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See detailAdaptation and Validation of the Perceived Control in Unemployment Scale
Houssemand, Claude UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Pignault, Anne

in Frontiers in Psychology (2019)

Perceived control plays an important role in the understanding of people's experiences with unemployment and reemployment. Yet, no scale has been designed specifically to measure people's perceived ... [more ▼]

Perceived control plays an important role in the understanding of people's experiences with unemployment and reemployment. Yet, no scale has been designed specifically to measure people's perceived control in an unemployment situation. In the current study, using two independent samples with 1,009 and 831 unemployed people in France and Luxembourg, respectively, we created and tested a three-dimensional Perceived Control in Unemployment Scale that was based on Levenson's (1973, 1981) theory. An exploratory factor analysis (Study 1) and a confirmatory factor analysis (Study 2) showed that the data were consistent with the theoretically postulated three-factor model. In addition, we established convergent and discriminant validity with several adaptive and non-adaptive dimensions in two independent samples of 141 unemployed people and 384 recently unemployed people in Luxembourg (Studies 3 and 4, respectively). Perceived control did not change over a period of 6 months of unemployment, yet the three types of perceived control measured at the beginning of unemployment predicted employment status 6 months later. Unemployed people with perceptions of internal control or control from powerful others found jobs more quickly, whereas the perception that chance was the controlling factor predicted longer unemployment. [less ▲]

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See detailMediators’ Self-Perception of their Work and Practice: Content and Lexical Analysis
Pignault, Anne UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Houssemand, Claude UL

in The Qualitative Report (2017), 22(6), 1589-1606

Mediation is increasingly used in various areas of society. Yet few studies have shed light on the unique work of mediators and their perception of the “mediator effect” on the process. The purpose of ... [more ▼]

Mediation is increasingly used in various areas of society. Yet few studies have shed light on the unique work of mediators and their perception of the “mediator effect” on the process. The purpose of this qualitative study is to gather and compare mediators’ views about their work through feedback on their practices and to understand what they perceive as the bases for reaching a favorable outcome. This article presents the results of a content analysis of interviews with 13 mediators from different countries and cultures. The analysis grouped professional discourses into four areas: the process of the mediation meeting, mediation models and styles, mediator training, and family mediation. Each of these classes is broken down into sub-classes that describe the more salient elements of their perceived practice of mediation and self-efficacy. These results are then discussed regarding their application for the process and success of mediation. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the Empowerment Scale with unemployed people in lifelong learning: Is the tool sound and useful?
Meyers, Raymond UL; Pignault, Anne UL; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Psychology Research (2016), 6(11), 648-659

Empowerment is a widely used construct in research on social work, mental health and community interventions, but has only been exploited indirectly with the unemployed. But job finding is an important ... [more ▼]

Empowerment is a widely used construct in research on social work, mental health and community interventions, but has only been exploited indirectly with the unemployed. But job finding is an important dimension of empowerment and could be used to test the accuracy of the concept and of its measures. The Making Decisions Empowerment Scale was used with 97 unemployed people who had been jobless for 6 months. Even though the psychometric qualities of the 5 subscales and the total scale were mixed, convergent and discriminant validity with several adaptive and non-adaptive dimensions could be established for the global scale and for the Esteem, Power, Control and, to a lesser degree, the Activism subscales. The results were only marginally better for the 28 items global scale compared to the 9 items Esteem scale. Empowerment could be adequately modelled by using three dimensions: change coping, depression, and chance control of unemployment. Comparing 6 months later those who had found a job with the still unemployed, the 2 groups differed significantly on 2 of the 5 subscales (Activism and Control) though not on the total empowerment scale, nor on the other psychometric scales. The results throw some doubt on the accuracy of an aggregate measure that sums up divergent dimensions. Instead, it is proposed that more specific and individualized constructs be used, at least in unemployment research. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies and perspectives of school actors during a reform of vocational training in Luxembourg
Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne UL; Meyers, Raymond UL

in Sociology Study (2016), 6(8), 485489

Since 2008, a reform of vocational training is being implemented in the upper level of secondary education in Luxembourg. The new method consists of: (1) teaching through competencies; (2) modular ... [more ▼]

