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See detailDifférence de genre en mathématiques chez les élèves de 3ème et 9ème année d’étude : Etude à grande échelle au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Gamo, Sylvie UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Hornung, Caroline UL et al

Poster (2014, June)

ÉpStan (Épreuves Standardisées) est une étude annuelle à grande échelle réalisée à Luxembourg depuis 2009. Les ÉpStan ont pour objectif d’évaluer le système éducatif luxembourgeois, en particulier le ... [more ▼]

ÉpStan (Épreuves Standardisées) est une étude annuelle à grande échelle réalisée à Luxembourg depuis 2009. Les ÉpStan ont pour objectif d’évaluer le système éducatif luxembourgeois, en particulier le niveau de compétences atteint en mathématiques des élèves de 3ème et de 9ème année d’étude (âgés en moyenne de 8 ans vs. 14 ans). A partir des résultats mathématiques ÉpStan 2013 du primaire et du secondaire, cette recherche vise d’une part, à examiner si l’écart de performance mathématique entre les sexes constaté par PISA 2012 chez les élèves de 15 ans luxembourgeois est confirmé chez les élèves de 14 ans et chez les élèves plus jeunes (8 ans), (Robinson, & Theule Lubienski, 2011) et d’autre part, à tester si les écarts de performance entre les sexes reflètent des différences de motivation et de confiance en soi et d’anxiété. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting first-grade mathematics achievement: the contributions of domain-general cognitive abilities, nonverbal number sense, and early number competence
Hornung, Caroline UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Brunner, Martin UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology [=FPSYG] (2014), 5

Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general abilities, is supposed to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies tested a comprehensive model for ... [more ▼]

Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general abilities, is supposed to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, we studied the influence of kindergarteners’ basic cognitive abilities (i.e., nonverbal number sense, working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary) and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills) on first grade math achievement (arithmetic, shape and space, and number line estimation) assessed one year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. Fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space after controlling for early number competence. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing Mathematical Competencies within the Luxembourgish School Monitoring Program: Covering the range from 1st to 9th grade.
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL; Hornung, Caroline UL et al

Scientific Conference (2014, April)

As a direct reaction to alarmingly poor student performance in PISA, like many other European countries Luxembourg started to establish a very ambitious school monitoring program: the Épreuves ... [more ▼]

As a direct reaction to alarmingly poor student performance in PISA, like many other European countries Luxembourg started to establish a very ambitious school monitoring program: the Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan). One of the core competencies that are measured is, of course, mathematical achievement. Beginning with grade 1 and continued in grade 3 and grade 9, students’ proficiency in several mathematical sub-competencies is assessed. Students have to demonstrate their mathematical problem solving skills in theoretical as well as applied contexts. This design not only allows for tracking individual students’ development of mathematical abilities but also allows for a better understanding of factors that influence this process ̶ a rich and valuable source for the determination of risk factors and the implementation of individual support programs. However, due to the early beginning of this comprehensive program and the heterogeneity of Luxembourg’s students in terms of cultural background and spoken language, several challenges arise, especially for test development. We will present and discuss the theoretical framework of mathematical competencies that is assessed within the ÉpStan and we will show how we are currently using possibilities of computer-based assessment and test design in order to respond to these challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailGender differences in mathematics achievement in 3rd and 9th grade students: A large-scale study in Luxembourg.
Gamo, Sylvie UL; Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Hornung, Caroline UL et al

Poster (2014, March 30)

Since 2009, ÉpStan (Épreuves Standardisées) is an annual large-scale study in Luxembourg. It aims to evaluate Luxembourg's school system, in particular students’ achieved competency level in mathematics ... [more ▼]

Since 2009, ÉpStan (Épreuves Standardisées) is an annual large-scale study in Luxembourg. It aims to evaluate Luxembourg's school system, in particular students’ achieved competency level in mathematics implemented in 3rd and 9th grade. The present study aims to investigate whether the existing gender gap in mathematics among 15-year-olds revealed by PISA 2012 can be confirmed in ÉpStan 9th grade and if it already exists in younger students’ mathematics performance (ÉpStan 3rd grade) (Robinson, & Theule Lubienski, 2011). Further, we study wether a gender gap in students’ drive, motivation and self-beliefs concerning mathematics performance exists. [less ▲]

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See detailIstzustand und Ausbau der Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan)
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Ugen, Sonja UL; Muller, Claire UL et al

Presentation (2014, January)

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See detailDeveloping number–space associations: SNARC effects using a color discrimination task in 5-year-olds
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2013), 116

