenarios and then derive the expressions for the asymptotic eigenvalue probability distribution function (aepdf) of the measured signal’s covariance matrix using asymptotic Random Matrix Theory. Subsequently, based on the derived aepdfs, we present a technique to estimate the PU SNR over a wideband spectrum with compressive measurements. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated in terms of normalized Mean Square Error (MSE) and it is shown that the SNR of the PU signals over the wideband spectrum can be reliably estimated using the proposed technique. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive Beamhopping for Spectral Coexistence of Multibeam Satellites
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking (2014)

Herein, the spectral coexistence scenario of two multibeam satellites over a common coverage area is studied where a primary satellite produces larger beams while a secondary satellite has smaller beams ... [more ▼]

Herein, the spectral coexistence scenario of two multibeam satellites over a common coverage area is studied where a primary satellite produces larger beams while a secondary satellite has smaller beams. A novel cognitive beamhopping satellite system is proposed assuming that the secondary gateway is aware of the primary’s beamhopping pattern. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated and compared with that of conventional multibeam and beamhopping systems in terms of throughput. It is shown that the proposed system significantly enhances the Spectral Efficiency (SE) in comparison to other systems. Furthermore, a power control technique is applied on the secondary transmission in order to adhere to the primary’s interference constraint. It is noted that the total SE increases with the number of secondary users in the full frequency reuse approach. Moreover, the Exclusion Zone (EZ) principle is applied to exploit the regions in which the secondary system can operate without causing harmful interference to the primary system. It is shown that the EZ radius of 8.5 dB is sufficient to protect the primary system perfectly with a significant gain in SE. Finally, it is shown that power control and the EZ methods are suitable for lower and higher values of secondary aggregated interference respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive Interference Alignment for Spectral Coexistence
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Cognitive Radio and Networking for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (2014)

Interference Alignment (IA) has been widely recognized as a promising interference mitigation technique since it can achieve the optimal degrees of freedom in certain interference limited channels. In the ... [more ▼]

Interference Alignment (IA) has been widely recognized as a promising interference mitigation technique since it can achieve the optimal degrees of freedom in certain interference limited channels. In the context of Cognitive Radio (CR) networks, this technique allows the coexistence of two heterogeneous wireless systems in an underlay cognitive mode. The main concept behind this technique is the alignment of the interference on a signal subspace in such a way that it can be filtered out at the non-intended receiver by sacrificing some signal dimensions. This chapter starts with an overview of IA principle, Degree of Freedom (DoF) concept, and the classification of existing IA techniques. Furthermore, this chapter includes a discussion about IA applications in CR networks.Moreover, a generic system model is presented for allowing the coexistence of two heterogeneous networks using IA approach while relevant precoding and filtering processes are described. In addition, two important practical applications of the IA technique are presented along with the numerical results for underlay spectral coexistence of (i) femtocell-macrocell systems, and (ii) monobeam-multibeam satellite systems. More specifically, an uplink IA scheme is investigated in order to mitigate the interference of femtocell User Terminals (UTs) towards the macrocell Base Station (BS) in the spatial domain and the interference of multibeam satellite terminals towards the monobeam satellite in the frequency domain. [less ▲]

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See detailCompressive Sparsity Order Estimation for Wideband Cognitive Radio Receiver
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2014)

Compressive Sensing (CS) has been widely investigated in the Cognitive Radio (CR) literature in order to reduce the hardware cost of sensing wideband signals assuming prior knowledge of the sparsity ... [more ▼]

Compressive Sensing (CS) has been widely investigated in the Cognitive Radio (CR) literature in order to reduce the hardware cost of sensing wideband signals assuming prior knowledge of the sparsity pattern. However, the sparsity order of the channel occupancy is time-varying and the sampling rate of the CS receiver needs to be adjusted based on its value in order to fully exploit the potential of CS-based techniques. In this context, investigating blind Sparsity Order Estimation (SOE) techniques is an open research issue. To address this, we study an eigenvalue-based compressive SOE technique using asymptotic Random Matrix Theory. We carry out detailed theoretical analysis for the signal plus noise case to derive the asymptotic eigenvalue probability distribution function (aepdf) of the measured signal’s covariance matrix for sparse signals. Subsequently, based on the derived aepdf expressions, we propose a technique to estimate the sparsity order of the wideband spectrum with compressive measurements using the maximum eigenvalue of the measured signal’s covariance matrix. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated in terms of normalized SOE Error (SOEE). It is shown that the sparsity order of the wideband spectrum can be reliably estimated using the proposed technique for a variety of scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailSNR Estimation for Multi-dimensional Cognitive Receiver under Correlated Channel/Noise
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2013), 12(12), 6392-6405

