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See detailGeneralized hypervigilance in fibromyalgia: normal interoceptive accuracy, but reduced self-regulatory capacity
Rost, Silke UL; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Schulz, André UL et al

in Journal of Psychosomatic Research (2017), 93(2), 48-54

Objective: The factors underlying the aetiology of fibromyalgia (FM) are largely unknown. According to the generalized hypervigilance hypothesis (GHH), FM patients show excessive attention towards pain ... [more ▼]

Objective: The factors underlying the aetiology of fibromyalgia (FM) are largely unknown. According to the generalized hypervigilance hypothesis (GHH), FM patients show excessive attention towards pain stimuli and other sensory events, thereby increasing pain perception and dysfunctional behaviour. We tested this notion by assessing interoceptive accuracy (IA) in FM patients and matched healthy controls. We also tested the hypothesis that FM is characterized by reduced self-regulatory capacity as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: 47 FM patients (Mage = 45.5, 39 females) and 45 healthy controls (Mage = 44.9, 37 females) completed several self-report scales (Body Vigilance Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, Pain Catastrophizing Scale). To derive HRV, heart rate was monitored under resting conditions; for the assessment of IA participants performed a heartbeat tracking task in which they were asked to silently count their heartbeats. Results: FM patients reported higher body vigilance than healthy controls, but there were no group differences in IA. FM patients had lower HRV compared with healthy controls. HRV did not predictor IA. Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings do not support the hypothesis of generalized hypervigilance in FM patients. Patients reported a heightened focus on bodily sensations, which was not reflected in IA. It may be that hypervigilance is not a general and stable characteristic but is rather context dependent and modality-specific. [less ▲]

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See detailZusammenhang zwischen interozeptiver Genauigkeit und kardiovaskulärer Veränderung nach akutem Stress bei gesunden Frauen
Rost, Silke UL; Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL et al

in Schächinger, H. (Ed.) Abstractband 43. Tagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2017)

Einleitung:Interozeption als afferente und Stressverarbeitung als efferente Informationsverarbeitung können als komplementär hinsichtlich der Kommunikation zwischen Körper und Gehirn verstanden werden. Es ... [more ▼]

Einleitung:Interozeption als afferente und Stressverarbeitung als efferente Informationsverarbeitung können als komplementär hinsichtlich der Kommunikation zwischen Körper und Gehirn verstanden werden. Es wurde gezeigt, dass stressbedingte veränderte kardiovaskuläre Prozesse mit veränderter Interozeption zusammenhängen und in körperlichen Beschwerden resultieren können. Wenig erforscht ist in diesem Kontext jedoch die psychologische sowie physiologische Erregung, welche mit einem akuten mentalen Stressor einhergeht. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie ist es, diese Lücke zu schließen und den Zusammenhang zwischen interozeptiver Genauigkeit und kardiovaskulärer Reaktivität und Erholung nach einem mentalen Stressor in einer gesunden Stichprobe zu untersuchen. Methode: Es wurde die Pulsfrequenz von 69 Frauen (MAlter = 24.20 Jahre, Range 18-50 Jahre; MBMI = 23.19, Range 17.19-34.48) zur späteren Bestimmung der Herzratenvariabilität (HRV) gemessen. Zur Bestimmung der interozeptiven Genauigkeiten führten die Teilnehmerinnen eine Herzschlagzählaufgabe durch und als mentalen Stressor setzten wir eine choice reaction time task (CRTT) ein. Die Pulsfrequenz wurde während der CRTT sowie während einer 10-minütigen Erholungsphase aufgezeichnet um Werte der kardiovaskulären Stressreaktivität und – erholung zu erfassen. Ergebnisse: DieErgebnisse zeigten keinen Zusammenhang zwischen interozeptiver Genauigkeit und HRV-Reaktivität auf akuten mentalen Stress (r = .042, p = .785). Der Zusammenhang zwischen interozeptiver Genauigkeit und kardiovaskulärer Stresserholung nach der CRTT war negativ (r = -.377; p = .012). Diskussion: Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Studie liefern erste Hinweise dafür, dass eine gute Interozeptionsfähigkeit mit einer besseren kardiovaskulären Erholung nach einem mentalen Stressor zusammenhängen, d.h. kardiovaskuläre Prozesse positiv beeinflussen kann. Interventionen zur Verbesserung der Interozeptionsfähigkeit könnten kardiovaskuläre Erholung erleichtern und das damit einhergehende Risiko zukünftiger Herz-Kreislauf- Probleme verringern. [less ▲]