Human adults’ numerical representation is spatially oriented; consequently, participants are faster to respond to small/large numerals with their left/right hand, respectively, when doing a binary ... [more ▼]

Human adults’ numerical representation is spatially oriented; consequently, participants are faster to respond to small/large numerals with their left/right hand, respectively, when doing a binary classification judgment on numbers, known as the SNARC (spatial– numerical association of response codes) effect. Studies on the emergence and development of the SNARC effect remain scarce. The current study introduces an innovative new paradigm based on a simple color judgment of Arabic digits. Using this task, we found a SNARC effect in children as young as 5.5 years. In contrast, when preschool children needed to perform a magnitude judgment task necessitating exact number knowledge, the SNARC effect started to emerge only at 5.8 years. Moreover, the emergence of a magnitude SNARC but not a color SNARC was linked to proficiency with Arabic digits. Our results suggest that access to a spatially oriented approximate magnitude representation from symbolic digits emerges early in ontogenetic development. Exact magnitude judgments, on the other hand, rely on experience with Arabic digits and, thus, necessitate formal or informal schooling to give access to a spatially oriented numerical representation. [less ▲]

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See detailLEARN stellt sech fier
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2013)

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See detailZusammenfassung der Ergebnisse von PISA 2012 / Synthèse des résultats de PISA 2012
Wrobel, Gina UL; Dierendonck, Christophe UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

in SCRIPT; EMACS (Eds.) PISA 2012. Nationaler Bericht Luxemburg (2013)

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See detailMädchen und Jungen
Hornung, Caroline UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Lorphelin, Dalia UL et al

in SCRIPT; EMACS (Eds.) PISA 2012. Nationaler Bericht Luxemburg (2013)

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See detailLEARN stellt sech fier
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (3 UL)
See detailA developmental investigation of the SNARC effect using a colour discrimination task.
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL et al

Presentation (2012, July 17)

How do number-space interactions develop from childhood to adulthood? The SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) reflects the finding that participants respond faster to small ... [more ▼]

How do number-space interactions develop from childhood to adulthood? The SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) reflects the finding that participants respond faster to small numbers with their left hand and to large numbers with their right hand during a number classification task. Typically assessed through magnitude-independent parity judgment tasks, the SNARC effect is thought to show the automaticity of the number-space link. Using a parity task on children Berch et al. (1999) found a SNARC effect no earlier than from 9.2 years onwards. However, we hypothesise that parity judgments might be inappropriate to assess younger children. Therefore a more age-apropriate colour judgment task (implicit) and a magnitude judgement task (explicit) were designed and tested on 363 children from kindergarten to Grade 6 (5.8-12 years). The experimental tasks were complemented by a brief assessment of arithmetic skills. The results revealed overall significant SNARC effects [colour task t(355)=2.6, p<0.01; magnitude task t(340)=4.7, p<0.001], which interacted with grade [colour task F(6,355)=2.18; p<0.05; magnitude task F(6,340)=2.09; p=0.05]. Most interestingly, even the kindergartners already display both effects [colour task t(28)=1.96; p<0.05; magnitude task t(24)=1.7; p=0.05]. These results show explicit and implicit access to numerical magnitude in children as young as 5.8 years. [less ▲]

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See detailA developmental investigation of the SNARC effect using a colour discrimination task.
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Mussolin, Christophe et al

Poster (2012)

How do number-space interactions develop from childhood to adulthood? The SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) reflects the finding that participants respond faster to small ... [more ▼]

How do number-space interactions develop from childhood to adulthood? The SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) reflects the finding that participants respond faster to small numbers with their left hand and to large numbers with their right hand during a number classification task. Typically assessed through magnitude-independent parity judgment tasks, the SNARC effect is thought to show the automaticity of the number-space link. Using a parity task on children Berch et al. (1999) found a SNARC effect no earlier than from 9.2 years onwards. However, we hypothesise that parity judgments might be inappropriate to assess younger children. Therefore a more age-appropriate colour judgment task (implicit) and a magnitude judgement task (explicit) were designed and tested on 363 children from kindergarten to Grade 6 (5.8-12 years). The experimental tasks were complemented by a brief assessment of arithmetic skills. The results revealed overall significant SNARC effects [colour task t(355)=2.6, p<0.01; magnitude task t(340)=4.7, p<0.001], which interacted with grade [colour task F(6,355)=2.18; p<0.05; magnitude task F(6,340)=2.09; p=0.05]. Most interestingly, even the kindergartners already display both effects [colour task t(28)=1.96; p<0.05; magnitude task t(24)=1.7; p=0.05]. These results show explicit and implicit access to numerical magnitude in children as young as 5.8 years. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory in 5-to-7 year-old children: Its structure and relationship to fluid intelligence
Hornung, Caroline UL; Brunner, Martin UL; Reuter, Bob UL et al