Since 2008, a reform of vocational training is being implemented in the upper level of secondary education in Luxembourg. The new method consists of: (1) teaching through competencies; (2) modular training where modules can be repeated until they are achieved; and (3) evaluation which has been changed from quantitative to qualitative. The reform continues to face ongoing challenges and resistance from the different actors involved in vocational training. Semi‐structured interviews were carried out with the relevant actors in order to analyse their strategies and perspectives during and after the reform: representatives of the Ministry of Education, teaching staff, school administrations, enterprises, parents, and pupils. A heuristic model of resistance to change in education was constructed, based on these interviews. A general fatigue with the reform has spread; and this is at a moment when the Ministry wants to implement new changes to the aforementioned law. In order to make the reform viable, a new negotiated agreement based on the interests of the different players should be achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailLocus de contrôle et retour au travail. Adaptation et validation d’une échelle de contrôle perçu du chômage
Pignault, Anne UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Houssemand, Claude UL

Scientific Conference (2016, July 11)

Le locus de contrôle renvoie à la croyance selon laquelle un évènement dépend de facteurs externes ou internes (Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2002). Nombre d’études ont permis d’étudier les relations entre locus ... [more ▼]

Le locus de contrôle renvoie à la croyance selon laquelle un évènement dépend de facteurs externes ou internes (Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2002). Nombre d’études ont permis d’étudier les relations entre locus perçu et stratégies de coping face au chômage (Wanberg, 1997), stratégies de recherche d’emploi (Kanfer, Wanberg, & Kantrowitz, 2001) ou durée du chômage. Si de nombreuses échelles générales (Rotter, 1966) ou plus spécifiques (Furnham & Steele, 1993) existent, aucune n’est particulièrement appropriée aux demandeurs d’emploi. Or l’utilisation d’échelles spécifiques de locus présente deux avantages : 1) la prise en compte d’un contexte particulier pour l’évaluation de ce concept dépassant une mesure générale de ce trait de personnalité (Furnham & Steele, 1993) et 2) une validité prédictive meilleure lorsqu’elle est contextualisée (Wang, Bowling, & Eschleman, 2010). Nous proposons d’adapter, à la situation de chômage, les échelles MLCH (Multidimensional Locus of Control Health Scales ; Wallston, Wallston, & DeVellis, 1978) permettant de distinguer 3 dimensions : le locus interne et deux types de locus externes (renvoyant à la chance ou à des personnages tout-puissants). Ce choix est justifié par la longueur restreinte, les qualités psychométriques et la structure tridimensionnelle simple de l’échelle originale. Les items ont été rédigés en français puis modifiés sur les trois dimensions concernant les croyances de contrôle sur la situation de chômage, le processus de recherche d’emploi et les résultats de la recherche d’emploi. Cette nouvelle échelle a été testée une première fois auprès de 226 hommes et 158 femmes vivant au Luxembourg et nouvellement inscrits comme demandeurs d’emploi, et une seconde fois auprès de 97 d’entre eux, 6 mois après. Les trois sous-échelles montrent une consistance interne acceptable (alpha de 0.60; 0.68 et 0.57) proche de celle des outils précédemment élaborés. Si ces indicateurs semblent a priori faibles, ils correspondent aux limites statistiques de ce type d’analyses et à ce type de données (nombres d’items et niveau de mesure ordinale ; Eisinga, Grotenhuis & Pelzer, 2013). Néanmoins, pour dépasser ces apparentes limitations, des analyses statistiques plus sophistiquées et mieux adaptées à ce type de mesures ont été réalisées selon la Théorie de Réponses à l’Item. Elles confirment l’ajustement des items sur chacune des trois dimensions latentes de locus. Enfin, une analyse structurale confirmatoire (Mplus 7.3) a permis de confirmer la structure de l’échelle et de contrôler l’ajustement du modèle théorique aux données empiriques selon les normes acceptées pour ce type d’analyse (Kline, 2011). L’outil a été utilisé dans deux projets financés par le Fond National de la Recherche Luxembourgeois. Les résultats montrent que les mesures de locus ne sont pas influencées par la période de chômage (pas de modification individuelle après 6 mois) mais permettent, avec d’autres dimensions psychologiques, d’estimer le risque de devenir chômeur de longue durée (Houssemand, Pignault & Meyers, 2014) et de décrire la représentation individuelle de la situation de chômage (Pignault & Houssemand, 2013). Ainsi, cette nouvelle échelle, spécifique au chômage, possède une bonne validité prédictive du potentiel retour vers l’emploi. La communication sera l’occasion de présenter la validation et la structure de l’échelle de locus et de discuter notamment des liens entre le locus de contrôle des chômeurs et le retour au travail. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetences as seen by teachers and employers in an initial vocational training reform
Meyers, Raymond UL; Pignault, Anne UL; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Psychology Research (2016), 6(7), 426-429

