References of "Hoffmann, Danielle 50001995"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailKompetenzunterschiede aufgrund des Schülerhintergrundes
Muller, Claire UL; Reichert, Monique UL; Gamo, Sylvie UL et al

in Martin, Romain; Ugen, Sonja; Fischbach, Antoine (Eds.) Épreuves Standardisées: Bildungsmonitoring für Luxemburg. Nationaler Bericht 2011 bis 2013 (2015)

Kapitel 3 befasst sich mit dem Einfluss von Merkmalen des Schülerhintergrundes auf die in den ÉpStan gemessenen Kompetenzen. Diskrepanzen in den erfassten Kompetenzbereichen werden dabei im Hinblick auf ... [more ▼]

Kapitel 3 befasst sich mit dem Einfluss von Merkmalen des Schülerhintergrundes auf die in den ÉpStan gemessenen Kompetenzen. Diskrepanzen in den erfassten Kompetenzbereichen werden dabei im Hinblick auf folgende vier Hintergrundvariablen untersucht: sozioökonomischer Status, Migrationshintergrund, Sprachhintergrund, sowie das Geschlecht der Schülerinnen und Schüler. Bestehende Unterschiede werden vergleichend für die Jahre 2011, 2012 und 2013 aufgeführt (Zyklus 3.1 und Ve/9e). Das einflussreichste Merkmal ist dabei der sozioökonomische Status, gefolgt von der zuhause gesprochenen Sprache. Der Migrationshintergrund wirkt sich in geringerem Maße bis gar nicht auf die Kompetenzen aus. Der Einfluss des Geschlechtes zeigt sich konform mit einer großen Anzahl von Befunden aus der Forschung: Mädchen erzielen im Durchschnitt bessere Ergebnisse in den Sprachen, während Jungen in Mathematik besser abschneiden. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 131 (23 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInhibition of return and attentional facilitation: Numbers can be counted in, letters tell a different story.
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Goffaux, Valerie; Schuller, Anne-Marie UL et al

in Acta psychologica (2015), 163

Prior research has provided strong evidence for spatial-numerical associations. Single digits can for instance act as attentional cues, orienting visuo-spatial attention to the left or right hemifield ... [more ▼]

Prior research has provided strong evidence for spatial-numerical associations. Single digits can for instance act as attentional cues, orienting visuo-spatial attention to the left or right hemifield depending on the digit's magnitude, thus facilitating target detection in the cued hemifield (left/right hemifield after small/large digits, respectively). Studies using other types of behaviourally or biologically relevant central cues known to elicit automated symbolic attention orienting effects such as arrows or gaze have shown that the initial facilitation of cued target detection can turn into inhibition at longer stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). However, no studies so far investigated whether inhibition of return (IOR) is also observed using digits as uninformative central cues. To address this issue we designed an attentional cueing paradigm using SOAs ranging from 500ms to 1650ms. As expected, the results showed a facilitation effect at the relatively short 650ms SOA, replicating previous findings. At the long 1650ms SOA, however, participants were faster to detect targets in the uncued hemifield compared to the cued hemifield, showing an IOR effect. A control experiment with letters showed no such congruency effects at any SOA. These findings provide the first evidence that digits not only produce facilitation effects at shorter intervals, but also induce inhibitory effects at longer intervals, confirming that Arabic digits engage automated symbolic orienting of attention. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 94 (8 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDifferent number-processing tasks entail qualitatively different SNARC effects
Georges, Carrie UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2014, October)

Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times to small/large digits with the left/right hand ... [more ▼]

Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively. Although the SNARC effect has been extensively replicated, it is characterized by high inter-individual variability (e.g. Hoffmann et al., 2014). Moreover, even though number-space associations have been observed when numerical magnitude is both relevant (e.g. magnitude comparison) and irrelevant (e.g. parity and color judgment) for successful task completion, their strengths and underlying cognitive processes seem to vary depending on whether explicit reference to numerical magnitude is drawn or not (Fias et al., 2001; Mitchell et al., 2012). To further evaluate this hypothesis, we examined whether the SNARC effects observed in a single individual during distinct number-processing tasks were systematically linked. We computed correlations between the SNARC effects measured during a parity, magnitude and color judgment task in a population of 85 healthy university students (39 females, mean age=23.44 years). Interestingly, no relation could be observed between the color (slope=-6.79) and magnitude SNARC effects (slope=-6.98; r=0.18, p=0.11), indicating that number-space associations potentially underlie different cognitive operations in tasks with and without explicit numerical magnitude processing. Conversely, the parity SNARC effect (slope=-11.58) correlated with both the color (r=0.36, p=0.001) and magnitude SNARC effects (r=0.36, p=0.001). This suggests that although no explicit numerical magnitude treatment is required in the parity task – explaining its relationship with the color task – the involvement of number semantics is sufficient to position it in line with the magnitude judgment task. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 174 (18 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailShifts of spatial attention cued by irrelevant numbers: Electrophysiological evidence from a target discrimination task
Schuller, Anne-Marie UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Goffaux, Valérie et al

in Journal of cognitive pychology (2014)

