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See detailAn Efficient Nonlinear Model-Predictive Eco-Cruise Control for Electric Vehicles
Schwickart, Tim Klemens UL; Voos, Holger UL; Hadji-Minaglou, Jean-Régis UL et al

in 11th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, Bochum, Germany, 29-31 July 2013 (2013, July)

A nonlinear problem formulation of an energy-saving model-predictive eco-cruise controller for electric vehicles is presented. With regard to the intended application in real-world tests, the model has to ... [more ▼]

A nonlinear problem formulation of an energy-saving model-predictive eco-cruise controller for electric vehicles is presented. With regard to the intended application in real-world tests, the model has to include the specific properties of a serial electric vehicle such as energy-recovery and a discontinuous accelerator input giving rise to a binary control variable. These specific features and the nonlinearity of the system dynamics make it a challenging task to formulate the optimisation problem in a way that allows a fast computation in real-time application. The challenges are addressed by using a model of the vehicle dynamics that is formulated in terms of the vehicle position instead of time and by considering the kinetic energy instead of the velocity. Furthermore, various constraints on the input and state variables are introduced for a realistic representation of the vehicle characteristics. A special focus is put on the treatment of a binary input variable in the optimisation. Here, in order to avoid a mixed-integer formulation of the problem, a continuous variable is introduced which is forced to take only discrete values by a penalty term. Finally, first simulation results underline the feasibility of this control approach. [less ▲]

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