Luxembourg has a dual system of initial vocational training, inspired by the German model, where training takes place alternately in enterprises as well as in schools. Since 2008, a competence-based ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has a dual system of initial vocational training, inspired by the German model, where training takes place alternately in enterprises as well as in schools. Since 2008, a competence-based reform of vocational training is being implemented in the upper level of secondary education in Luxembourg. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with the relevant actors to analyse their strategies and perspectives during and after the reform. It appears that one major difficulty in the implementation of the reform is the difference between schools’ and enterprises’ understanding of what competence-based training is. The majority of teaching staff disagreed with training through competences as it was considered a more difficult and less manageable approach for them than the previous knowledge-based methods. When they adopt the prescribed approach albeit reluctantly, they often attribute it a meaning which is mostly school-based, where competences are seen as skills in exercises based on books and programs and not in professional situations. Enterprises were in favour of curricula based on competences, as they are more suited to the practical work expected in the professional domain. Pupils are confronted directly with practical professional situations at the workplace, but enterprises have problems in implementing explicit, systematic and progressive modular training. Coordination between these two main actors in the training system is poor and problematic; especially with regards to collaboration within the curriculum teams that are expected to develop and update the training modules. A general fatigue with the reform has spread, even if most actors agree, at least verbally, with its general philosophy; and this at a moment when the Ministry wants to implement new changes to the law. In order to make the reform viable, a newly negotiated agreement based on the interests of the different players, especially between enterprises and schools, should be achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailÉléments pour une évaluation de la réforme de la formation professionnelle : les principales critiques
Meyers, Raymond UL; Speltz, Fernand; Houssemand, Claude UL

Report (2015)

Une importante réforme de la formation professionnelle initiale est en cours au Luxembourg depuis 2008. Elle consiste en l'introduction systématique d'un enseignement par compétences pour l'ensemble des ... [more ▼]

Une importante réforme de la formation professionnelle initiale est en cours au Luxembourg depuis 2008. Elle consiste en l'introduction systématique d'un enseignement par compétences pour l'ensemble des 120 métiers et en la mise en œuvre des formations sous une forme modulaire et flexible. Ainsi, les principales modifications par rapport à l’ancien modèle sont la substitution des notations chiffrées de savoirs par des évaluations qualitatives de compétences, et les rattrapages à la carte des modules non réussis par l'élève jusqu'à réussite de ceux-ci, dans le cadre de la limite temporelle légale. Cette nouvelle procédure a buté sur un nombre important de difficultés, critiques et résistances. Une « réforme de la réforme » a été entreprise depuis 2014, aboutissant en février 2015 au dépôt d'un nouveau projet de loi (n° 6774) visant à réviser l'ancienne. Afin de préparer et d'accompagner cette révision et les discussions autour de ce travail législatif, l’Institut LifeLong Learning and Guidance (LLLG) de l’Université du Luxembourg a été chargé par le Service de la formation professionnelle (SFP) du ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse (MENJE), de réaliser une étude qualitative d'évaluation de la formation professionnelle telle qu'elle se présente actuellement. Le présent document reprend certaines conclusions de cette étude. Il est à destination des commanditaires de celle-ci, mais également de la commission de l'Education nationale, de l'Enfance et de la Jeunesse de la Chambre des députés. [less ▲]

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See detailL’orientation lors du passage « fondamental-secondaire » au Luxembourg : une nouvelle approche centrée sur les compétences?
Houssemand, Claude UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Martin, Romain UL et al

Scientific Conference (2015, January 29)

La réforme de l’enseignement fondamental a introduit en 2009 de nouvelles modalités d’enseignement et d’évaluation au Luxembourg : les trois cycles d’apprentissage de deux ans, les socles de compétences ... [more ▼]

