References of "Schiltz, Christine 50003015"
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See detailFaces are processed holistically in the right middle fusiform gyrus
Schiltz, Christine UL; Rossion, Bruno

Scientific Conference (2005, May)

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See detailFace-sensitive responses in the occipital inferior cortex of normal humans through feedback inputs from the fusiform gyrus? Evidence from neuroimaging studies of brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient
Rossion, Bruno; Sorger, Bettina; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

Poster (2004, August 13)

In humans, neuroimaging studies have identified two major visual extrastriate areas presenting face-sensitive responses: in the inferior occipital cortex (‘occipital face area’, OFA), and the middle ... [more ▼]

In humans, neuroimaging studies have identified two major visual extrastriate areas presenting face-sensitive responses: in the inferior occipital cortex (‘occipital face area’, OFA), and the middle fusiform gyrus (the ‘fusiform face area’, FFA), with a right hemispheric dominance. It has been proposed that the OFA, located anteriorly to foveal V4v (Halgren et al., 1999), has a critical role in the early perception of facial features and provides the feedforward outputs to later stages of face processing in both the FFA and the STS (Haxby et al., 2000). However, we have recently reported a normal activation of the right FFA despite a lesion encompassing the region of the right OFA in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient, PS (Rossion et al., 2003), suggesting that the face-sensitive responses observed at the level of the OFA in normals may rather arise from feedback connections from the FFA. Here we provide complementary fMRI evidence supporting this view. First, the normal differential activation for faces and objects in the right FFA of PS was observed only for left visual field presentations and is thus unlikely to originate from contralateral intact regions of the occipital cortex (e.g. left OFA). Second, the time-course in the right FFA and left OFA of PS for centrally presented items suggests an earlier differential activity between faces and objects in the most anterior region, the FFA. Finally, we imaged another (prosop)agnosic patient (NS, Delvenne et al., 2004) with a lesion encompassing the right FFA but sparing all posterior visual areas, and failed to disclose any face-sensitive response in his nonetheless structurally and functionnally intact occipital cortex. Together, these findings illustrate the necessary role of both the right FFA and OFA for accurate face perception, and reinforce the hypothesis that a dominant (feedback) connection from the FFA to the OFA subtends face-sensitive responses observed in the latter area when processing faces. [less ▲]

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See detailFace-sensitive responses in the occipital inferior cortex of normal humans through feedback inputs from the fusiform gyrus ?: Evidence from neuroimaging studies of brain-damaged prosopagnosic patients
Schiltz, Christine UL; Caldara, Roberto; Sorger, Bettina et al

Poster (2004, June)

In humans, neuroimaging studies have identified two major visual extrastriate areas presenting face-sensitive responses: in the inferior occipital cortex (‘occipital face area’, OFA), and the middle ... [more ▼]

In humans, neuroimaging studies have identified two major visual extrastriate areas presenting face-sensitive responses: in the inferior occipital cortex (‘occipital face area’, OFA), and the middle fusiform gyrus (the ‘fusiform face area’, FFA), with a right hemispheric dominance. It has been proposed that the OFA, located anteriorly to foveal V4v (Halgren et al., 1999), has a critical role in the early perception of facial features and provides the feedforward outputs to later stages of face processing in both the FFA and the STS (Haxby et al., 2000). However, we have recently reported a normal activation of the right FFA despite a lesion encompassing the region of the right OFA in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient, PS (Rossion et al., 2003), suggesting that the face-sensitive responses observed at the level of the OFA in normals may rather arise from feedback connections from the FFA. Here we provide complementary fMRI evidence supporting this view. First, the normal differential activation for faces and objects in the right FFA of PS was observed only for left visual field presentations and is thus unlikely to originate from contralateral intact regions of the occipital cortex (e.g. left OFA). Second, the time-course in the right FFA and left OFA of PS for centrally presented items suggests an earlier differential activity between faces and objects in the most anterior region, the FFA. Finally, we imaged another (prosop)agnosic patient (NS, Delvenne et al., 2004) with a lesion encompassing the right FFA but sparing all posterior visual areas, and failed to disclose any face-sensitive response in his nonetheless structurally and functionnally intact occipital cortex. Together, these findings illustrate the necessary role of both the right FFA and OFA for accurate face perception, and reinforce the hypothesis that a dominant (feedback) connection from the FFA to the OFA subtends face-sensitive responses observed in the latter area when processing faces. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functionally defined right occipital and fusiform "face areas" discriminate novel from visually familiar faces
Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL; Crommelinck, Marc

in NeuroImage (2003), 19(3), 877-883

Neuroimaging (PET and fMRI) studies have identified a set of brain areas responding more to faces than to other object categories in the visual extrastriate cortex of humans. This network includes the ... [more ▼]