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See detailGastric modulation of startle eye blink
Schulz, André UL; Van Dyck; Lutz, Annika UL et al

in Biological Psychology (2017), 127(1), 25-33

Abstract: Previous assessment methods of gastric interoception either rely on self-reports, or imply invasive procedures. We investigated the reliability of startle methodology as a non-invasive ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Previous assessment methods of gastric interoception either rely on self-reports, or imply invasive procedures. We investigated the reliability of startle methodology as a non-invasive alternative for the assessment of afferent gastric signals. Twenty-four participants were tested on three separate days, on which they were requested to ingest water (either 0, 300 or 600 ml), after 8 h of fasting. On each assessment day, eye blink responses (EMG) to 10 acoustic startle stimuli (105 dB) were assessed at 4 measurement points (before, 0, 7, 14 min. after ingestion). Increased normogastric responses (EGG), ratings of satiety and fullness, and higher heart rate variability (RMSSD) suggested effective non-invasive induction of gastric distention. Startle responses were lower directly after ingestion of 600 ml as compared to earlier and later measurements. These results suggest that startle methodology provides a reliable method to investigate afferent gastric signals. It could be useful to study possible dissociations between subjective reports and objective afferent gastric signals in eating or somatoform disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of self-regulatory capacity in the adaptation to pain
Rost, Silke UL

Doctoral thesis (2016)

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See detailPsychiatric disorders and personality styles in mothers of female adolescent patients with eating disorders
Rost, Silke UL; Kappel, Viola; Salbach, Harriet et al

in Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie (2016)

Objective: To provide further insight into the presently poorly understood role of familial psychopathology in the development of eating disorders (ED). Method: The present study assesses psychiatric and ... [more ▼]

Objective: To provide further insight into the presently poorly understood role of familial psychopathology in the development of eating disorders (ED). Method: The present study assesses psychiatric and personality disorders listed on Axis I and II of the DSM-IV in 27 mothers of adolescent patients with anorexia (AN mothers) and 14 bulimia nervosa (BN mothers) as well as 22 mentally healthy girls (CG mothers) on a categorical level. Furthermore, we conducted a dimensional diagnostic regarding personality styles and personality traits. Results: AN and BN mothers showed increased rates of Axis I disorders, especially affective, substance use, and anxiety disorders. Differences on Axis II did not reach statistical significance. However, BN mothers showed higher occurrences of paranoid, negativistic, and schizotypal personality styles compared to the other groups. BN mothers further showed higher occurrences than CG mothers of the personality traits excitability, aggressiveness, physical complaints, openness, and emotionality. AN mothers differed significantly from CG mothers on the scale demands. Conclusions: Increased occurrence of psychopathology on both categorical and dimensional levels in mothers of patients with AN and BN supports the assumption of a familial accumulation of psychopathology in ED. Longitudinal studies and genetic analyses should clarify a possible cause-effect relationship and interactions between familial dynamics and adolescent ED Objective: To provide further insight into the presently poorly understood role of familial psychopathology in the development of eating disorders (ED). Method: The present study assesses psychiatric and personality disorders listed on Axis I and II of the DSM-IV in 27 mothers of adolescent patients with anorexia (AN mothers) and 14 bulimia nervosa (BN mothers) as well as 22 mentally healthy girls (CG mothers) on a categorical level. Furthermore, we conducted a dimensional diagnostic regarding personality styles and personality traits. Results: AN and BN mothers showed increased rates of Axis I disorders, especially affective, substance use, and anxiety disorders. Differences on Axis II did not reach statistical significance. However, BN mothers showed higher occurrences of paranoid, negativistic, and schizotypal personality styles compared to the other groups. BN mothers further showed higher occurrences than CG mothers of the personality traits excitability, aggressiveness, physical complaints, openness, and emotionality. AN mothers differed significantly from CG mothers on the scale demands. Conclusions: Increased occurrence of psychopathology on both categorical and dimensional levels in mothers of patients with AN and BN supports the assumption of a familial accumulation of psychopathology in ED. Longitudinal studies and genetic analyses should clarify a possible cause-effect relationship and interactions between familial dynamics and adolescent ED. [less ▲]