La réforme de l’enseignement fondamental a introduit en 2009 de nouvelles modalités d’enseignement et d’évaluation au Luxembourg : les trois cycles d’apprentissage de deux ans, les socles de compétences, l’évaluation sans notes chiffrées mais en termes de compétences. À partir de 2012-2013, les bilans intermédiaires et le bilan de fin de cycle remplacent les bulletins à notes chiffrées en tant qu’outils d’évaluation utilisés dans la procédure d’orientation à la fin du fondamental. Les modalités du passage de l’école fondamentale au lycée sont adaptées en conséquence. Les grandes lignes de la procédure d’orientation en vigueur depuis 1996 sont maintenues. Le conseil d’orientation, composé de l’inspecteur et de l’enseignant principal de l'enfant, ainsi que de professeurs de l’enseignement secondaire et secondaire technique, se prononce sur l’orientation de l’élève. L’avis d’orientation, formulé et motivé par le conseil d’orientation, est dorénavant appelé « décision d’orientation » pour souligner son caractère contraignant, sauf si les parents introduisent un recours, ce qui entraine l'organisation d'épreuves d'accès à l'enseignement secondaire et secondaire technique. Les éléments à la base de la décision d’orientation restent inchangés : - Les apprentissages et la progression de l’élève, consignés dorénavant dans les bilans intermédiaires et le bilan de fin de cycle ; - L’avis du titulaire de classe et l’avis des parents ; - L’avis du psychologue si les parents le demandent ; - Les résultats aux épreuves communes. Ces épreuves en allemand, français et mathématiques sont les mêmes pour tous les élèves du pays. Ces dernières, et là se trouve la nouveauté, renseignent sur le développement des compétences de l’élève par rapport aux niveaux de compétence attendus à la fin de ce dernier cycle. Cette procédure d'orientation adaptée, plus centrée sur les compétences, est la suite logique de la réforme du fondamental. Mais quels sont les enjeux et les conséquences pratiques pour les élèves et les parents, notamment d'origine étrangère? Ce changement est-il purement cosmétique ou aura-t-il un réel impact sur les pratiques d'orientation? [less ▲]

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See detailL’apprentissage pour les adultes, une mesure pour la transition vers l’emploi
Houssemand, Claude UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Pignault, Anne UL

in Lenz, Thomas; Bertemes, Jos (Eds.) Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2015 – Band 2 : Analysen und Befunde (2015)

Was die Ausbildung im Erwachsenenbereich anbelangt, so besteht in Luxemburg durchaus erhöhter Handlungsbedarf: Ungefähr 13% der Schulabgänger verlassen das Bildungssystem ohne jeglichen beruflichen ... [more ▼]

Was die Ausbildung im Erwachsenenbereich anbelangt, so besteht in Luxemburg durchaus erhöhter Handlungsbedarf: Ungefähr 13% der Schulabgänger verlassen das Bildungssystem ohne jeglichen beruflichen Abschluss und haben dann große Schwierigkeiten, sich im regulären Arbeitsmarkt nachhaltig und dauerhaft zu integrieren. Es wurden deshalb in den letzten Jahren eine Reihe von Maßnahmen im Rahmen eines nationalen Aktionsplans für Arbeit entwickelt und umgesetzt, die neben dem Ziel der direkten Integration in den Arbeitsmarkt auch das Ziel der Integration über den Erwerb anerkannter Berufsabschlüsse im Rahmen der Erwachsenenbildung verfolgt haben. Auch wenn eine bessere Datengrundlage in diesem Bereich wünschenswert wäre, zeigen die vorliegenden Zahlen einen stetigen Anstieg der Teilnehmerzahlen in der Erwachsenenbildung in den letzten Jahren. Die Erwachsenenbildung, welche die Möglichkeit eröffnet, Berufsabschlüsse auf einem zweiten Bildungsweg zu erlangen, wurde ursprünglich im Jahr 2000 geschaffen und wendet sich an alle interessierten volljährigen Personen, welche das Pensionsalter noch nicht überschritten haben. Es hat sich jedoch herausgestellt, dass vor allem junge Erwachsene dieses Angebot in Anspruch nehmen (drei Viertel stammen aus der Altersgruppe von 18 bis 26 Jahren), so dass es sich eher zu einem Angebot für Personen entwickelt hat, denen der Berufseinstieg nicht richtig gelungen ist, als zu einer Maßnahme, die sich im Sinne eines lebenslangen Lernens an alle Altersgruppen richtet. Diese Hypothese findet eine Bestätigung in der Tatsache, dass diese Altersgruppe junger Erwachsener vor allem Personen umfasst, die bis dahin eher instabile Arbeitsverhältnisse gekannt haben. Die Aussichten auf eine erfolgreiche Eingliederung in den Arbeitsmarkt auf Grund einer Erwachsenenbildung hängen einerseits vom Wirtschaftssektor ab, in dem die Ausbildung durchgeführt wird, andererseits von persönlichen Merkmalen der Personen, welche eine solche Ausbildung beginnen, wobei z. B. das Alter und der Zeitpunkt des Schulabgangs eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Allerdings ist gerade in diesem Bereich die zur Verfügung stehende empirische Grundlage noch sehr unvollständig, so dass es schwierig ist, belastbare Aussagen über den Anteil erfolgreicher Abschlüsse im Bereich der Erwachsenenbildung zu erstellen. [less ▲]

