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See detailAge-related differences in evaluating developmental stability
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

in International Journal of Behavioral Development (2013), 37(4), 376-386

Two studies examined the hypothesis that the evaluation of developmental stability changes across adulthood. Results of Study 1 (N ¼ 119) supported the expectation that older adults (Mage ¼ 65.29 years ... [more ▼]

Two studies examined the hypothesis that the evaluation of developmental stability changes across adulthood. Results of Study 1 (N ¼ 119) supported the expectation that older adults (Mage ¼ 65.29 years)—compared to younger (Mage ¼ 23.38 years) and middle-aged adults (Mage ¼ 38.68 years)—evaluate developmental stability more positively and losses less negatively across all life domains included in this study (subjective well-being, social relationships, cognition, physical functioning). Replicating and extending these findings, Study 2 (N ¼ 182, age-range: 18–86 years) demonstrated that these age-related differences exist only for stability on an explicit and implicit level of evaluation. Moreover, Study 2 shows that the positive evaluation of stability increases after resource investments into maintaining stability were made salient. We discuss the results in relation to motivational orientation and psychological adjustment to developmental change. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging conceptualization of stability across the lifespan
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

Scientific Conference (2012, September)

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See detailMultidimensionality of developmental conceptions
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

Scientific Conference (2012, September)

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See detailMultidimensionality in Developmental Conceptions Across Adulthood
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

in GeroPsych: Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry (2012), 25(2), 57-72

Two studies demonstrate the usefulness of a newly developed, direct assessment method of subjective conceptualizations of development across adulthood. Results of Study 1 (N = 234, 18–83 years) suggest ... [more ▼]

Two studies demonstrate the usefulness of a newly developed, direct assessment method of subjective conceptualizations of development across adulthood. Results of Study 1 (N = 234, 18–83 years) suggest that older adults anticipate stronger decline in four domains of functioning (subjective well-being, social relationships, cognition, physical functioning) than younger and middle-aged adults. Study 2 (N = 166, 20–85 years) showed that older adults’ conceptualizations show less differentiation across domains than those of younger and middle-aged adults’. Results of both studies confirm lifespan notions of multidirectionality (expectations of gains and losses) but also show age-related differences in multidimensionality of developmental conceptions (i.e., differences in expected trajectories between domains). Moreover, results provide evidence that favorable conceptions impact perceived controllability and actual subjective well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailMeans or outcomes? Goal orientation predicts process and outcome focus
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M

in European Journal of Developmental Psychology (2012), 9(4), 493-499

Previous research has demonstrated that the representation of goals primarily in terms of means (process focus) compared to outcomes of goal pursuit (outcome focus) increases across the lifespan. Nothing ... [more ▼]

Previous research has demonstrated that the representation of goals primarily in terms of means (process focus) compared to outcomes of goal pursuit (outcome focus) increases across the lifespan. Nothing is known, however, about the processes underlying this age-related difference. The current study investigates age-related differences in growth and maintenance orientation as one of the factors contributing to age-related differences in goal focus. A self-report study (N¼123, 18 to 82 years, M¼48.59) presents first evidence that process focus is predicted by maintenance goal orientation, whereas outcome focus is predicted by growth goal orientation. Moreover, maintenance goal orientation mediates the positive association of age and process focus. Results are discussed taking a functional perspective of the role of goal orientation in age-related differences in goal focus. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptions of stability and change across the lifespan: processes and implications for development
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

Presentation (2012, February)

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See detailOn means and ends: Goal orientation and goal focus across adulthood
Freund, Alexandra M.; Hennecke, Marie; Mustafic, Maida UL

in Ryan, R. M. (Ed.) The Oxford handbook of human motivation (2012)

Personal goals guide behavior toward a desired outcome, motivate behavior over time and across situations, provide direction and meaning, and contribute to the acquisition of skills and subjective well ... [more ▼]

Personal goals guide behavior toward a desired outcome, motivate behavior over time and across situations, provide direction and meaning, and contribute to the acquisition of skills and subjective well-being. The adaptiveness of goals, however, might vary with dimensions such as their orientation toward the achievement of gains, maintenance of functioning, or the avoidance of losses. We argue that goal orientation is most adaptive when it corresponds to the availability of resources and the ubiquity of losses. In line with this argument, younger adults show a predominant orientation toward the promotion of gains, whereas goal orientation shifts toward maintenance and avoidance of loss across adulthood. This shift in goal orientation seems adaptive both regarding subjective well-being as well as engagement in goal pursuit. A second goal dimension that has been largely overlooked in the literature is the cognitive representation of goal pursuit primarily in terms of its means (i.e., process focus) or its ends (i.e., outcome focus). This chapter investigates the antecedents and consequences of goal focus. In particular, it highlights the importance of factors related to chronological age (i.e., the availability of resources, future time perspective, goal orientation, motivational phase) for the preference for and adaptiveness of an outcome or process focus. Finally, we posit that a process focus leads to more adaptive behavioral and affective reactions when people encounter failure during goal pursuit. [less ▲]

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See detailAge-related differences in subjective conceptions of gains and losses across the lifespan
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

Presentation (2010, December)

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See detailAlters- und Bereichsunterschiede in der Erwartung und Beeinflussbarkeit von Verlusten
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

Poster (2010, September)

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See detailImprovement for the younger – Maintenance for the old: Two sides of the same coin?
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

Scientific Conference (2010, May)

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See detailShort- and Long-Term Relationship Orientation and 2D:4D Finger-Length Ratio
Schwarz, Sascha; Mustafic, Maida UL; Hassebrauck, Manfred et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2010), 40(3), 565-574

Recent studies have shown that preferences for close relationships (Long-Term Relationship Orientation) are independent of preferences for various sexual partners (Short-Term Relationship Orientation). In ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that preferences for close relationships (Long-Term Relationship Orientation) are independent of preferences for various sexual partners (Short-Term Relationship Orientation). In the current studies, we hypothesized that Short-Term Relationship Orientationwouldbe negatively related to 2D:4D finger-length ratio (i.e., the more masculine, the higher Short-Term Relationship Orientation). Study 1 found a negative relationship between Short-Term Relationship Orientation and right, but not left, hand 2D:4D among 91 male participants. Study 2 found a negative relationship between Short-Term Relationship Orientation and left,but not right,hand 2D:4Damong65male participants, even after controlling for age, relationship status, social desirability, and sex drive. Female participants (n=142) did not show this relationship in Study 2. This sex difference was discussed in terms of flexible female sexual strategies,which are supposed to be contingent on the local environment or menstrual cycle variations. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation between goal orientation and the means as well as the outcomes of a goal
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

Poster (2009, October)

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See detailDoes goal orientation affect the salience of the means or the outcomes of a goal - Preliminary results
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

Poster (2009, April)

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See detailDoes goal orientation affect the salience of the means or the outcomes of a goal
Mustafic, Maida UL; Freund, Alexandra M.

Poster (2008, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 UL)
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See detailDigit ratio (2D:4D) and short-term mating orientation
Schwarz, Sascha; Mustafic, Maida UL; Hassabrauck, Manfred

Scientific Conference (2008, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 UL)