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See detailSocial acceptance and peer relationships of children with physical disabilities
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Stevenson, Jim

Scientific Conference (2017, August 24)

Following the UN Convention on the rights of people with disabilities a drive towards inclusive education can be observed. Inclusive education not only aims to reduce educational inequalities but also ... [more ▼]

Following the UN Convention on the rights of people with disabilities a drive towards inclusive education can be observed. Inclusive education not only aims to reduce educational inequalities but also promotes social participation. Although social participation partly depends on the opportunity of social interaction with peers (Kirpalani et al., 2000), other factors such as social competence and peer acceptance are important too (e.g. Schwab et al., 2013). Children with special needs are often found to be socially excluded by peers (Garrote & Dessemontet, 2015) and have fewer friends than their typically developing peers (e.g. Eriksson et al., 2007). Research has also indicated that the incidence of social maladjustment problems in children with disabilities is at least twice of that for typically developing children (Goodman & Graham, 1996; Wallander et al., 1989). Hence children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable in regards to their peer relationships and social participation. Method: Data were collected for a clinical sample of 87 children (aged 6-18 years) with disabilities (i.e. hydrocephalus with or without spina bifida) and 57 typical developing children. Children or parents completed measures on social acceptance (the Self-Perception Profile, Harter, 1985; Harter & Pike, 1984), peer problems and prosocial behaviour (SDQ; Goodman, 1997, 1999), friendship (Berndt et al., 1986) and perceived quality of life (Graham, Stevenson, & Flynn, 1997). Results: Parent and child ratings of social acceptance and peer problems indicated children with disabilities felt less accepted and experienced more peer problems than typically developing children. No differences in prosocial behaviour were found. Although parents of children with disabilities rated the quality of life regarding friendships lower than parents of typically developing children, no differences in child ratings were found. Children with disabilities rated their friendships as less positive compared to typically developing children. Variance in the perceived quality of life could be explained by peer problems and friendship ratings but not social acceptance or peer problems. Conclusion: Friendship and peer relationships emerged as an area of specific difficulty for children with disabilities. These problems were reflected in reports of lower social acceptance, more peer problems and less positive friendship ratings. Child rated quality of life in the domain of friendship was predicted by peer problems and quality of friendship but not social acceptance. Although parents and children were generally in agreement, this study demonstrates the importance of collecting data from different sources, including the children with disabilities themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial participation of students with special educational needs in regular classes
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krischler, Mireille UL

Scientific Conference (2017, August 23)

Theoretical background: Although more than twenty years have passed since the Salamanca statement (UNESCO, 1994), research still shows that children with special educational needs (SEN) are often socially ... [more ▼]