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See detailPrédiction du chômage de longue durée par des variables psychologiques.
Houssemand, Claude UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Pignault, Anne UL

Scientific Conference (2014, August 27)

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See detailEmotional competences in the professional practice of mediation
Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne UL; Meyers, Raymond UL et al

Scientific Conference (2014, July 10)

Mediation can be defined as "a negotiation between adversarial parties in the presence of a third party, who is neutral, and has the role of facilitating the search for a solution to the conflict ... [more ▼]

Mediation can be defined as "a negotiation between adversarial parties in the presence of a third party, who is neutral, and has the role of facilitating the search for a solution to the conflict" (Touzard, 1977, p. 87). Since the eighties, mediation has been more widely used in North America and Europe. It encompasses both the public and private sectors in various fields such as family, neighbourhood, workplace, schools, and the commercial sector (Carnevale & Pruitt, 1992; Guillaume-Hofnung, 1995). Several authors (Herrman, 2006) have addressed the role of mediators’ behaviour and techniques in the efficacy of mediation. It is generally admitted that mediators have to be neutral and impartial, possess communication skills, be able to address emotions (Jameson, Bodtker, & Linker, 2010), develop competencies in understanding their own emotions and those of the parties involved. We therefore tested the hypothesis that mediators have better emotional competencies than people who are not mediators. We used the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) (Mikolajczak, et al., 2007) with 3 groups of persons: 36 mediators of all varieties of practice, 31 students in mediation, and 32 persons who have no link to mediation. Results showed that mediators had a significantly higher score on the whole questionnaire than the two other groups (F(2,96) = 3.30 p< .05). However results were more differentiated if sub-scales were considered. Our communication will present and discuss the complete results in the light of professional practices of mediators, especially those aspects linked to emotional competencies. [less ▲]

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See detailCareer stages and work values: How work values influence career strategies?
Pignault, Anne UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Bertrand, Clara et al

Poster (2014, May 01)

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See detailA model of guidance and counselling for young people with few qualifications
Houssemand, Claude UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Tudela, Lluis et al

Poster (2014, May 01)

The aim of the European Leonardo da Vinci project Acrojump is to create a web-based E-profile for young people aged 16-25, who have few qualifications, no diploma and limited professional experience. All ... [more ▼]

The aim of the European Leonardo da Vinci project Acrojump is to create a web-based E-profile for young people aged 16-25, who have few qualifications, no diploma and limited professional experience. All relevant information about the past experience of these young people will be put online with the help of counsellors trained to elicit all pertinent facts that can be put into an electronic résumé (sports, participation in projects, field interventions, etc.). These details can represent different levels of competencies which may or may not tie to the professional domain. [less ▲]

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See detailAgir sur le décrochage au Luxembourg : Les acteurs, leurs représentations et leurs actions
Houssemand, Claude UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Pignault, Anne UL

in Poncelet, Débora; Vlassis, Joëlle (Eds.) Actes du 2e colloque international du Lasalé sur le décrochage scolaire (2014)

Au Luxembourg, le nombre de jeunes quittant l'école sans diplôme reste important. Il apparaissait donc urgent de proposer des modes d'action inédits. A cet effet, l'Action Locale pour Jeunes (ALJ) a été ... [more ▼]

Au Luxembourg, le nombre de jeunes quittant l'école sans diplôme reste important. Il apparaissait donc urgent de proposer des modes d'action inédits. A cet effet, l'Action Locale pour Jeunes (ALJ) a été créée. Les intervenants sont des éducateurs gradués et des enseignants à temps partiel. L'originalité de son action est de se situer à l'interface école-famille-marché de l'emploi. L’ALJ a pour objectif de créer un espace d’encadrement dans lequel le jeune trouve les conditions nécessaires pour réussir sa transition de l’école à la vie active et accéder à une insertion stable. En travaillant à l'interface entre l'école, la famille et le marché du travail, l'ALJ arrive à joindre les ressources de ces trois instances pour les mettre en synergie avec la mobilisation de la motivation des jeunes concernés. [less ▲]