In addition to Spectrum Sensing (SS) capability required by a Cognitive Radio (CR), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) estimation of the primary signals at the CR receiver is crucial in order to adapt its ... [more ▼]

In addition to Spectrum Sensing (SS) capability required by a Cognitive Radio (CR), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) estimation of the primary signals at the CR receiver is crucial in order to adapt its coverage area dynamically using underlay techniques. In practical scenarios, channel and noise may be correlated due to various reasons and SNR estimation techniques with the assumption of white noise and uncorrelated channel may not be suitable for estimating the primary SNR. In this paper, firstly, we study the performance of different eigenvaluebased SS techniques in the presence of channel or/and noise correlation. Secondly, we carry out detailed theoretical analysis of the signal plus noise hypothesis to derive the asymptotic eigenvalue probability distribution function (a.e.p.d.f.) of the received signal’s covariance matrix under the following two cases: (i) correlated channel and white noise, and (ii) correlated channel and correlated noise, which is the main contribution of this paper. Finally, an SNR estimation technique based on the derived a.e.p.d.f is proposed in the presence of channel/noise correlation and its performance is evaluated in terms of normalized Mean Square Error (MSE). It is shown that the PU SNR can be reliably estimated when the CR sensing module is aware of the channel/noise correlation. [less ▲]

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See detailEigenvalue Based Sensing and SNR Estimation for Cognitive Radio in Presence of Noise Correlation
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2013), 62(8), 3671-3684

Herein, we present a detailed analysis of an eigenvalue based sensing technique in the presence of correlated noise in the context of a Cognitive Radio (CR). We use a Standard Condition Number (SCN) based ... [more ▼]

Herein, we present a detailed analysis of an eigenvalue based sensing technique in the presence of correlated noise in the context of a Cognitive Radio (CR). We use a Standard Condition Number (SCN) based decision statistic based on asymptotic Random Matrix Theory (RMT) for decision process. Firstly, the effect of noise correlation on eigenvalue based Spectrum Sensing (SS) is studied analytically under both the noise only and the signal plus noise hypotheses. Secondly, new bounds for the SCN are proposed for achieving improved sensing in correlated noise scenarios. Thirdly, the performance of Fractional Sampling (FS) based SS is studied and a method for determining the operating point for the FS rate in terms of sensing performance and complexity is suggested. Finally, a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) estimation technique based on the maximum eigenvalue of the received signal’s covariance matrix is proposed. It is shown that proposed SCN-based threshold improves sensing performance in correlated noise scenarios and SNRs up to 0 dB can be reliably estimated with less than 1 % normalized Mean Square Error (MSE) in the presence of correlated noise without the knowledge of noise variance. [less ▲]

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See detailInline Interference Mitigation Techniques for Spectral Coexistence of GEO and NGEO Satellites
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Proceedings of 19th ka band and 31st AIAA ICSSC conference (2013, October)

The requirement of low latency for real time systems and high demand of broad- band data are leading to the rapid deployment of Low Earth Orbit (LEO)/Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellite systems in several ... [more ▼]

The requirement of low latency for real time systems and high demand of broad- band data are leading to the rapid deployment of Low Earth Orbit (LEO)/Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellite systems in several frequency bands. When the number of usable non-geostationary (NGEO) satellites i.e., LEO/MEO in space increases, the need for frequency coexistence between the NGEO satellite systems with the already existing geostationary (GEO) satellite networks increases rapidly. In this context, it is crucial to explore interference mitigation techniques between GEO and NGEO systems in order to allow their spectral coexistence. More specifically, in the coexistence scenario of GEO and NGEO satellite networks, in-line interfer- ence may be a serious problem and it arises whenever an NGEO satellite passes through a line of sight path between a GEO earth station and a GEO satellite. In this paper, we carry out interference analysis between GEO and NGEO systems considering the case of O3b satellite systems and propose an adaptive power control technique for both the uplink and the downlink coexistence scenarios in order to mitigate the in-line interference. Furthermore, we provide several cognitive solu- tions for mitigating the in-line interference. [less ▲]