Theoretical background: Although more than twenty years have passed since the Salamanca statement (UNESCO, 1994), research still shows that children with special educational needs (SEN) are often socially excluded by peers (Garrote & Dessemontet, 2015) and have fewer friends than their typically developing peers (e.g. Eriksson, Welander, & Granlund, 2007). Following UN conventions (UN, 2006; UNESCO, 2000) there is a drive to a more inclusive society and hence inclusive education is on the political agenda of many countries. Inclusive education not only aims to reduce educational inequalities but also promotes social participation as being accepted and appreciated by typically developing peers facilitates the development of social relations and creates opportunities for participating in peer groups (Hartup, 1996). However, social participation not only depends on the opportunity of social interaction with peers but is also affected by social competence and peer acceptance (e.g. Schwab, Gebhardt, & Gasteiger-Klicpera, 2013). To this extent, children with SEN seem to have poorer social skills than their peers and experience more problems in creating and maintaining social relations (Carlson, 1987). Students with SEN are also more vulnerable of being bullied by their typically developing peers (Rose, Monda-Amaya, & Espelage, 2011). Studies comparing the social participation of groups of students having different types of SEN suggest that the risk of being less well accepted by peers is higher for students with behavioural problems than for students with learning difficulties (Avramidis, 2010; Bossaert, Colpin, Pijl, & Petry, 2013a). Social participation includes the extent of social interactions, peer acceptance, friendships as well as social self-concept (Bossaert et al., 2013a; 2013b). As merely including these students in regular classes alone cannot guarantee social participation, the question arises to what extent different person variables contribute to social inclusion or rejection. To this extent Bossaert et al (2013a) reported that not all students with SEN experience difficulties, and that especially boys with social-emotional difficulties (i.e. autistic spectrum disorders) and girls with motor and sensory difficulties were at risk. Similarly, Schwab et al (2013) concluded that social participation was associated with specific behavioural difficulties of some students with SEN. Students with learning difficulties may also be at risk as research generally has found that these students often have problems with social skills (Wight & Chapparo, 2008), which may affect their friendships and social participation. The current study therefore first aimed to investigate the social participation of primary school students with SEN (i.e bahvioural problems or learning difficulties) attending regular schools. Second, we investigated to what extent social participation was related to academic performance, behavioural problems, and prosocial behaviour. Method: Preservice teachers completed measures of social participation, behavior and academic performance for a total of 50 primary students. Students attended different primary school classes and were described as having learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties, or both. More specifically, preservice teachers completed the Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (Venetz, et al., 2015), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997) and estimated the students´ academic performance in German, French and Mathematics. The PIQ is a brief measure to assess the emotional, social and competence-based relatedness of students aged 8-16 years. The 12 items comprise 3 scales: social inclusion, emotional inclusion and academic self-concept. Each item is rated on a 4-point scale from 1 (not at all true) to 4 (certainly true). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire consists of 25 statements of behavior. For each statement the degree to which this behavior is typical of their child Is rated on a 3-point scale (0 = not true, 1 = somewhat true, 2 = certainly true). The scale contains four behaviour difficulty subscales (conduct problems; hyperactivity; peer problems; and emotional symptoms) and one strength category (prosocial behavior). A total behaviour score is calculated by adding the scores of the four problem domains. Academic performance was assessed by estimates of students´ academic performance in German, French and Mathematics. Preliminary Results: Frequency distributions indicate that although the social participation of students with learning difficulties and behavioural problems, nearly one third experiences problems. In addition preservice teachers reported behavioural difficulties for a large proportion of their students (34-42%). Furthermore, for 46% of the students, prosocial behavior was rated low (i.e. scores less than 5). No differences in social inclusion were found for students with behavioural or learning difficulties. However, students with behavioural problems had significantly higher SDQ scores (i.e. more behavioural problems) than students with learning difficulties Social inclusion was negatively correlated with peer problems and conduct problems, that is students with more peer or conduct problems are less socially integrated. In contrast, a positive correlation between prosocial behavior and social inclusion indicated that students displaying kindness and support towards others are more successful in participating in their social group. No relationships were found between academic performance and social participation. Conclusion: Students with SEN may have difficulties to be fully accepted in social groups, even when educated in inclusive schools, whereby especially students with conduct and peer problems may be vulnerable. Prosocial behavior however may facilitate social participation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe social inclusion of students with physical disabilities
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Stevenson, Jim

Scientific Conference (2017, March)

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (1 UL)
See detailInvited talk - Übergangsentscheidungen in Luxemburg
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Glock, Sabine et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailPrimacy effects in attention, recall and judgment patterns of simultaneously presented student information: Evidence from an eye-tracking study
Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in Hughes, Gary (Ed.) Student Achievement: Perspectives, Assessment and Improvement Strategies (2016)

Social cognition research has demonstrated that processes of memory and judgment formation are not only affected by information type but also by the sequence in which this information is received. These ... [more ▼]