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See detailAffective instability in patients with chronic pain: a diary approach
Rost, Silke UL; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Koval, Peter et al

in Pain (2016), 157(8), 1783-1790

Affective instability, conceptualized as fluctuations in mood over time, has been related to ill-health and psychopathology. In this study we examined the role of affective instability upon daily pain ... [more ▼]

Affective instability, conceptualized as fluctuations in mood over time, has been related to ill-health and psychopathology. In this study we examined the role of affective instability upon daily pain outcomes in 70 chronic pain patients (Mage = 49.7 years; 46 females) using an end-of-day diary. During a baseline phase, patients completed self-reported questionnaires of pain severity, pain duration, disability, depression and anxiety. During a subsequent diary phase, patients filled out an electronic end-of-day diary over 14 consecutive days assessing daily levels of pain severity, disability, cognitive complaints, negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA). Affective instability was operationalized as the mean square of successive differences (MSSD) in daily mood (separately for NA and PA), which takes into account the size of affective changes over consecutive days. Results indicated that NA instability was positively associated with daily disability, beyond the effects of daily pain severity. Furthermore, NA instability moderated the relationship between daily pain severity and daily disability and the relationship between daily pain severity and daily cognitive complaints. PA instability, however showed to be unrelated to all outcomes. Current findings extend previous results and reveal the putative role of affective instability upon pain-related outcomes and may yield important clinical implications. Indeed, they suggest that targeting NA instability by improving emotion regulation skills may be a strategy to diminish disability and cognitive complaints in patients with chronic pain. [less ▲]

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See detailSelbstberichteter psychosozialer Stress und chronische Besorgnis, sowie Low-Frequency-Herzratenvariabilität, aber nicht Morgen- oder Tagescortisolspiegel, sagen somatoforme Symptome vorher
Schulz, André UL; Larra, M.; Rost, Silke UL et al

in Kubiak, T.; Wessa, M.; Witthöft, M. (Eds.) et al 15. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verhaltensmedizin und Verhaltensmodifikation - Abstractband (2016)

Im positiven Feedback-Modell zu Interozeption und Stress (Schulz & Vögele, 2015) wird postuliert, dass chronischer Stress zu einer Dysregulation der beiden physiologischen Stressachsen (HPA-Achse, ANS ... [more ▼]

Im positiven Feedback-Modell zu Interozeption und Stress (Schulz & Vögele, 2015) wird postuliert, dass chronischer Stress zu einer Dysregulation der beiden physiologischen Stressachsen (HPA-Achse, ANS) führt, was wiederum durch veränderte Interozeption zur Entstehung körperlicherSymptome beitragen kann. Dieser postulierte Zusammenhang basiert jedoch bislang auf einer Integration von Einzelbefunden und wurde bisher noch nicht an einer gemeinsamen Stichprobe überprüft. Bei einer studentischen Stichprobe (N=217; 113 w; Alter: 18-33 [M=23.0; SD=2.9] Jahre; BMI=22.2 [SD=2.8]) wurden selbstberichteter chronischer Stress (Trierer Inventar für Chronischen Stress/TICS) und somatoforme Symptome (Screening für Somatoforme Störungen/SOMS-2) erhoben. Alle Probanden lieferten Cortisol-Aufwachreaktionen (Erwachen,+15,+30,+45,+60 Min.) an zwei aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen, sowie ein Cortisol-Tagesprofil. Zusätzlich wurde im Labor in einer 10-minütigen Ruhemessung EKG zur Bestimmung der Ruhe-Herzratenvariabilität (RMSSD, pNN50, SDNN; Low- [0.06-0.14 Hz] und High-Frequency [0.15-0.4 Hz]) als Indikatoren des zentralen sympathischen und parasympathischen Tonus erfasst. Diejenigen TICS-Skalen, die psychosozialen Stress reflektieren, sowie „Chronische Besorgnis“ waren zwischen r=.16 und .26 mit somatoformen Symptomen korreliert. Die Skala „Chronische Besorgnis“ korrelierte außerdem positiv mit dem Tagescortisolspiegel (r=.19), sowie negativ mit SDNN (r=-.20), RMSSD (r=-.17), pNN50 (r=-.17), LF-Power (r=-.19) und HF-Power (r=-.16; alle ps < .05). Somatoforme Symptome korrelierten hingegen nicht mit Indikatoren der physiologischen Stressachsen. In einem Regressionsmodell mit Somatisierungsindex als Kriterium zeigte sich nur für die TICS-Skalen „Mangel an sozialer Anerkennung“ (b=.19) und „chronische Besorgnis“ (b=.25), sowie LF-HRV (b=.20) signifikante Vorhersagekraft. Die Annahmen des Modells zu Interozeption und Stress konnten nur teilweise bestätigt werden. Selbstberichteter Stress, vor allem „Besorgnis“, ist bei gesunden Probanden der beste Prädiktor für somatoforme Symptome. Auch höherer sympathischer Tonus könnte für somatoforme Symptome eine Rolle spielen. [less ▲]