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See detailFrequency Packing for Interference Alignment-based Cognitive Dual Satellite Systems
Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Proceedings of IEEE 78th Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2013-Fall (2013, September)

Interference Alignment (IA) has been considered a promising technique for spectral coexistence of different wireless systems in an underlay cognitive mode. Furthermore, Frequency Packing (FP) can be ... [more ▼]

Interference Alignment (IA) has been considered a promising technique for spectral coexistence of different wireless systems in an underlay cognitive mode. Furthermore, Frequency Packing (FP) can be considered as an important technique for enhancing the spectrum efficiency in spectrum-limited satellite applications. In this paper, we consider a spectral coexistence scenario of a multibeam satellite and a monobeam satellite with the monobeam satellite as primary and the multibeam satellite as secondary. In this context, this paper focuses on examining the effect of FP on the performance of multi-carrier based IA technique. For this purpose, different IA techniques such as coordinated IA, uncoordinated IA and static IA have been considered. The effect of FP on the performance of different IA techniques in the considered scenario is evaluated in terms of system sum rate and primary rate protection ratio. It is shown that the system sum rate increases with the FP factor for all the techniques and the primary rate is perfectly protected with the coordinated IA technique even with dense FP. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive Radio Techniques for Satellite Communication Systems
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Proceedings of IEEE 78th Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2013-Fall (2013, September)

The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to continuously increasing demand for broadcast, multimedia and interactive services. In this context, cognitive satellite communications has received ... [more ▼]

The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to continuously increasing demand for broadcast, multimedia and interactive services. In this context, cognitive satellite communications has received important attention lately in the research community. Exploring efficient spectrum sharing techniques for enhancing spectral efficiency in satellite communication has become an important research challenge. In this paper, we study the main aspects of satellite cognitive communications and present possible practical scenarios for hybrid/dual cognitive satellite systems. Furthermore, suitable cognitive techniques for the considered scenarios are identified. More specifically, Spectrum Sensing (SS), interference modeling, and beamforming techniques are discussed for hybrid cognitive scenario and SS, interference alignment, and cognitive beamhopping techniques are discussed for dual satellite systems. This paper concludes by providing interesting open research issues in this domain. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive Beamhopping for Spectral Coexistence of Multibeam Satellites
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Future Network and MobileSummit 2013 (2013, July)

The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to continuously increasing demand for broadcast and multimedia services. In this context, we consider the problem of enhancing spectral efficiency in ... [more ▼]

The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to continuously increasing demand for broadcast and multimedia services. In this context, we consider the problem of enhancing spectral efficiency in multibeam satellite networks. The spectral coexistence scenario of two multibeam satellites over a common coverage area is studied with a primary satellite having larger beams and a secondary satellite having smaller beams. Furthermore, a novel cognitive beamhopping satellite system is proposed. The system performance of the proposed system is evaluated and compared with that of conventional multibeam and beamhopping systems in terms of system throughput. It is shown that the proposed system significantly enhances the spectral efficiency in comparison to other systems. Moreover, the scenario of the presence of multiple secondary users within an inactive primary beam is considered with power control on the secondary transmission. The system performance is evaluated by considering partial and full frequency sharing approaches. It is noted that the total spectral efficiency increases with the number of secondary users in the full frequency reuse approach. [less ▲]

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See detailTransmit Beamforming for Spectral Coexistence of Satellite and Terrestrial Networks
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks 2013 (2013, July)

Herein, we study transmit beamforming techniques in an underlay cognitive mode for the coexistence of satellite and terrestrial networks with the satellite forward link as primary and the terrestrial ... [more ▼]