Fischer et al. demonstrated that a centrally presented number can shift attention to the left/right when its magnitude is small/large. Two electrophysiological studies described these attentional effects ... [more ▼]

Fischer et al. demonstrated that a centrally presented number can shift attention to the left/right when its magnitude is small/large. Two electrophysiological studies described these attentional effects as eventrelated potentials (ERPs) at centro-parietal sites. Since both studies used target detection tasks, it remains currently unknown whether similar results would be obtained with a discrimination task. We used ERPs to test whether digit cues also induce attention shifts when participants perform a feature discrimination task on targets. ERPs were recorded whereas subjects discriminated the colour of lateral targets that were preceded by a central non-predictive digit. Analysis of cue-locked controlateral vs. ipsilateral ERP activity showed the emergence of early preparatory attention-directing components in parietal and frontal regions. Moreover, target-locked P1 components at occipito-parietal sites were significantly modulated by digit magnitude-target side congruency. These results demonstrate that irrelevant digit cues also bias sensory processing when embedded in a feature-discrimination task. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 157 (19 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCognitive style influences number-space associations
Georges, Carrie UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2014, May)

Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times to small/large digits with the left/right hand ... [more ▼]

Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively. The cognitive processes underlying the SNARC effect are suggested to be task-dependent, such that number-space interactions result from verbal-spatial and visual-spatial number coding in parity and magnitude judgment tasks respectively (van Dijck et al., 2009). Moreover, the SNARC effect is characterized by high inter-individual variability (Hoffmann et al., 2014). Here we aimed to determine whether differences between the cognitive styles of individuals could influence the SNARC effect in a parity and magnitude judgment task. To distinguish between verbal and visual cognitive styles and between object- and spatial-visualizers, participants (n=74, 36 females, mean age=23.45 years) completed a modified version of Kirby et al.’s (1988) Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ, as in Mendelson & Thorson, 2004) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (OSIQ, Blajenkova et al., 2006, purchased from MM Virtual Design, LLC) respectively. Each item was placed on a five-point rating scale between strongly agree and strongly disagree, allowing us to compute verbal, visual, object and spatial scores for each participant. Participants that featured visual/verbal and spatial/object score ratios that were either both below or above the respective median ratio (visual/verbal ratio: M=1.09; spatial/object ratio: M=0.87) were classified as verbalizers (n=25, 16 females) and spatial-visualizers (n=25, 10 females) respectively. Participants subsequently performed the classical parity and magnitude judgment tasks. In verbalizers, the SNARC effect was significantly negative in the parity (slope=-11.2, p=0.001), but not the magnitude judgment task (slope=-1.2, p=0.53). Their verbal cognitive style might thus have induced a strong number-space association in tasks that supposedly draw on these cognitive processes, while it prevented spatial-numerical interactions in tasks that activate visuo-spatial number coding. Conversely, spatial-visualizers featured a significantly negative magnitude SNARC effect (slope=-4.8, p=0.04), indicating that a visuo-spatial style is not only necessary but sufficient to generate a number-space association in tasks that favour visuo-spatial number coding. Interestingly, they also manifested a significantly negative parity SNARC effect (slope=-9.9, p<0.001). It is likely that the spatial-visualizers switched strategy for the parity judgment task and - despite their visuo-spatial preferences - adopted the better-suited verbal strategy. Indeed, in contrast to verbalizers, their parity and magnitude SNARC effects did not correlate (spatial-visualizers: r=0.14, p=0.5; verbalizers: r=0.4, p=0.05). All in all, differences in cognitive styles might provide an additional explanation for the high inter-individual variability of the SNARC effect. Moreover, we provided further evidence for the verbal-spatial and visuo-spatial nature of the parity and magnitude SNARC effects respectively. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 145 (17 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailTask instructions determine the visuo-spatial and verbal-spatial nature of number-space associations
Georges, Carrie UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL

Poster (2014, April)

Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times (RTs) to small/large digits with the left/right ... [more ▼]

