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See detailSometimes we get it wrong but we keep on trying: A cross-sectional study of coping with communication problems by informal carers of stroke survivors with aphasia
McGurk, Rhona; Kneebone, Ian I.; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in Aphasiology (2011)

Background: The need to support carers of stroke survivors is widely recognised. However, research on which to base recommendations is scarce. Little research has focused on carers of stroke survivors ... [more ▼]

Background: The need to support carers of stroke survivors is widely recognised. However, research on which to base recommendations is scarce. Little research has focused on carers of stroke survivors with aphasia, and that which exists suffers from problems with sample size and methodology. More information is needed about methods used by carers to manage communication difficulties and about coping strategies that promote emotional wellbeing. Aims: To assess the coping strategies used by informal carers of stroke survivors with aphasia to manage communication problems, and their association with depressive symptoms. To assess whether a problem-specific coping inventory offers an advantage over a generic coping questionnaire for this purpose. Methods & Procedures: Questionnaires were completed by 150 informal caregivers of stroke survivors with aphasia. The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms. Coping was assessed with the Brief COPE and a problem- specific questionnaire on coping with communication difficulties. Level of social support was also assessed. Multiple regression analysis explored associations between coping and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis assessed the significance of the indirect effect of coping between the level of communication impairment in the stroke survivor and the degree of depressive symptoms in the carer. Outcomes & Results: Participants reported a wide range of coping strategies. Avoidant styles of coping were associated with increased depressive symptomatology. Coping by use of positive reframing was linked with fewer symptoms of depression. Anticipated level of social support was also associated with less depressive symptomology. The level of communication impairment of the stroke survivor was not predictive of depressive symptoms in carers after controlling for coping and social support. Limited support was found for a mediating model of coping. Inclusion of one subscale from the problem-specific questionnaire improved the amount of variance accounted for in depressive symptoms, above that explained by the Brief COPE. Conclusions: The results verify that the impairment of the stroke survivor has less effect on carers’ psychosocial functioning compared to coping. Assessment of coping can help to identify carers presenting with increased risk of depression. A traditional coping inventory provides an adequate assessment of the coping strategies used to manage communication problems, and can be supplemented by specific questions about avoidance. Interventions that develop some emotion-focused coping strategies in carers may support adaptation. Interventions should also aim to decrease the use of unhelpful coping strategies rather than solely focusing on increasing problem-focused forms of coping. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive control in adolescents with Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Rowbotham, I.; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. et al

in Neuropsychology (2009), 23

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder characterized by partial loss of growth control that affects the central nervous system. NF1 has been consistently associated with cognitive ... [more ▼]

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder characterized by partial loss of growth control that affects the central nervous system. NF1 has been consistently associated with cognitive dysfunction, although there is no consensus on the cognitive profile in NF1 or on brain-cognition relationships. To clarify the pattern of cognitive dysfunction, performance of 16 NF1 patients and 16 age- and sex-matched controls (mean age = 14.5 years, SD = 1.3) was compared on computerized tasks measuring perception, executive functioning (inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory), and motor control. A further aim of this study was to contrast performance on tasks or task parts requiring varying levels of cognitive control to find out whether this could explain potential difficulties experienced by this population in different cognitive domains or at different stages of information processing. Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that group differences, indicating poorer performance of NF1 patients, varied as a function of the level of cognitive control required. Evidence was also found for more basic motor skill problems in NF1 patients. Furthermore, NF1 patients were generally slower than controls. Results are discussed in the context of what is known about brain-cognition relationships in NF1. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpathy in Preschool Children: The development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)
Howe, A.; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Brown, A. et al

in Psychological Assessment (2008), 20(3), 305-309

In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ... [more ▼]

In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry, happy, fearful, sad) that reflected emotion judgments based on the protagonist's facial expression, situation, verbal cues, and desire. The STEP was administered to 39 preschool children, and internal reliability, concurrent validity, and construct validity were addressed. The results showed good internal consistency. They also highlighted moderate concurrent validity with parent-rated empathy, a measure of facial indices, and construct validity with teacher-rated prosocial behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailBehaviour difficulties and cognitive function in children born very prematurely
Bayless, S.; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Stevenson, J.

in International Journal of Behavioral Development (2008), 32(3), 199-206

Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however ... [more ▼]

Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth, such as low average IQ, mediate the association between preterm birth and later behaviour difficulties. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among preterm birth, IQ and childhood behaviour problems, by testing mediation and moderation models. We assessed a UK sample of 69 very preterm (< 32 weeks gestational age) and 70 term born children aged between 6 and 12 years on an abbreviated IQ test. Parental behaviour ratings were obtained using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Mediation and moderation models were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The findings indicate that IQ mediates the relationship between birth status and emotional behaviour problems. Furthermore, the results indicate that birth status moderates the relationship between IQ and behavioural difficulties, i.e., that the relationship between low IQ and behaviour problems is most pronounced for the preterm children. The findings highlight the importance of considering indirect effects in the study of outcome after very preterm birth. [less ▲]

