References of "Khazaal, Yasser"
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See detailAddictions (Section: Nouveautés en Médecine 2018)
Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Billieux, Joël UL; Achab, Sophia et al

in Revue medicale suisse (2019), 15(N° 632-633), 14-16

New drugs available in a click, plethora of games, new regulations on cannabis, addiction medicine has a lot to do ! In 2018, Switzerland recognized a training certificate in addiction medicine ... [more ▼]

New drugs available in a click, plethora of games, new regulations on cannabis, addiction medicine has a lot to do ! In 2018, Switzerland recognized a training certificate in addiction medicine, pathological gambling entered into ICD-11 and vaping, first considered with suspicion, found a place in the pharmacopoeia of the fight against tobacco. That's not all, on the alcohol front, we realized that even a small glass can hurt and the medicine of addictions evolved towards models of recovery that aim to improve quality of life with chronic diseases. Finally, the American opioid prescription epidemic is worrying in Switzerland, even if the situation and the context are very different. [less ▲]

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See detailDisentangling the role of users' preferences and impulsivity traits in problematic Facebook use.
Rothen, Stephane; Briefer, Jean-Francois; Deleuze, Jory et al

in PloS one (2018), 13(9), 0201971

The use of social network sites (SNSs) has grown dramatically. Numerous studies have shown that SNS users may suffer from excessive use, associated with addictive-like symptoms. With a focus on the ... [more ▼]

The use of social network sites (SNSs) has grown dramatically. Numerous studies have shown that SNS users may suffer from excessive use, associated with addictive-like symptoms. With a focus on the popular SNS Facebook (FB), our aims in the current study were twofold: First, to explore the heterogeneity of FB usage and determine which kind of FB activity predicts problematic usage; second, to test whether specific impulsivity facets predict problematic use of FB. To this end, a sample of FB users (N = 676) completed an online survey assessing usage preferences (e.g., types of activities performed), symptoms of problematic FB use and impulsivity traits. Results indicated that specific usage preferences (updating one's status, gaming via FB, and using notifications) and impulsive traits (positive and negative urgency, lack of perseverance) are associated to problematic FB use. This study underscores that labels such as FB "addiction" are misleading and that focusing on the actual activities performed on SNSs is crucial when considering dysfunctional usage. Furthermore, this study clarified the role of impulsivity in problematic FB use by building on a theoretically driven model of impulsivity that assumes its multidimensional nature. The current findings have identifiable theoretical and public health implications. [less ▲]

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See detailGame Addiction Scale Assessment Through a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adult Men: Item Response Theory Graded–Response Modeling
Khazaal, Yasser; Breivik, Kyrre; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of Medical Internet Research (2018), 20(8), 10058

Background: The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) has been validated under standard confirmatory factor analysis and exhibits good psychometric properties. Whether this scale satisfies the necessary ... [more ▼]

Background: The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) has been validated under standard confirmatory factor analysis and exhibits good psychometric properties. Whether this scale satisfies the necessary conditions for consideration by item response theory (IRT) modeling remains unknown. However, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recently proposed criteria, in its section 3, to define internet gaming disorder (IGD) to promote research on this possible condition. Objective: The objective of our study was to (1) analyze GAS in the context of IRT (graded-response) modeling; (2) investigate differential item functioning (DIF), a feature of IRT modeling, in 2 subsamples; and (3) contribute to the ongoing (IGD) debate related to the validity of the DSM-5 criteria using GAS items as a proxy. Methods: We assessed 2 large representative samples of Swiss men (3320 French-speaking and 2670 German-speaking) with GAS. Results: All items comprised high discrimination parameters. GAS items such as relapse, conflict, withdrawal, and problems (loss of interests) were endorsed more frequently in more severe IGD stages, whereas items related to tolerance, salience (preoccupation), and mood modification (escape) were endorsed more widely among participants (including in less severe IGD stages). Several DIF effects were found but were classified as negligible. Conclusions: The results of the analyses partly support the relevance of using IRT to further establish the psychometric properties of the GAS items. This study contributes to testing the validity of the IGD criteria, although cautious generalization of our findings is required with GAS being only a proxy of the IGD criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailHow can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel; Heeren, Alexandre; Schimmenti, Adriano et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1709-1715

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and ... [more ▼]

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioural Addiction Open Definition 2.0 – Using the open science framework for collaborative and transparent theoretical development
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Rooij, Antonius J; Heeren, Alexandre et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1723-1724