Evidence for number-space associations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response-codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times (RTs) to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively. Classically, they are thought to result from numerical coding along a left-to-right-oriented mental number line (visuo-spatial account; Dehaene et al., 1993). Recently, an association between the verbal concepts “small”/“left” and “large”/“right” has been suggested as an alternative explanation (verbal-spatial account; Gevers et al., 2010). Since the predominance of these accounts remains debated, we aimed to determine whether task instructions influence their extent of explaining the SNARC effect. A magnitude comparison task where the verbal labels “left”/“right” were displayed on the left/right response side alternatively allowed us to directly contrast the two accounts by comparing verbal SNARC slopes (based on differences in RTs to the labels “left” and “right”) with classical spatial SNARC slopes (based on differences in RTs to the left and right response side). In the verbal condition, participants (41 students, 20 female, mean age=21.6) responded to the assigned labels irrespective of their side of appearance, whereas the spatial condition required responding to the left or right response side irrespective of the displayed label. Under verbal instructions, only the verbal slope was significantly negative (verbal slope=-67.54, spatial slope=-4.82). Conversely, no significant difference was observed between verbal and spatial slopes under spatial instructions – both slopes being significantly negative (verbal slope=-15.12, spatial slope=-29.39). Taken together, number-space associations arise from verbal coding regardless of task instructions, while spatial coding only occurs under spatial instructions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 85 (21 UL)
See detailIstzustand und Ausbau der Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan)
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Ugen, Sonja UL; Muller, Claire UL et al

Presentation (2014, January)

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (11 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Impact of Mathematical Proficiency on the Number-Space Association
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Mussolin, Christophe; Martin, Romain UL et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

A specific instance of the association between numerical and spatial representations is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect. The SNARC effect describes the finding that ... [more ▼]

A specific instance of the association between numerical and spatial representations is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect. The SNARC effect describes the finding that during binary classification of numbers participants are faster to respond to small/large numbers with the left/right hand respectively. Even though it has been frequently replicated, important inter-individual variability has also been reported. Mathematical proficiency is an obvious candidate source for inter-individual variability in numerical judgments, but studies investigating its influence on the SNARC effect remain scarce. The present experiment included a total of 95 University students, divided into three groups differing significantly in their mathematical proficiency levels. Using group analyses, it appeared that the three groups differed significantly in the strength of their number-space associations in a parity judgment task. This result was further confirmed on an individual level, with higher levels in arithmetic leading to relatively weaker SNARC effects. To explain this negative relationship we propose accounts based on differences in access to qualitatively different numerical representations and also consider more domain general factors, with a focus on inhibition capacities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 128 (17 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe impact of inhibition capacities and age on number–space associations.
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Pigat, Delia; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Cognitive Processing (2014)

Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked, i.e., when doing a binary classification judgment on Arabic digits, participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to small/large ... [more ▼]

Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked, i.e., when doing a binary classification judgment on Arabic digits, participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to small/large numbers, respectively (Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes, SNARC effect, Dehaene et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 122:371–396, 1993). To understand the underlying mechanisms of the well-established SNARC effect, it seems essential to explore the considerable inter-individual variability characterizing it. The present study assesses the respective roles of inhibition, age, working memory (WM) and response speed. Whereas these non-numerical factors have been proposed as potentially important factors to explain individual differences in SNARC effects, none (except response speed) has so far been explored directly. Confirming our hypotheses, the results show that the SNARC effect was stronger in participants that had weaker inhibition abilities (as assessed by the Stroop task), were relatively older and had longer response times. Interestingly, whereas a significant part of the age influence was mediated by cognitive inhibition, age also directly impacted the SNARC effect. Similarly, cognitive inhibition abilities explained inter-individual variability in number– space associations over and above the factors age, WM capacity and response speed. Taken together our results provide new insights into the nature of number–space associations by describing how these are influenced by the non-numerical factors age and inhibition. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (10 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDeveloping number–space associations: SNARC effects using a color discrimination task in 5-year-olds
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2013), 116

Human adults’ numerical representation is spatially oriented; consequently, participants are faster to respond to small/large numerals with their left/right hand, respectively, when doing a binary ... [more ▼]

