References of "Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke 50008840"
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See detailInvited talk - Übergangsentscheidungen in Luxemburg
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Glock, Sabine et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailPrimacy effects in attention, recall and judgment patterns of simultaneously presented student information: Evidence from an eye-tracking study
Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in Hughes, Gary (Ed.) Student Achievement: Perspectives, Assessment and Improvement Strategies (2016)

Social cognition research has demonstrated that processes of memory and judgment formation are not only affected by information type but also by the sequence in which this information is received. These ... [more ▼]

Social cognition research has demonstrated that processes of memory and judgment formation are not only affected by information type but also by the sequence in which this information is received. These sequence (i.e. primacy and recency) effects are of special interest if the first or last information activates a social category, as this may increase the risk of stereotypical biases in decision making. This may be especially pertinent to the educational domain as studies have shown teachers´ judgments are influenced not only by students´ academic achievement but also their social background. Therefore, this study investigated primacy effects in the assessment of student performance. This study not only assessed the impact of sequence on memory and judgment, but also measured attention via eye-tracking techniques, hence offering a more detailed test of the assumption of the primacy effect (i.e. increased attention to the first piece of information). Forty participants were presented four student descriptions, containing information on the student’s grades, standardized test results, working behavior and social background. For half of the participants, social background information was presented in the top left position on the screen and grade information in the top right position. For the other half these positions were switched. The sequence of information was therefore not predefined by the experimenter, but left to the participant, however, given the left-to-right and top-to-bottom orientation common in Western European languages, the information in the top-left position was expected to draw initial attention of participants. After reading each student description, participants recommended a fitting secondary school track and later recalled student information. The design of the study is a 2×2 factorial design, with the position order (social background vs. grades in top-left position) as a between-subject factor and type of information (social background vs. grades) as a within-subject factor. According our expectations, eye-movements (i.e. fixations during the first second of presentation), showed a significant effect of the position order. Information in the top-left position received not only more initial attention, but also more attention throughout, than the same information positioned in the top-right position, thus indicating a primacy effect in attention. This result was only partially reflected in the recall data, and no differences resulted in the accuracy of judgments. The results confirmed that the positioning of simultaneously presented information leads to a primacy effect in attention, but does not produce primacy effects in subsequent memory and judgments. In regard to the common structure of various dossiers and records, which first list a student’s name and personal information, these findings imply that such structure may maximize teachers’ attention to social background information, stating a potential source of social disparities in educational systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy of teachers’ tracking decisions: Short- and long-term effects of accountability
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Glock, Sabine UL

in European Journal of Psychology of Education (2016), 31(2), 225-243

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10212-015-0259-4

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See detailPreservice teachers' attitudes toward inclusion and toward students with special educational needs from different ethnic backgrounds
Markova, Mariya UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Education (2015)

Drawing on social cognition frameworks, we experimentally examined preservice teachers’ implicit attitudes toward students with special educational needs (SEN) from different ethnic backgrounds and ... [more ▼]

Drawing on social cognition frameworks, we experimentally examined preservice teachers’ implicit attitudes toward students with special educational needs (SEN) from different ethnic backgrounds and preservice teachers’ explicit attitudes toward inclusive education. Preservice teachers (N = 46) completed an evaluative priming task and questionnaires. Results showed indifferent implicit attitudes toward students with SEN with immigrant backgrounds and positive implicit attitudes toward those without immigrant backgrounds. Furthermore, participants reported a high motivation to act without prejudice toward minorities but held less favorable explicit attitudes toward inclusion of students with SEN, especially students with behavioral problems. Differential patterns of implicit and explicit evaluations could bias teachers’ interactions with students. Findings are discussed with respect to implications for educational practice and research. [less ▲]

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See detailAre school placement recommendations accurate? The effect of students’ ethnicity on teachers’ judgments and recognition memory.
Glock, Sabine UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in European Journal of Psychology of Education [=EJPE] (2015), 30(2), 169-188

Educational research has provided evidence that racial and ethnic minority students are disadvantaged in today’s educational systems. Teachers’ stereotypical expectations are believed to contribute to ... [more ▼]