Scientific Conference (2011, August 24)

Working memory (WM) has been predominantly studied in adults. The insights provided by these studies have led to the development of competing theories on the structure of WM and conflicting conclusions on ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) has been predominantly studied in adults. The insights provided by these studies have led to the development of competing theories on the structure of WM and conflicting conclusions on how strongly WM components are related to higher order thinking skills such as fluid intelligence (GF). However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the theories and findings derived from adult data generalize to children. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate WM in 5-to-7-year-old children (N = 161). Specifically, we examined different structural models of WM and how its components, as defined in these models, are related to GF. Our results suggest that children draw on both domain- general and domain-specific processes when performing memory span. Crucially, our findings indicate that domain-general processes result in a core storage capacity that primarily explains the relationship between WM and GF. Based on these observations we discuss the theoretical and methodological issues that arise when children’s WM is investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal predictors of early mathematics: Number-specific versus domain-general mechanisms?
Hornung, Caroline UL; Brunner, Martin; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

Poster (2011, February 11)

Longitudinal predictors of early mathematics: Number-specific versus domain-general mechanisms? What is a good basis for developing mathematical competencies? While some authors propose that number ... [more ▼]

Longitudinal predictors of early mathematics: Number-specific versus domain-general mechanisms? What is a good basis for developing mathematical competencies? While some authors propose that number-specific abilities primarily contribute to early math development, other authors suggest that domain-general abilities are key. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren's working memory: Its structure and relationship to fluid intelligence
Hornung, Caroline UL; Brunner, Martin UL; Reuter, Bob UL et al

in Intelligence (2011), 39(4), 210-221

Working memory (WM) has been predominantly studied in adults. The insights provided by these studies have led to the development of competing theories on the structure of WM and conflicting conclusions on ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) has been predominantly studied in adults. The insights provided by these studies have led to the development of competing theories on the structure of WM and conflicting conclusions on how strongly WM components are related to higher order thinking skills such as fluid intelligence. However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the theories and findings derived from adult data generalize to children. The purpose of the present study is therefore to investigate children's WM (N = 161), who attended classes at the end of kindergarten in Luxembourg. Specifically, we examine different structural models of WM and how its components, as defined in these models, are related to fluid intelligence. Our results indicate that short-term storage capacity primarily explains the relationship between WM and fluid intelligence. Based on these observations we discuss the theoretical and methodological issues that arise when children's WM is investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping number-space associations: SNARC effects in a color discrimination task in 11-year-olds
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Mussolin, Christophe et al

Poster (2011)

Behavioural studies show a relation between numbers and space in adults (DeHevia et al., 2008) and this association arises early in development (Opfer et al., 2010). The SNARC (Spatial Numerical ... [more ▼]

Behavioural studies show a relation between numbers and space in adults (DeHevia et al., 2008) and this association arises early in development (Opfer et al., 2010). The SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect consists in faster reaction times (RTs) responding to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively (Dehaene et al. 1993). It is thought to reflect the automaticity of the number-space link, since it arises not only during explicit magnitude judgment tasks, but also during magnitude-independent parity judgment tasks. Using a parity task Berch et al. (1999) found a SNARC effect in children of 9.2 years onwards, but not in younger children (7.8 years). One major issue raised was that parity judgments might be too difficult and therefore problematic to test young children (VanGalen&Reitsma, 2008). Hence, we designed a color judgment instead of a parity judgment task and tested 33 children from Grade 6 (mean age 11.4 years, SD 0.6). We also assessed number magnitude access using a magnitude judgment task. The results revealed a significantly negative slope in the color task [t(32)=2.47, p<0.01] and in the magnitude task [t(33)=1.75, p<0.05], reflecting a SNARC effect in both tasks (regression method by Lorch&Myers, 1990). A correlation analysis of the slopes of both tasks revealed a positive relationship (r=0.33, p<0.05) indicating that they partly measure the same processes. These results confirm the presence of robust SNARC effects in 6th-graders and indicate that they occur even using a simple color discrimination task that is strictly independent of semantic number processing. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cross-cultural generalizability of a new structural model of academic self-concepts.
Brunner, Martin UL; Keller, Ulrich UL; Hornung, Caroline UL et al

in Learning & Individual Differences (2009), 19

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (6 UL)