Social cognition research has demonstrated that processes of memory and judgment formation are not only affected by information type but also by the sequence in which this information is received. These sequence (i.e. primacy and recency) effects are of special interest if the first or last information activates a social category, as this may increase the risk of stereotypical biases in decision making. This may be especially pertinent to the educational domain as studies have shown teachers´ judgments are influenced not only by students´ academic achievement but also their social background. Therefore, this study investigated primacy effects in the assessment of student performance. This study not only assessed the impact of sequence on memory and judgment, but also measured attention via eye-tracking techniques, hence offering a more detailed test of the assumption of the primacy effect (i.e. increased attention to the first piece of information). Forty participants were presented four student descriptions, containing information on the student’s grades, standardized test results, working behavior and social background. For half of the participants, social background information was presented in the top left position on the screen and grade information in the top right position. For the other half these positions were switched. The sequence of information was therefore not predefined by the experimenter, but left to the participant, however, given the left-to-right and top-to-bottom orientation common in Western European languages, the information in the top-left position was expected to draw initial attention of participants. After reading each student description, participants recommended a fitting secondary school track and later recalled student information. The design of the study is a 2×2 factorial design, with the position order (social background vs. grades in top-left position) as a between-subject factor and type of information (social background vs. grades) as a within-subject factor. According our expectations, eye-movements (i.e. fixations during the first second of presentation), showed a significant effect of the position order. Information in the top-left position received not only more initial attention, but also more attention throughout, than the same information positioned in the top-right position, thus indicating a primacy effect in attention. This result was only partially reflected in the recall data, and no differences resulted in the accuracy of judgments. The results confirmed that the positioning of simultaneously presented information leads to a primacy effect in attention, but does not produce primacy effects in subsequent memory and judgments. In regard to the common structure of various dossiers and records, which first list a student’s name and personal information, these findings imply that such structure may maximize teachers’ attention to social background information, stating a potential source of social disparities in educational systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy of teachers’ tracking decisions: Short- and long-term effects of accountability
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Glock, Sabine UL

in European Journal of Psychology of Education (2016), 31(2), 225-243

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10212-015-0259-4

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See detailPreservice teachers' attitudes toward inclusion and toward students with special educational needs from different ethnic backgrounds
Markova, Mariya UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Education (2015)

Drawing on social cognition frameworks, we experimentally examined preservice teachers’ implicit attitudes toward students with special educational needs (SEN) from different ethnic backgrounds and ... [more ▼]

Drawing on social cognition frameworks, we experimentally examined preservice teachers’ implicit attitudes toward students with special educational needs (SEN) from different ethnic backgrounds and preservice teachers’ explicit attitudes toward inclusive education. Preservice teachers (N = 46) completed an evaluative priming task and questionnaires. Results showed indifferent implicit attitudes toward students with SEN with immigrant backgrounds and positive implicit attitudes toward those without immigrant backgrounds. Furthermore, participants reported a high motivation to act without prejudice toward minorities but held less favorable explicit attitudes toward inclusion of students with SEN, especially students with behavioral problems. Differential patterns of implicit and explicit evaluations could bias teachers’ interactions with students. Findings are discussed with respect to implications for educational practice and research. [less ▲]

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See detailAre school placement recommendations accurate? The effect of students’ ethnicity on teachers’ judgments and recognition memory.
Glock, Sabine UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in European Journal of Psychology of Education [=EJPE] (2015), 30(2), 169-188

Educational research has provided evidence that racial and ethnic minority students are disadvantaged in today’s educational systems. Teachers’ stereotypical expectations are believed to contribute to ... [more ▼]

Educational research has provided evidence that racial and ethnic minority students are disadvantaged in today’s educational systems. Teachers’ stereotypical expectations are believed to contribute to these disadvantages because teachers make decisions about grades, special education, tracking, and school placement. Research so far has shown that teachers’ stereotypical expectations might lead to biased judgments, but the cognitive processes underlying those judgments are less clear. Using an experimental design, we investigated whether inservice and preservice teachers’ judgment accuracy depended on the ethnicity of the students. Moreover, in employing a recognition task, we were able to investigate the kinds of information teachers’ took into account about ethnic minority students when making school placement recommendations. In a sample of 64 inservice and preservice teachers, judgments were found to be less accurate for ethnic minority students than for ethnic majority students, and teachers felt less confident about the judgments they made for ethnic minority students. This lower accuracy of school placement recommendations involved recommendations of ethnic minority students to both higher and lower placements than could be justified academically. The recognition data revealed that under- and overestimation of ethnic minority students were due to a less accurate encoding of the information about ethnic minority students than about ethnic majority students and that grade information for ethnic minority students in particular was not strongly encoded. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for tracked systems and in terms of interventions that might have the potential to reduce stereotype application. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 238 (44 UL)