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See detailTop-down control over pain in fibromyalgia patients: An experimental study.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Rost, Silke UL; Van Damme, Stefaan et al

Poster (2015, September)

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See detailAltered patterns of heartbeat-evoked potentials in depersonalization/derealization disorder: neurophysiological evidence for impaired cortical representation of bodily signals
Schulz, André UL; Köster, S.; Beutel, M. E. et al

in Psychosomatic Medicine (2015), 77(5), 506-516

OBJECTIVE: Core features of depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. While there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Core features of depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. While there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective emotional numbing, the psychobiology of disembodiment remains unclear. METHODS: Heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), which are considered psychophysiological indicators for the cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system, were assessed in 23 patients with DPD and 24 healthy control individuals during rest and while performing a heartbeat perception task. RESULTS: Absolute HEP amplitudes did not differ between groups. Nevertheless, healthy individuals showed higher HEPs during the heartbeat perception task than during rest, while no such effect was found in DPD patients (p = .031). DPD patients had higher total levels of salivary alpha-amylase than healthy individuals (9626.6±8200.0 vs. 5344.3±3745.8 kUmin/l; p = .029), but there were no group differences in cardiovascular measures (heart rate: 76.2±10.1 vs. 74.3 ±7.5 bpm, p = .60; nLF HRV: .63±.15 vs. .56 ±.15 n.u., p = .099; LF/HF ratio: 249.3±242.7 vs. 164.8 ±108.8, p = .10), salivary cortisol (57.5±46.7 vs. 55.1±43.6 nmolmin/l, p = .86) or cortisone levels (593.2±260.3 vs. 543.8±257.1 nmolmin/l, p = .52). CONCLUSION: These results suggest altered cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system in DPD patients, which may be associated with higher sympathetic tone. These findings may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to attend to their actual bodily experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailEine Pilotstudie zur Spezifität der Körperbildstörung für Anorexia nervosa
Rost, Silke UL; Sarrar, Lea; Schneider, Nora et al

in Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie (2014), 43(1), 57-67

Objective: Body image disturbance (BID) is a central feature of anorexia nervosa (AN), but evidence for bodily-related disorders also exists for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), who are frequently ... [more ▼]

Objective: Body image disturbance (BID) is a central feature of anorexia nervosa (AN), but evidence for bodily-related disorders also exists for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), who are frequently underweight. A comparison of BID in patients with AN, CF and controls serves to clarify the specificity of BID for AN. Method: 22 patients with AN, 10 patients with CF, and 23 controls were tested with regard to perceptual and cognitive-affective components of BID. Further data concerning eating-disorder-related psychopathology were assessed. Results: BID occurred in all patients with AN. Patients with CF perceived themselves as thinner than the controls did, and three of them exhibited BID. Patients with AN and CF did not differ regarding body satisfaction, and only controls showed higher satisfaction than patients with CF. Patients with AN and CF differed on desire for thinness, dissatisfaction with their body, and interoceptive awareness, with higher scores occurring in patients with AN. Conclusions: Our pilot study reveals no severe psychopathology concerning body image in patients with CF. However, we did observe a general body dissatisfaction among these patients, probably associated with their being underweight. BID still seems to be a central diagnostic criterion for AN and should be carefully considered during therapeutic interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailPerseverative Cognition in Fibromyalgia
Rost, Silke UL; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Sütterlin, Stefan et al