Neuroimaging (PET and fMRI) studies have identified a set of brain areas responding more to faces than to other object categories in the visual extrastriate cortex of humans. This network includes the middle lateral fusiform gyrus (the fusiform face area, or FFA) as well as the inferior occipital gyrus (occipital face area, OFA). The exact functions of these areas in face processing remain unclear although it has been argued that their primary function is to distinguish faces from nonface object categories-"face detection"-or also to discriminate among faces, irrespective of their visual familiarity to the observer. Here, we combined the data from two previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies to show that the functionally defined face areas are involved in the automatic discrimination between unfamiliar faces and familiar faces. Consistent with previous studies, a face localizer contrast (faces-objects) revealed bilateral activation in the middle lateral fusiform gyrus (FFA, BA37) and in the right inferior occipital cortex (OFA, BA19). Within all the regions of the right hemisphere, larger levels of activation were found for unfamiliar as compared to familiar faces. These results suggest that the very same areas involved in categorizing faces at the basic or individual level, play a role in differentiating familiar faces from new faces, showing an overlap between visual and presemantic mnesic representations of faces in the right hemisphere. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does the brain discriminate familiar and unfamiliar faces? A pet study of face categorical perception
Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL; Robaye, Laurence et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2001), 13(7), 1019-1034

Where and how does the brain discriminate familiar and unfamiliar faces? This question has not been answered yet by neuroimaging studies partly because different tasks were performed on familiar and ... [more ▼]

Where and how does the brain discriminate familiar and unfamiliar faces? This question has not been answered yet by neuroimaging studies partly because different tasks were performed on familiar and unfamiliar faces, or because familiar faces were associated with semantic and lexical information. Here eight subjects were trained during 3 days with a set of 30 faces. The familiarized faces were morphed with unfamiliar faces. Presented with continua of unfamiliar and familiar faces in a pilot experiment, a group of eight subjects presented a categorical perception of face familiarity: there was a sharp boundary in percentage of familiarity decisions between 40% and 60% faces. In the main experiment, subjects were scanned (PET) on the fourth day (after 3 days of training) in six conditions, all requiring a sex classification task. Completely novel faces (0%) were presented in Condition 1 and familiar faces (100%) in Condition 6, while faces of steps of 20% in the continuum of familiarity were presented in Conditions 2 to 5 (20% to 80%). A principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that most variations in neural responses were related to the dissociation between faces perceived as familiar (60% to 100%) and faces perceived as unfamiliar (0 to 40%). Subtraction analyses did not disclose any increase of activation for faces perceived as familiar while there were large relative increases for faces perceived as unfamiliar in several regions of the right occipito-temporal visual pathway. These changes were all categorical and were observed mainly in the right middle occipital gyrus, the right posterior fusiform gyrus, and the right inferotemporal cortex. These results show that (1) the discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar faces is related to relative increases in the right ventral pathway to unfamiliar/novel faces; (2) familiar and unfamiliar faces are discriminated in an all-or-none fashion rather than proportionally to their resemblance to stored representations; and (3) categorical perception of faces is associated with abrupt changes of brain activity in the regions that discriminate the two extremes of the multidimensional continuum. [less ▲]

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See detailA pet study of human skill learning: Changes in brain activity related to learning an orientation discrimination task
Schiltz, Christine UL; Bodart, Jean-Michel; Michel, Christian et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2001), 37(2), 243-265

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography we investigated the effect of training in orientation discrimination upon cerebral activity in healthy human adults. When subjects are trained in this ... [more ▼]

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography we investigated the effect of training in orientation discrimination upon cerebral activity in healthy human adults. When subjects are trained in this discrimination task, they learn the visuo-motor stimulus-response association required by the task and they increase their perceptual abilities in orientation discrimination. The present study was designed to investigate the rCBF modifications related to both these learning processes induced by training in orientation discrimination. PET data were acquired on two separate days (before and after training). Comparing the activation pattern related to orientation discrimination before and after the training period we observed activity decreases located in the left cerebellar cortex, in the right precentral gyrus and bilaterally in the fusiform gyri. The only region showing an activity increase was located in the body of the right caudate nucleus. These findings confirm the role of the neostriatum in skill learning and highlight the importance of mechanisms resulting in cortical and cerebellar neuronal activity decreases in this type of learning. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural basis of human face categorization: A parametric pet study
Rossion, B; Schiltz, Christine UL; Robaye, L et al

Poster (1999, June)

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See detailEffect of familiarity on the processing of human faces
Dubois, S; Rossion, B; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

in NeuroImage (1999), 9(3), 278289

Most brain imaging studies on face perception have investigated the processing of unknown faces and addressed mainly the question of specific face processing in the human brain. The goal of this study was ... [more ▼]