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See detailGrandparent support for mothers of children with and without physical disabilities
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Hastings, Richard P.; Johnson, Hannah et al

in Families in Society (2007), 88(1), 141-146

Grandparents' support to families of children with disabilities is generally associated with improved parental well-being. Little research addresses the question of quantitative differences in grandparent ... [more ▼]

Grandparents' support to families of children with disabilities is generally associated with improved parental well-being. Little research addresses the question of quantitative differences in grandparent support to families of children with and without disabilities. This article examines such differences. Data was collected on 50 mothers of children with spina bifida and 43 mothers of children without disabilities and results showed how mothers rated perceived maternal and paternal grandparent support. No differences were found between mothers of children with and without disabilities. These results confirm previous findings that grandparent support appears to be no more frequent in families of children with disabilities than in other families. These findings are discussed with reference to sampling limitations and implications for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailSpina bifida
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Stevenson, Jim

in Ayers, S.; Baum, A.; McManus, C. (Eds.) et al Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health, & Medicine (2007)

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See detailPsychosocial adjustment to physical disability /chronic illness
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Presentation (2006, June 13)

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See detailPhysiological correlates of intellectual deficit in children with Sickle Cell Disease: Hypoxaemia, hyperaemia and brain infarction
Hogan, Alexandra M.; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh et al

in Developmental Science (2006), 9(4), 379-387

Lowered intelligence relative to controls is evident by mid-childhood in children with sickle cell disease. There is consensus that brain infarct contributes to this deficit, but the subtle lowering of IQ ... [more ▼]

Lowered intelligence relative to controls is evident by mid-childhood in children with sickle cell disease. There is consensus that brain infarct contributes to this deficit, but the subtle lowering of IQ in children with normal MRI scans might be accounted for by chronic systemic complications leading to insufficient oxygen delivery to the brain. We investigated the relationship between daytime oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)), cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and intellectual function (IQ) using path-analysis in 30 adolescents with sickle cell disease (mean age 17.4 years, SD 4.2). Initial analyses revealed that the association between SpO(2) and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was fully mediated by increased CBFV, whereby SpO(2) was negatively correlated with CBFV and CBFV was negatively correlated with FSIQ, i.e. decreases in oxygen saturation are associated with increases in velocity, and increased velocity is associated with lowered IQ scores. The mediated relationship suggests that lowered IQ may be a function of abnormal oxygen delivery to the brain. Further analyses showed that the association between CBFV and IQ was significant for verbal but not for performance IQ. The pathophysiology characteristic of SCD can interfere with brain function and constrain intellectual development, even in the absence of an infarct. This supports the hypothesis that lowered intellectual function is partly explained by chronic hypoxia, and has wider implications for our understanding of SCD pathophysiology. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of health related quality of life in individuals with neural tube defects
Stevenson, Jim; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in Wyszynski, D. F. (Ed.) Neural Tube defects: From origin to treatment (2006)

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See detailPerceived positive gain and its effect on the illness-parenting stress relationship
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Stevenson, J

Poster (2004, April)

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See detailFamily adjustment to disability and chronic illnessin children
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Doctoral thesis (2004)

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See detailThe nature of hyperactivity in children and adolescents with hydrocephalus: a test of the dual pathway mode
Stevenson, Jim; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in Neural Plasticity (2004), 11(1-2), 13-21

To determine the strength and nature of the association between hydrocephalus and hyperactivity and to test the dual pathway model (DPM) of AD/HD, we compared a group of 51 children and adolescents with ... [more ▼]

To determine the strength and nature of the association between hydrocephalus and hyperactivity and to test the dual pathway model (DPM) of AD/HD, we compared a group of 51 children and adolescents with hydrocephalus with 57 normally developing controls from the general population on a battery of neuropsychological assessments. The mean hyperactivity scores were significantly greater in the group with hydrocephalus (effect size = 0.94). This association was not just part of a general elevated rate of behavior problems and was not affected by sex or age. Variation in the clinical features of hydrocephalus was not related to the severity of hyperactivity. Path analysis was used to examine the relation between IQ, delay aversion, and executive function. In accordance with the DPM, the effect of hydrocephalus on hyperactivity was completely mediated via delay aversion and executive functions. [less ▲]

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See detailZelfbeeld en gedrag van kinderen met spina bifida en hydrocephalus in Nederland
de Wit, O; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Stevenson, J

Report (2003)

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