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See detailGambling and problem gambling in Switzerland.
Billieux, Joël UL; Achab, Sophia; Savary, Jean-Felix et al

in Addiction (Abingdon, England) (2016), 111(9), 1677-83

AIMS: To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. METHODS: A ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO), and official government and statistical reports selected from the official websites of four sources (Federal Office of Justice; Federal Gambling Board; Federal Office of Statistics; Swiss Lottery and Betting Board). RESULTS: After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation. Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in 2014. Most gambling treatment facilities are integrated into mental health treatment services that have out-patient programmes, and treatment for problem gambling is covered by a universal compulsory Swiss health insurance system. The availability of public funding for gambling research is still limited. CONCLUSIONS: Switzerland needs to develop a more coherent regulatory and prevention policy approach to gambling, overcoming conflicts in the current dual system of federal and cantonal regulation. Recent efforts to enhance funding for gambling research are promising, and could lead to a more systematic analysis of the efficacy of prevention and treatment programmes. [less ▲]

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See detailCapitalizing upon the Attractive and Addictive Properties of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games to Promote Wellbeing.
Thorens, Gabriel; Billieux, Joël UL; Megevand, Pierre et al

in Frontiers in Psychiatry (2016), 7

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See detailAre we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research.
Billieux, Joël UL; Schimmenti, Adriano; Khazaal, Yasser et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2015), 4(3), 119-23

Background Behavioral addiction research has been particularly flourishing over the last two decades. However, recent publications have suggested that nearly all daily life activities might lead to a ... [more ▼]

Background Behavioral addiction research has been particularly flourishing over the last two decades. However, recent publications have suggested that nearly all daily life activities might lead to a genuine addiction. Methods and aim In this article, we discuss how the use of atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches may result in the identification of an unlimited list of "new" behavioral addictions. Results Both methodological and theoretical shortcomings of these studies were discussed. Conclusions We suggested that studies overpathologizing daily life activities are likely to prompt a dismissive appraisal of behavioral addiction research. Consequently, we proposed several roadmaps for future research in the field, centrally highlighting the need for longer tenable behavioral addiction research that shifts from a mere criteria-based approach toward an approach focusing on the psychological processes involved. [less ▲]

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See detailFactor Structure of the Internet Addiction Test in Online Gamers and Poker Players.
Khazaal, Yasser; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in JMIR Mental Health (2015), 2(2), 12

BACKGROUND: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the most widely used questionnaire to screen for problematic Internet use. Nevertheless, its factorial structure is still debated, which complicates ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the most widely used questionnaire to screen for problematic Internet use. Nevertheless, its factorial structure is still debated, which complicates comparisons among existing studies. Most previous studies were performed with students or community samples despite the probability of there being more problematic Internet use among users of specific applications, such as online gaming or gambling. OBJECTIVE: To assess the factorial structure of a modified version of the IAT that addresses specific applications, such as video games and online poker. METHODS: Two adult samples-one sample of Internet gamers (n=920) and one sample of online poker players (n=214)-were recruited and completed an online version of the modified IAT. Both samples were split into two subsamples. Two principal component analyses (PCAs) followed by two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were run separately. RESULTS: The results of principal component analysis indicated that a one-factor model fit the data well across both samples. In consideration of the weakness of some IAT items, a 17-item modified version of the IAT was proposed. CONCLUSIONS: This study assessed, for the first time, the factorial structure of a modified version of an Internet-administered IAT on a sample of Internet gamers and a sample of online poker players. The scale seems appropriate for the assessment of such online behaviors. Further studies on the modified 17-item IAT version are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics and treatment response of self-identified problematic Internet users in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic.
Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2014), 3(1), 78-81

AIMS: Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of patients who self-identify as having Internet-related problems. METHODS: This retrospective study included 57 patients who consulted the Geneva Addiction Outpatient Clinic from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2010. Patients underwent an initial clinical psychiatric evaluation that included collection of data on socio-demographics, method of referral, specific Internet usage, psychiatric diagnosis, and Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) scores. Treatment consisted of individual psychotherapeutic sessions. RESULTS: Of these patients, 98% were male and 37% were 18 years or younger. Most patients were online gamers (46% playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games). The mean IAT score was 52.9 (range 20-90). Sixty-eight percent of patients had a co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis, with social phobia being the most prevalent (17.8%). Patients who remained in treatment (dropout rate 24%) showed an overall improvement of symptoms: 38.6% showed significant or average improvement on their CGI score, 26.3% showed minimal improvement, and 14% showed no change. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that there are specific types of Internet use, with online gaming mainly affecting young male patients. As Internet addiction is not yet an official diagnosis, better instruments are needed to screen patients and to avoid false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Successful care should integrate the treatment of co-morbid symptoms and involve families and relatives in the therapeutic process. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes self-selection affect samples' representativeness in online surveys? An investigation in online video game research.
Khazaal, Yasser; van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne et al