Scientific Conference (2014, September 04)

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See detailThe role of affective instability on daily chronic pain outcomes
Rost, Silke UL; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Koval, Peter et al

Poster (2014, August 21)

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See detailThe influence of emotional instability on daily pain outcomes in chronic pain patients
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Rost, Silke UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

Poster (2014, May)

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See detailDay-to-day variability of emotions in chronic pain
Rost, Silke UL; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Koval, Peter et al

Poster (2013, October 10)

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See detailThe relationship between emotion dynamics and pain outcomes
Rost, Silke UL; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Koval, Peter et al

Scientific Conference (2013, September 06)

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See detailMental disorders and personality characteristics in parents of patients with eating disorders
Rost, Silke UL; Kappel, Viola; Schneider, Nora et al

Poster (2013, May 25)

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See detailSpezifität der Körperbildstörung für Anorexia nervosa
Rost, Silke UL; Jaite, Charlotte; Sarrar, Lea et al

Poster (2013, May 10)

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See detailPsychische Auffälligkeiten bei Müttern von Patientinnen mit Essstörungen im Vergleich zu Müttern gesunder Mädchen
Rost, Silke UL; Sarrar, Lea; Kappel, Viola et al

Scientific Conference (2013, March 09)

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See detailSpezifität der Körperbildstörung für Anorexia nervosa
Rost, Silke UL; Jaite, Charlotte; Sarrar, Lea et al

Scientific Conference (2013, March 09)

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See detailPsychische Auffälligkeiten bei Müttern von Patientinnen mit Essstörungen im Vergleich zu Müttern gesunder Mädchen
Rost, Silke UL; Woldt, Lea; Jucksch, Viola et al

Scientific Conference (2010, November)

Einleitung: In den letzten Jahrzehnten wurde die Familienpsychopathologie als Risikofaktor zur Genese von Anorexia nervosa (AN) und Bulimia nervosa (BN) vor allem in US-amerikanischen Studien untersucht ... [more ▼]

Einleitung: In den letzten Jahrzehnten wurde die Familienpsychopathologie als Risikofaktor zur Genese von Anorexia nervosa (AN) und Bulimia nervosa (BN) vor allem in US-amerikanischen Studien untersucht. Aufgrund der mangelnden Datenlage im deutschsprachigen Raum, soll die vorliegende Arbeit, als Fortführung der Studie von Woldt et al. (2010), psychische Auffälligkeiten bei Müttern jugendlicher Patientinnen mit AN und BN mit denen bei Müttern einer gesunden Kontrollgruppe vergleichen. Methode: Zur Erfassung von Achse-I-Störungen wurde das diagnostische Expertensystem für psychische Störungen (CIDI-DIA-X; Wittchen & Pfister, 1997) und zur Erfassung von Achse-II-Störungen das Strukturierte Klinische Interview für DSM-IV Persönlichkeitsstörungen (SKID-II; Wittchen, Zaudig & Fydrich, 1997) eingesetzt. Der diesbezügliche Vergleich zwischen ersten Pilotdaten von acht Müttern gesunder Mädchen zwischen 12 und 17 Jahren (MAlter = 15,1 ; SD = 2,2) und zwei Zufallsstichproben von jeweils 8 Müttern jugendlicher Patientinnen mit AN und BN wurde mittels ?2-Test berechnet. Diskussion/Ergebnisse: Die vorliegenden Pilotdaten zeigen keine signifikanten Unterschiede in der Auftrittshäufigkeit von Achse-I- und Achse-II-Störungen zwischen den Müttern gesunder Mädchen (50 % & 0 %) und Müttern von Patientinnen mit AN (87,5 % & 25 %) und BN (75 % & 12,5 %) auf. Angestrebt ist die Erhebung weiterer Daten um hinreichende Aussagen bezüglich der Familienpsychopathologie essgestörter Mädchen in Deutschland treffen zu können. [less ▲]

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