Most brain imaging studies on face perception have investigated the processing of unknown faces and addressed mainly the question of specific face processing in the human brain. The goal of this study was to highlight the effects of familiarity on the visual processing of faces. Using [15O]water 3D Positron Emission Tomography, regional cerebral blood flow distribution was measured in 11 human subjects performing an identical task (gender categorization) on both unknown and known faces. Subjects also performed two control tasks (a face recognition task and a visual pattern discrimination task). They were scanned after a training phase using videotapes during which they had been familiarized with and learned to recognize a set of faces. Two major results were obtained. On the one hand, we found bilateral activations of the fusiform gyri in the three face conditions, including the so-called fusiform-face area, a region in the right fusiform gyrus specifically devoted to face processing. This common activation suggests that different cognitive tasks performed on known and unknown faces require the involvement of this fusiform region. On the other hand, specific regional cerebral blood flow changes were related to the processing of known and unknown faces. The left amygdala, a structure involved in implicit learning of visual representations, was activated by the categorization task on unknown faces. The same task on known faces induced a relative decrease of activity in early visual areas. These differences between the two categorization tasks reveal that the human brain processes known and unknown faces differently. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuronal mechanisms of perceptual learning: Changes in human brain activity with training in orientation discrimination
Schiltz, Christine UL; Bodart, M. J; Dubois, S et al

in NeuroImage (1999), 9(1), 46-62

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography, regional cerebral blood flow was measured twice in six human subjects: before and after extensive training in orientation discrimination. In each session ... [more ▼]

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography, regional cerebral blood flow was measured twice in six human subjects: before and after extensive training in orientation discrimination. In each session subjects performed two orientation discrimination tasks, during which they discriminated the orientation of a grating at either the trained or untrained reference orientation, and a control task, during which they detected a randomly textured pattern. By comparing the discrimination to the detection tasks, we observed a main effect of task bilaterally in the posterior occipital cortex, extending into the left posterior fusiform gyrus and the right inferior occipital gyrus, bilaterally in the intraparietal sulcus, as well as in the cerebellum, thalamus, and brainstem. When we compared the activation pattern before and after the training period, all the changes observed were activity decreases. The nonspecific changes, which were not related to the orientation used during the training, were situated in the cerebellum and bilaterally in the extrastriate visual cortex. The orientation-specific changes, on the other hand, were restricted to the striate and extrastriate visual cortex, more precisely the right calcarine sulcus, the left lingual gyrus, the left middle occipital, and the right inferior occipital gyrus. These findings confirm our hypothesis concerning the existence of learning related changes at early levels of visual processing in human adults and suggest that mechanisms resulting in neuronal activity decreases might be involved in the present kind of learning. [less ▲]

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See detailPET study of human voluntary saccadic eye movements in darkness: Effect of task repetition on the activation pattern
Dejardin, S; Dubois, S; Bodart, M. J et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (1998), 10

Using H2(15)O 3D Positron Emission Tomography (PET), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in six human subjects under two different conditions: at rest and while performing self-paced ... [more ▼]

Using H2(15)O 3D Positron Emission Tomography (PET), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in six human subjects under two different conditions: at rest and while performing self-paced horizontal saccadic eye movements in darkness. These two conditions were repeated four times each. First, the comparison between the four saccadic and four resting conditions was investigated in a group and a single subject analysis. Saccades elicited bilateral rCBF increases in the medial part of the superior frontal gyrus (supplementary eye field), precentral gyrus (frontal eye field), superior parietal lobule, anterior medial part of the occipital lobe involving striate and extrastriate cortex (lingual gyrus and cuneus), and in the right inferior parietal lobule. At the subcortical level, activations were found in the left putamen. These results mainly replicate previous PET findings on saccadic control. Second, the interaction between the experimental conditions and their repetition was examined. When activations throughout repetition of the same saccadic task are compared, the supplementary eye fields show a progressive increase of activation. On the contrary, the activation in the cerebellum, left superior parietal lobule and left occipital cortex progressively decreases during the scanning session. Given the existence of such an interaction, the pattern of activations must be interpreted as a function of task repetition. This may be a factor explaining some apparent mismatch between different studies. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific activation related to proper name retrieval associated with faces
Dubois, S; Rossion, B; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

Poster (1997, October)

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See detailVoluntary saccadic eye movements: Effect of task repetition. A pet study
Dejardin, S; Dubois, S; Bodart, J.-M et al

Poster (1996, November)

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See detailOrientation-specific training effect in visual orientation discrimination, a pet study
Schiltz, Christine UL; Bodart, J.-M; Dubois, S et al

Poster (1996)

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See detailVisual orientation discrimination: Effect of training on brain activity, a pet study
Schiltz, Christine UL; Dubois, S; Bodart, J.-M et al

Poster (1995, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 UL)