Human adults’ numerical representation is spatially oriented; consequently, participants are faster to respond to small/large numerals with their left/right hand, respectively, when doing a binary classification judgment on numbers, known as the SNARC (spatial– numerical association of response codes) effect. Studies on the emergence and development of the SNARC effect remain scarce. The current study introduces an innovative new paradigm based on a simple color judgment of Arabic digits. Using this task, we found a SNARC effect in children as young as 5.5 years. In contrast, when preschool children needed to perform a magnitude judgment task necessitating exact number knowledge, the SNARC effect started to emerge only at 5.8 years. Moreover, the emergence of a magnitude SNARC but not a color SNARC was linked to proficiency with Arabic digits. Our results suggest that access to a spatially oriented approximate magnitude representation from symbolic digits emerges early in ontogenetic development. Exact magnitude judgments, on the other hand, rely on experience with Arabic digits and, thus, necessitate formal or informal schooling to give access to a spatially oriented numerical representation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (17 UL)
Full Text
See detailLEARN stellt sech fier
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (14 UL)
See detailAn Investigation of Number-Space Associations: Exploring Developmental and Cognitive Influences
Hoffmann, Danielle UL

Doctoral thesis (2013)

In order to comprehend higher order arithmetic it is of crucial importance to get a thorough understanding of basic number processes. One of the basic characteristics of numerical representations is its ... [more ▼]

In order to comprehend higher order arithmetic it is of crucial importance to get a thorough understanding of basic number processes. One of the basic characteristics of numerical representations is its association to space. Empirical evidence for the number-space association is the SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Associations of Response Codes, Dehaene et al., 1993): in binary classification judgments participants are faster responding to small/large digits on the left/right response side respectively. However, only 65-75% of participants display this signature effect of number-space associations (Wood et al., 2006a; 2006b). Although some influencing factors on the SNARC effect such as response speed and writing habits (Gevers et al., 2006; Shaki et al., 2009) have been identified, research on this issue remains scarce. Another question mark in the number-space research is the ontogenetic emergence and evolution of the numerical-spatial relationship. The present work gives a brief overview of what is known about the number-space association and adds empirical data to existing scientific knowledge. Specifically we found that number-space associations in the form of a SNARC effect emerge early in life (from age 5.5) and that its relationship to basic number knowledge at that age depends on the task at hand. Moreover, in adults, arithmetic proficiency, as well as interference inhibition capacities are related to the strength of the SNARC effect. A very strong relationship exists between the strength of the SNARC effect and chronological age, as the SNARC effect becomes stronger with increasing age. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (12 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe impact of inhibition capacities on number-space associations
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Pigat, Delia; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2013, March 01)

Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked (for a review see de Hevia et al., 2008). One specific instance of this link is the finding that when doing a binary classification judgment on ... [more ▼]

Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked (for a review see de Hevia et al., 2008). One specific instance of this link is the finding that when doing a binary classification judgment on single Arabic digits, participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to small/large numbers respectively. This observation has first been described by Dehaene and colleagues in the early 1990’s (Dehaene et al., 1993) and termed the SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes). Celebrating its 20th anniversary this year, the SNARC effect has been extensively replicated (for a meta-analysis see Wood et al., 2008) but one of its characteristics remains its high inter-individual variability (Wood et al., 2006a; 2006b). The source of this variability can partly be ascribed to differences in mathematical proficiency (Hoffmann et al., submitted) but a more domain general hypothesis implicating general inhibition capacities warrants further investigation. For the present study a total of 77 participants have been evaluated with a SNARC paradigm as well as standard inhibition tests (Stroop, Incompatibility subtest of the TAP test). Results show that when age-appropriate inhibition tests are used, inhibition capacities are strongly correlated with the SNARC effect, in the way that very efficient inhibition capacities lead to weaker SNARC effects. Consequently this finding could at least partly explain the impact of arithmetical proficiency on the SNARC effect. A study combining both measures would be an appropriate next step. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe impact of inhibition capacities on number-space associations in young and elderly adults
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Pigat, Delia; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2013, February 26)

Background: Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked, i.e. when doing a binary classification judgment on Arabic digits participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to ... [more ▼]

