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See detailSmoking, implicit attitudes, and context-sensitivity: An Overview
Glock, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in Jin, Z (Ed.) Exploring implicit cognition: Learning, memory, and social-cognitive processes (2014)

The focus on implicit attitudes toward smoking is relatively novel and this chapter provides the first systematic review of research in this domain. The review summarizes empirical studies focusing on ... [more ▼]

The focus on implicit attitudes toward smoking is relatively novel and this chapter provides the first systematic review of research in this domain. The review summarizes empirical studies focusing on implicit attitudes toward smoking. Implicit attitudes are suggested to guide automatic behavior, thereby playing a pivotal role for automatic processes inherent in addictive behaviors. The chapter further explores the extent to which implicit attitudes are sensitive to context. More specifically it reviews studies that have focused on the differential effects of external cues such as warning labels as well as internal cues such as deprivation. Overall 32 studies were analyzed, including studies focusing on implicit attitudes toward smoking compared to positive, negative or neutral categories; implicit attitudes in relation to situational context such as TV advertisement, warning labels and (non)smoking settings; and implicit attitudes in relation to nicotine dependence and nicotine deprivation. Results of these studies show that although smokers generally have more positive implicit attitudes than non-smokers, the valence of the implicit attitude depends on the contrasting category and hence varies as a result of the applied method or stimuli. Studies considering situational contexts revealed that implicit attitudes toward smoking are partly dependent on external cues, especially outcome expectancies. Similarly, internal cues are shown to affect implicit attitudes whereby not so much the level of nicotine dependency but more the level of nicotine deprivation seems vital. Only one study investigated the combined effect of external and internal cues on implicit attitudes toward smoking, not only highlighting the complexity of the relationships, but also the importance of considering implicit attitudes when developing and evaluating intervention. Implications for intervention and future research are indicated in the discussion. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostische Kompetenz von Lehrkräften in der schulischen Leistungsbeurteilung
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Glock, Sabine UL; Böhmer, Matthias UL

in Steffgen, Georges; Michaux, Gilles; Ferring, Dieter (Eds.) Psychologie in Luxemburg - Ein Handbuch (2014)

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See detailEffects of and Attention to Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages
Süssenbach, Philipp; Niemeier, Sarah; Glock, Sabine UL

in Psychology & Health (2013), 28

Objective: The present study investigates the effects of graphic cigarette warnings compared to text-only cigarette warnings on smokers’ explicit (i.e. ratings of the packages, cognitions about smoking ... [more ▼]

Objective: The present study investigates the effects of graphic cigarette warnings compared to text-only cigarette warnings on smokers’ explicit (i.e. ratings of the packages, cognitions about smoking, perceived health risk, quit intentions) and implicit attitudes. In addition, participants’ visual attention towards the graphic warnings was recorded using eye-tracking methodology. Design and methods: Sixty-three smokers participated in the present study and either viewed graphic cigarette warnings with aversive and non-aversive images or text-only warnings. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Results: Especially, graphic cigarette warnings with aversive content drew attention and elicited high threat. However, whereas attention directed to the textual information of the graphic warnings predicted smokers’ risk perceptions, attention directed to the images of the graphic warnings did not. Moreover, smokers’ in the graphic warning condition reported more positive cognitions about smoking, thus revealing cognitive dissonance. Conclusion: Smokers employ defensive psychological mechanisms when confronted with threatening warnings. Although aversive images attract attention, they do not promote health knowledge. Implications for graphic health warnings and the importance of taking their content (i.e. aversive vs. non-aversive images) into account are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit attitudes toward smoking: How the smell of cigarettes influences college-age smokers and non-smokers
Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL; Unz, Dagmar

in Journal of Health Psychology (2013)

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers’ attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers’, so that a salient smoking cue ... [more ▼]

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers’ attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers’, so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. [less ▲]

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See detailWarning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking related risk perception
Glock, Sabine UL; Müller, Barbara C. N.; Ritter, Simone

in Journal of Health Psychology (2013), 18

Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into ... [more ▼]

Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants’ smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels. [less ▲]

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See detailGute Absicht, kein Erfolg? Intendierte und nichtintendierte Wirkungen von Warnhinweisen auf Zigarettenschachteln
Glock, Sabine UL; Ritter, Simone; Müller, Barbara

in Rossmann, Constanze; Hastall, Matthias R. (Eds.) Medien und Gesundheitskommunikation: Befunde, Entwicklungen und Herausforderungen (2013)

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See detailBeyond judgment bias: How students' ethnicity and academic profile consistency influence teachers' tracking judgments
Glock, Sabine UL; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Klapproth, Florian UL et al

in Social Psychology of Education (2013), 16

Research on school tracking has provided evidence that students with immigrant backgrounds are overrepresented in the lower school tracks. As teachers are the main decision makers when it comes to ... [more ▼]

Research on school tracking has provided evidence that students with immigrant backgrounds are overrepresented in the lower school tracks. As teachers are the main decision makers when it comes to tracking, we investigated whether teachers’ tracking judgments are biased by the immigrant backgrounds of the students and how teachers’ tracking judgments are affected by inconsistencies in students’ academic profiles. Drawing on dual process models of judgment formation, we conducted two experimental studies to investigate teachers’ judgments. The results of both studies showed less favorable teacher judgments of students with immigrant backgrounds than of students without immigrant backgrounds. Students with inconsistent academic profiles were also judged less favorably than students with consistent profiles. Think aloud data indicated careful processing of all information both for students with immigrant backgrounds and students with inconsistent profiles. Results are discussed with regard to their underlyingmechanisms as well as with regard to their implications for teacher training. [less ▲]

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See detailStudent teachers’ implicit attitudes toward students with and without immigration background: A pilot study
Glock, Sabine UL; Kneer, Julia; Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Studies in Educational Evaluation (2013), 39

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See detailEscaping in digital games: The relationship between playing motives and addictive tendencies in males
Kneer, Julia; Glock, Sabine UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2013), 29

Problematic playing behaviour in terms of addiction is well known to be associated with specific traits (e.g., self-esteem) and weak social settings (e.g., negative relationships). What remains unclear is ... [more ▼]

Problematic playing behaviour in terms of addiction is well known to be associated with specific traits (e.g., self-esteem) and weak social settings (e.g., negative relationships). What remains unclear is the impact of playing motives on addictive tendencies. We investigated how playing motives were related to problematic playing behaviour. Using ratings indicating explicit motives and response latencies indicating the activation of implicit motives, we investigated Yee’s (2006) three main playing motives: social interaction, achievement, and immersion. All three implicit motives were found to be highly activated among problematic players while only explicit immersion was judged as less important by non-problematic and excessive players. In addition, implicit immersion together with explicit immersion and playing hours were found to be strong predictors for problematic playing behaviour. We discuss motives, especially immersion, as possible risk factors for addictive tendencies when motives become internalised and therefore automatically activated by thoughts about digital games. [less ▲]

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See detail"Smoking kills” vs. “Smoking makes restless”: Effectiveness of different warning labels on smoking behavior
Glock, Sabine UL; Ritter, Simone; Engels, R. C. M. E. et al

in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences (2013), 2

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (3 UL)
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See detail„Bitte ein….“: Der Einfluss von Alkoholwerbung auf Einstellungen und Verhalten
Unz, Dagmar; Glock, Sabine UL; Kovacs, Carrie UL

in Rossmann, Constanze; Hastall, Matthias R. (Eds.) Medien und Gesundheitskommunikation: Befunde, Entwicklungen und Herausforderungen (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 129 (4 UL)