in Journal of medical Internet research (2014), 16(7), 164

BACKGROUND: The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players' virtual characters (avatars). METHODS: All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars' characteristics were defined using various games' scores, reported on the WoW's official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. RESULTS: We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of a short French version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale.
Billieux, Joël UL; Rochat, Lucien; Ceschi, Grazia et al

in Comprehensive psychiatry (2012), 53(5), 609-15

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has a prominent role in psychiatry. Lynam et al (2006) have developed the UPPS-P, a 59-item scale measuring 5 impulsivity components: negative ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has a prominent role in psychiatry. Lynam et al (2006) have developed the UPPS-P, a 59-item scale measuring 5 impulsivity components: negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The aim of the present study was to validate a short, 20-item French version of the UPPS-P. METHODS: Six hundred fifty participants filled out the short French UPPS-P. A subgroup of participants (n = 145) took part in a follow-up study and completed the scale twice to determine test-retest stability; another subgroup (n = 105) was screened with other questionnaires also to establish external validity. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses supported a hierarchical model comprising 2 higher order factors of urgency (resulting from negative urgency and positive urgency) and lack of conscientiousness (resulting from lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance) as well as a separate factor of sensation seeking. The results indicated good internal consistency and test-retest stability. External validity was supported by relationships with psychopathological symptoms. CONCLUSION: The short French version of the UPPS-P therefore presents good psychometric properties and may be considered a promising instrument for both research and clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailTrait gambling cognitions predict near-miss experiences and persistence in laboratory slot machine gambling.
Billieux, Joël UL; Van der Linden, Martial; Khazaal, Yasser et al

in British Journal of Psychology (2012), 103(3), 412-27

'Near-miss' outcomes (i.e., unsuccessful outcomes close to the jackpot) have been shown to promote gambling persistence. Although there have been recent advances in understanding the neurobiological ... [more ▼]

'Near-miss' outcomes (i.e., unsuccessful outcomes close to the jackpot) have been shown to promote gambling persistence. Although there have been recent advances in understanding the neurobiological responses to gambling near-misses, the psychological mechanisms involved in these events remain unclear. The goal of this study was to explore whether trait-related gambling cognitions (e.g., beliefs that certain skills or rituals may help to win in games of chance) influence behavioural and subjective responses during laboratory gambling. Eighty-four individuals, who gambled at least monthly, performed a simplified slot machine task that delivered win, near-miss, and full-miss outcomes across 30 mandatory trials followed by a persistence phase in extinction. Participants completed the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004), as well as measures of disordered gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS]; Lesieur & Blume, 1987) and social desirability bias (DS-36; Tournois, Mesnil, & Kop, 2000). Skill-oriented gambling cognitions (illusion of control, fostered by internal factors such as reappraisal of losses, or perceived outcome sequences), but not ritual-oriented gambling cognitions (illusion of control fostered by external factors such as luck or superstitions), predicted higher subjective ratings of desire to play after near-miss outcomes. In contrast, perceived lack of self-control predicted persistence on the slot machine task. These data indicate that the motivational impact of near-miss outcomes is related to specific gambling cognitions pertaining to skill acquisition, supporting the idea that gambling near-misses foster the illusion of control. [less ▲]

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See detailFrench validation of the compulsive internet use scale (CIUS).
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Horn, Alessandra et al

in The Psychiatric quarterly (2012), 83(4), 397-405

The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in European countries in the last two decades. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals ... [more ▼]

The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in European countries in the last two decades. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may be associated with excessive use and possible Internet addiction. The goals of the current study were to validate a French version of the compulsive Internet use scale (CIUS) and to assess its links with common psychiatric symptoms such as depression (assessed with the Beck depression inventory: BDI), anxiety (assessed with the trait anxiety inventory: STAI) and alcohol misuse (assessed with the alcohol use disorder identification test: AUDIT). The French versions of the CIUS, BDI, STAI and AUDIT were administered to a sample of Internet users. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses, correlation analysis and logistic regression were performed. As previously found with the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. Excessive use of the Internet was associated with depressive symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Geneva Smoking Pictures: development and preliminary validation.
Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele; Billieux, Joël UL

in European addiction research (2012), 18(3), 103-9

Cue reactivity is essential to the maintenance of addictive disorders. A useful way to study cue reactivity is by means of normative pictures, but few validated tobacco-related pictures are available ... [more ▼]