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See detailA Psychological Typology of Newly Unemployed People for Profiling and Counselling
Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne UL; Meyers, Raymond UL

in Current Psychology (2014), 33

Profiling of the unemployed in order to predict and prevent long-term unemployment has hitherto been based on socio-professional data; however, there is evidence that psychological dimensions also predict ... [more ▼]

Profiling of the unemployed in order to predict and prevent long-term unemployment has hitherto been based on socio-professional data; however, there is evidence that psychological dimensions also predict job search strategies and unemployment duration. In order to provide psychological profiling, a typological method could be more parsimonious than trait/dimension approaches. Typologies created to date have not addressed the issue of predicting employment status. A sample of 384 newly unemployed people was assessed using psychometric scales which have been shown in past research to be linked to job finding. Through cluster analysis, five groups of unemployed people were differentiated: the “integrated”, “willing”, “outsider”, “anxious”, and “dispossessed”. The typology showed predictive validity for employment status after 12 months. People who were “anxious” or “dispossessed” were more often unemployed than those who were “integrated”, “willing”, or “outsider”. It provided an alternative way of classifying unemployed people that could be used in profiling and especially in advisory support and counselling. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs psychologiques dans le chômage
Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne UL; Meyers, Raymond UL

Presentation (2013, October 18)

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See detailValuing the experience and securing the professional paths of young adults towards a non-precarious job: a new European project.
Pignault, Anne UL; Soidet, Isabelle; Vayre, Emilie et al

Scientific Conference (2013, June)

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See detailHow can coaching make a positive impact within educational settings?
Devine, Mary; Meyers, Raymond UL; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences (2013), 93

There is growing acceptance that large scale educational reform is needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century. The contribution that coaching can make in these settings has been the focus of recent ... [more ▼]

There is growing acceptance that large scale educational reform is needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century. The contribution that coaching can make in these settings has been the focus of recent discussions and research. Much of the research comes from the UK, USA and Australia and these will be reviewed to provide an overview of some of the approaches that have been used. A systematic literature search has been done using the keywords “coaching” and “education”, followed by a manual search based on references. Articles, books and reports were read in order to extract the most relevant and the most interesting studies. There is an emerging evidence-base that coaching is a powerful tool to support learning and development for students, teachers, school leaders and their educational establishments. A variety of coaching approaches have been used successfully. These approaches are outlined: behavioral coaching, solution-focused coaching, cognitive and cognitive-behavioral coaching, instructional coaching, executive coaching, peer coaching, and positive organizational leadership. The coaching approaches are also reviewed based on their focus on the three main educational actors: students, teachers, and school leaders. The contributions made by positive psychology for creating learning cultures within schools are also reviewed. All coaching approaches can provide valuable contributions, but ultimately school improvement will fail if coaching remains on an individual level. Therefore, systems of collective and collaborative learning are necessary to generate a collective learning culture. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Motivation and Self-regulation in Dropping Out of School
Meyers, Raymond UL; Pignault, Anne UL; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences (2013), 89

Dropping out of secondary education is a major problem in modern economies. Several explanations have been put forward, but not all have been systematically tested due to methodological and ethical ... [more ▼]

Dropping out of secondary education is a major problem in modern economies. Several explanations have been put forward, but not all have been systematically tested due to methodological and ethical problems. We compared two groups of pupils from the same secondary school classes. The groups were selected by teachers on the basis of their anticipated school outcomes (continuing school, n=585, versus dropping out, n=196). Motivational variables were intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, external regulation, amotivation, academic self-efficacy and consistency of interest. Self-regulation variables were perseverance of effort, learning strategies and resistance to peer influence. All these dimensions were measured through shortened versions of validated scales. Statistical analyses showed that most, but not all of the tested dimensions were significantly different for both groups. Significant motivational variables were intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, amotivation, and academic self-efficacy. Self-regulation variables that differentiated the two groups were perseverance of effort, and some learning strategies (elaboration, organisation, rehearsal, but not monitoring, planning and regulating) as well as resistance to peer influence. The factors which have been found are often cited, but in our study they are measured through a systematic design. While motivational factors are difficult to affect, self-regulatory skills could be taught and their systematic integration into school curricula could contribute to reducing dropout rates for students at risk. [less ▲]

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