Background: Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked, i.e. when doing a binary classification judgment on Arabic digits participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to small/large numbers respectively (SNARC effect, Dehaene et al., 1993). The SNARC effect has been extensively replicated but one of its characteristics remains inter-individual variability (Wood et al., 2006). Different sources have been proposed to account for the reported inter-individual variability, namely response speed (Gevers et al., 2006), inhibition capacities (Wood et al., 2008) and age (Wood et al., 2008). The present study aims to investigate the impact of inhibition capacities on the SNARC effect in young and elderly adults, controlling for individual general processing speed. Methods: Two groups of participants were included: young adults, N=28, mean age: 23 years (SD=3.02) and elderly adults, N=46, mean age: 65.9 years (SD=3.9). Participants performed a parity judgment SNARC paradigm as well as inhibition tests (Stroop, Incompatibility). General processing speed was evaluated using a simple shape matching task. Results: The two age-groups differed in the strength of the SNARC effect, inhibition capacities and processing speed, with the elderly adults displaying stronger SNARC effects, weaker inhibition capacities and slower processing speed. Correlation analysis including all participants confirmed these findings on an individual level by showing relations between the SNARC effect and age, as well as relations between the SNARC effect and both inhibition capacities (i.e. the Stroop effect) and processing speed. When controlling for processing speed, the relations between the SNARC effect and both inhibition capacities and age remained. Conversely, when controlling for inhibition capacities, only the relation between the SNARC effect and age (but not processing speed) remained significant, even when controlling in addition for processing speed. Relevance: By combining the variables age, inhibition capacities and individual processing speed, the present data are the first to reveal a strong link between inhibition capacities and number-space associations. Importantly, we demonstrate that this link is not mediated by general processing speed. Interestingly, the robust relation between the SNARC effect and age remains after controlling for processing speed and inhibition capacities, pointing to a new source of inter-individual differences in the strength of the SNARC effect that will need to be clarified in future research projects. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (2 UL)
Full Text
See detailMädchen und Jungen
Hornung, Caroline UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Lorphelin, Dalia UL et al

in SCRIPT; EMACS (Eds.) PISA 2012. Nationaler Bericht Luxemburg (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (11 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe SNARC effect and its relationship to spatial abilities in women
Georges, Carrie UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2013)

A classical demonstration of number-space associations is the so-called SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect. It consists in faster reaction times to small/large digits with the ... [more ▼]

A classical demonstration of number-space associations is the so-called SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect. It consists in faster reaction times to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively. To get a better understanding of the well-documented inter-individual variability in the SNARC effect, we investigated the relationship between the classically used parity SNARC and spatial abilities, as indexed by visuo-spatial working memory capacity (WMC). The study population consisted of female university students (n=20; mean age=23.79; SD=2.50) recruited in the fields of humanities and educational sciences. Since systematic studies on the reliability of the SNARC effect are still lacking, we first measured the internal consistency, as assessed by split-half reliability, as well as test-retest reliability of the parity SNARC. Split-half and test-retest correlation coefficients were (r(19)=0.41; p<0.05) and (r(19)=0.25; p=0.14) respectively, indicating a trend towards consistency. In the present female population, a significant negative correlation was revealed between the strength of the parity SNARC effect (mean slope=-10.04; SD=8.66) and visuo-spatial WMC (mean WMC=2.85; SD=1.12; r(19)=-0.51; p<0.05). This finding thus indicates that number-space associations as measured by the parity SNARC effect tend to be stronger in young female adults with higher spatial abilities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 154 (14 UL)
Full Text
See detailZusammenfassung der Ergebnisse von PISA 2012 / Synthèse des résultats de PISA 2012
Wrobel, Gina UL; Dierendonck, Christophe UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

in SCRIPT; EMACS (Eds.) PISA 2012. Nationaler Bericht Luxemburg (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 150 (18 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe interaction between number and space processing and math achievement in adults
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Mussolin, Christophe; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2012, September 07)

Behavioral studies show a relation between numbers and space (for a review see De Hevia et al., 2008). One instance of this link is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect ... [more ▼]

Behavioral studies show a relation between numbers and space (for a review see De Hevia et al., 2008). One instance of this link is the SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect, consisting in faster reaction times responding to small/large digits with the left/right hand respectively (Dehaene et al. 1993). The SNARC effect has often been replicated, but it is also characterized by high inter-subject variability (Wood et al. 2006 a,b). Although differences in mathematical skills are an obvious candidate source for SNARC variability, this variable has not yet been explored systematically. For the present study, three groups of participants were recruited amongst University students; one group included only participants reporting specific problems related to numerical processing, and two control groups differing in the math requirements of their field of study (i.e. science students vs. literature students). Results confirmed that the three groups differed substantially in basic arithmetic scores [F(2,92)=19.97, p<0.001] as well as in the strength of their SNARC effect [F(2,92)=7.12, p=0.001]. The science group had the highest arithmetic score and the smallest SNARC effect and the problem report group had the lowest arithmetic score and the strongest SNARC effect, with the literature group lying in between. Rearranging the groups based on arithmetic performance yielded the same results. Correlation analyses confirmed this finding by revealing a strong relation between arithmetic scores and SNARC effect independently of group constitution [r=-0.28, p<0.01]. Different hypotheses in the context of the relevant literature are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (4 UL)