Cue reactivity is essential to the maintenance of addictive disorders. A useful way to study cue reactivity is by means of normative pictures, but few validated tobacco-related pictures are available. This study describes a database of smoking-related pictures: The Geneva Smoking Pictures (GSP). Sixty smoking-related pictures were presented to 91 participants who assessed them according to the classic emotional pictures validation provided by the International Affective Picture System (NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, 2002). The pictures were rated according to three dimensions: (1) valence (from positive to negative), (2) emotional arousal (from high arousing to low arousing), and (3) dominance (from submissive to dominant). Participants were also screened with the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Normative ratings for valence, arousal and dominance of the pictures are provided for the whole sample, as well as separately for dependent (n = 46) and nondependent smokers (n = 45). Arousal and dominance were associated with greater nicotine dependence, but valence ratings were not. The GSP is a normative database providing a large number of stimuli for investigators who are conducting nicotine and tobacco research. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of expertise on football betting.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy (2012), 7

BACKGROUND: Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control." The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. RESULTS: The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). CONCLUSIONS: Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control." Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. [less ▲]

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See detailArabic validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS).
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Atwi, Khodor et al

in Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy (2011), 6

BACKGROUND: The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in Arabic countries in recent years. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may in certain cases become problematic and engender negative consequences in daily life. As no instrument in the Arabic language is available, however, to measure excessive Internet use, the goal of the current study was to validate an Arabic version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). METHODS: The Arabic version of the CIUS was administered to a sample of 185 Internet users and exploratory and confirmatory analyses performed. RESULTS: As found previously for the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. The total score on the CIUS was positively associated with time spent online. CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of the CIUS seems to be a valid self-report to measure problematic Internet use. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Geneva Appetitive Alcohol Pictures (GAAP): development and preliminary validation.
Billieux, Joël UL; Khazaal, Yasser; Oliveira, Sandrine et al

in European addiction research (2011), 17(5), 225-30

This study describes a new database of alcohol-related pictures: The Geneva Appetitive Alcohol Pictures (GAAP). 60 alcohol-related pictures (beverages, drinking-related behaviors, alcohol-related cues ... [more ▼]

This study describes a new database of alcohol-related pictures: The Geneva Appetitive Alcohol Pictures (GAAP). 60 alcohol-related pictures (beverages, drinking-related behaviors, alcohol-related cues) were presented to 101 participants (ranging from social drinkers to problem drinkers), who assessed them according to the classic emotional pictures validation provided by the International Affective Picture System (Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA[-]NIMH), 2002). Participants were also screened with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Normative ratings for valence, arousal and dominance of the pictures are provided separately for problem/risky users (n = 49) and non-risky drinkers (n = 52). The GAAP is a normative database that provides a large number of stimuli for investigators who conduct research on alcohol. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey.
Zanetta Dauriat, Francesca; Zermatten, Ariane; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in European addiction research (2011), 17(4), 185-9

BACKGROUND: Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction. AIMS: The main goal of the present study was to ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction. AIMS: The main goal of the present study was to assess links between motivations to play in MMORPGs and addictive involvement in such types of games. METHODS: A total of 696 gamers responded to an online survey. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Five distinct motivations to play were identified in gamers: achievement, socializing, immersion, relaxing and escaping. Multiple regression analysis revealed that addictive MMORPG use patterns are predicted by achievement, escapism and socializing motives. Gender was also a significant predictor of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Moreover, addictive MMORPG use positively correlated with the weekly time devoted to playing MMORPGs. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological predictors of problematic involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: illustration in a sample of male cybercafe players.
Billieux, Joël UL; Chanal, Julien; Khazaal, Yasser et al

in Psychopathology (2011), 44(3), 165-71

BACKGROUND: Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are video games in which a large number of players interact with one another in a persistent virtual world. MMORPGs can become ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are video games in which a large number of players interact with one another in a persistent virtual world. MMORPGs can become problematic and result in negative outcomes in daily living (e.g. loss of control on gaming behaviors, compromised social and individual quality of life). The aim of the present study is to investigate psychological predictors of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Fifty-four males who played MMORPGs regularly were recruited in cybercafes and screened using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (which assesses 4 facets of impulsivity) and the Motivation to Play Online Questionnaire (which assesses personal motives to play online). Negative consequences due to excessive time spent on the Internet were assessed with the Internet Addiction Test. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis showed that problematic use of MMORPGs is significantly predicted by: (1) high urgency (b = 0.45), and (2) a motivation to play for immersion (b = 0.35). CONCLUSION: This study showed that, for certain individuals (who are characterized by a proneness to act rashly in emotional contexts and motivated to play to be immersed in a virtual world), involvement in MMORPGs can become problematic and engender tangible negative consequences in daily life. [less ▲]

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