Educational research has provided evidence that racial and ethnic minority students are disadvantaged in today’s educational systems. Teachers’ stereotypical expectations are believed to contribute to these disadvantages because teachers make decisions about grades, special education, tracking, and school placement. Research so far has shown that teachers’ stereotypical expectations might lead to biased judgments, but the cognitive processes underlying those judgments are less clear. Using an experimental design, we investigated whether inservice and preservice teachers’ judgment accuracy depended on the ethnicity of the students. Moreover, in employing a recognition task, we were able to investigate the kinds of information teachers’ took into account about ethnic minority students when making school placement recommendations. In a sample of 64 inservice and preservice teachers, judgments were found to be less accurate for ethnic minority students than for ethnic majority students, and teachers felt less confident about the judgments they made for ethnic minority students. This lower accuracy of school placement recommendations involved recommendations of ethnic minority students to both higher and lower placements than could be justified academically. The recognition data revealed that under- and overestimation of ethnic minority students were due to a less accurate encoding of the information about ethnic minority students than about ethnic majority students and that grade information for ethnic minority students in particular was not strongly encoded. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for tracked systems and in terms of interventions that might have the potential to reduce stereotype application. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Übergang vom Primar- zum Sekundarschulbereich: Übergangsentscheidungen von Lehrkräften
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Glock, Sabine UL et al

in Lenz, Thomas; Bertemes, Jos (Eds.) Bildungsbericht Luxembourg 2015 Band 2:Analysen und Befunde (2015)

The transition from primary school to secondary school is an important event both for pupils and their parents and is a major determinant of further educational and professional progress. The transition ... [more ▼]

The transition from primary school to secondary school is an important event both for pupils and their parents and is a major determinant of further educational and professional progress. The transition decision by primary school teachers in Luxembourg is largely based on a pupil‘s marks, but is also (unconsciously) influenced by information that is not performance-related, such as social background, a pupil‘s immigration background and the educational attainment of their parents. Luxembourg school grades and test results in the three core subjects have the strongest influence on the binding transition decision. Most pupils remain with the school type to which they were assigned at the end of fundamental school. Throughout the observation period, only 6% of the pupils changed to a different kind of school. However, both the parents‘ socio-economic status and the pupil‘s immigrant background exerted an influence on the transition decision. It must therefore be assumed that not only the pupil‘s individual performance will determine to which type of school they will go, but also their family background. This raises the question of how a performance-related, less socially selective transition decision can be promoted. In a school system in which the transition decisions are binding and the freedom of choice is very low, the accuracy of the assessment is particularly important. Therefore teachers should: (1) be explicitly reminded of their responsibility for the decision in the period in which transition decisions are being made. (2) have the opportunity to learn about decision models and factors that reduce the quality of decisions and actively question them during the period in which the transition decisions are taken. (3) be taught about optimum decision-making models, which include adequate weighting of the student‘s characteristics and incorporate them appropriately. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool transitions from primary to secondary school: development of intervention strategies to improve the quality of teachers´transition decisions
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Report (2015)

The TRANSINTER project focused on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education in ... [more ▼]

The TRANSINTER project focused on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education in Luxembourg. The main aims of the project were to investigate the effect of three different intervention / training modules, separately and in combination, as well as the influence of group constellation on decision making processes. In order to address the aims, several steps were taken. First, we conducted a thorough literature review, which provided a solid theoretical framework for the studies within the project. Second we developed materials and a criterion to evaluate changes in teachers’ decision making accuracy. At the individual level, we conducted 3 studies to investigate the short and long term effects of accountability, theoretical knowledge and the application of prediction rules on teachers’ decision accuracy. All 3 studies showed at the baseline that teachers’ general decision accuracy was of high standard but also that decision accuracy for ethnic majority students was significantly better than for ethnic minority students. Similarly, teachers were generally more accurate in decisions for students with typical academic profiles compared to mixed profiles. The study on the effects of accountability showed that increased accountability resulted in increased decision accuracy, especially in regards to decisions for ethnic minority students with typical profiles. The studies concerning the introduction of theoretical models of decision making and judgment formation and the application of SPRs resulted in an improvement of transition decisions for ethnic minority students only. Unfortunately, the differential intervention effects of increased accountability, the introduction of theoretical models, and the application of SPRs could not be maintained over time, that is, at follow up, the ethnicity bias reappeared. Interestingly, when we combined the intervention modules to investigate their combined effect on the accuracy of transition decisions, the training in the application of formal decision rules seemed most effective in reducing ethnicity bias. It should be noted that this training was delivered to preservice teachers whilst the intervention studies were conducted with experienced inservice teachers. At the inter-individual level, we investigated the effect of group constellation on the accuracy of transition decisions. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did neither detect a social loafing nor a social facilitation effect and decisions taken in groups did not differ from decisions taken alone. From these studies we can conclude that teachers’ transition decisions can be improved by providing experienced teachers with theoretical knowledge and by increasing accountability. Preservice teachers may profit most from training in the application of formal decision rules as part of a comprehensive training concerning diagnostic competence. [less ▲]

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