Herein, we study transmit beamforming techniques in an underlay cognitive mode for the coexistence of satellite and terrestrial networks with the satellite forward link as primary and the terrestrial downlink as secondary. Since geostationary satellite terminals have predetermined propagation characteristics so that they always point towards the geostationary satellite, the interference received by the satellite terminals from the terrestrial Base Station (BS) is confined in an angular sector. Based on this a priori knowledge, we propose transmit beamforming techniques at the BS to maximize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) towards the desired secondary user and to mitigate the interference towards the primary satellite terminals. Different types of Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV) techniques have been proposed for our considered scenario where the exact locations and the number of satellite terminals within a specific angular sector are not known while designing the beamformer. Furthermore, an optimization problem is formulated for maximizing the Secondary User (SU) rate and it is shown that the worst case SU rate depends on the Primary User (PU) distance, PU interference threshold and the angular separation of the desired SU from the region of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effect of Noise Correlation on Fractional Sampling based Spectrum Sensing
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Communications (ICC), 2013 IEEE International Conference on (2013, June)

This paper considers a Fractional Sampling (FS) technique to enhance the Spectrum Sensing (SS) efficiency of a Cognitive Radio (CR) using a decision statistic based on asymptotic Random Matrix Theory (RMT ... [more ▼]

This paper considers a Fractional Sampling (FS) technique to enhance the Spectrum Sensing (SS) efficiency of a Cognitive Radio (CR) using a decision statistic based on asymptotic Random Matrix Theory (RMT). Firstly, the effect of noise correlation on eigenvalue based SS is studied analytically and by numerical evaluation. Secondly, new bounds for the Standard Condition Number (SCN) are proposed to enhance the SS efficiency in correlated noise scenarios. It is shown that proposed FS method can enhance SS efficiency up to certain FS rates at the expense of receiver complexity and no performance advantage is obtained if the FS rate is increased beyond this limit. As a result, a method for determining the operating point for the FS rate in terms of sensing performance and complexity is suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial Filtering for Underlay Cognitive SatComs
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in proceedings of 5th International Conference on Personal Satellite Services (2013, June)

Herein, we study an underlay beamforming technique for the coexistence scenario of satellite and terrestrial networks with the satel- lite return link as primary and the terrestrial uplink as secondary ... [more ▼]

Herein, we study an underlay beamforming technique for the coexistence scenario of satellite and terrestrial networks with the satel- lite return link as primary and the terrestrial uplink as secondary. Since satellite terminals are unique in that they always point towards the geo- stationary satellite, interference received by the terrestrial Base Station (BS) is concentrated in a specific angular sector. The priori knowledge that all the geostationary satellite terminals are facing south for the European coverage can be used in designing a beamformer at the ter- restrial BS. Based on this concept, we propose a receive beamformer at the BS to maximize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) towards the desired user and to mitigate the interference coming from the interfering satellite terminals. The performances of Minimum Vari- ance Distortionless (MVDR) and Linear Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV) beamformers are compared for our considered scenario. It is shown that LCMV beamformer is better suited in rejecting interference even in case of Direction of Arrival (DoA) uncertainty of interfering satel- lite terminals as long as DoA range of the interfering sector is known to the beamformer. Furthermore, it is noted that MVDR beamformer is suitable for a large number of interferers. [less ▲]

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See detailAsymptotic Analysis of Eigenvalue-based Blind Spectrum Sensing Techniques
Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in proceedings of International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 2013 (2013, May)

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See detailInterference alignment for spectral coexistence of heterogeneous networks
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications & Networking (2013), 2013(46),

The coexistence of heterogeneous networks within the same spectrum for enhancing the spectrum efficiency has attracted large interest lately in the research community. Furthermore, the research interest ... [more ▼]

The coexistence of heterogeneous networks within the same spectrum for enhancing the spectrum efficiency has attracted large interest lately in the research community. Furthermore, the research interest towards the deployment of small cells and multibeam satellites is increasing due to high capacity, easier deployment and higher energy efficiency. However, due to the scarcity of available spectrum and the requirement of additional spectrum for these systems, small cells need to coexist with macrocells and multibeam satellites need to coexist with monobeam satellites within the same spectrum. In this context, this contribution investigates an underlay spectral coexistence mechanism which exploits an interference alignment (IA) technique in order to mitigate the interference of cognitive transmitters towards the primary receivers in a normal uplink mode. More specifically, three types of IA techniques, namely static, uncoordinated and coordinated are investigated. The performance of the IA technique is evaluated and compared with primary only, resource division and no-mitigation techniques in terms of sum-rate capacity, primary to secondary rate ratio and primary rate protection ratio. It is shown that the coordinated IA technique perfectly protects the primary rate in both terrestrial and satellite coexistence scenarios. [less ▲]

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