References of "Gatti, Mauro 50024039"
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See detailLa blasfemia nel diritto europeo: ‘un reperto storico’
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Melloni, Alberto; Cadeddu, Francesca; Meloni, Federica (Eds.) Blasfemia, diritto e libertà (2016)

Molti credenti invocano «un giusto rispetto per il sacro», giacché «la mancanza di livelli civili di decenza, moderazione e rispetto nel mondo delle arti» danneggerebbe la coesione sociale . Altri, come ... [more ▼]

Molti credenti invocano «un giusto rispetto per il sacro», giacché «la mancanza di livelli civili di decenza, moderazione e rispetto nel mondo delle arti» danneggerebbe la coesione sociale . Altri, come Salman Rushdie, sostengono che «il “rispetto della religione” sia diventato un pretesto per la “paura della religione”. Le religioni, come tutte le altre idee, meritano le critiche, la satira e tutta la nostra impavida irriverenza». Le autorità pubbliche possono intervenire in questo dibattito, punendo la «blasfemia»? Le leggi sulla blasfemia sono da tempo oggetto di attenzione, soprattutto a causa di episodi che coinvolgono Stati islamici o gruppi di musulmani, dalla fatwa iraniana contro lo stesso Rushdie all’attentato nei confronti di Charlie Hebdo. Presentare il problema della blasfemia come una dicotomia tra Oriente e Occidente, tuttavia, può essere fuorviante . Ovunque esista una religione organizzata la blasfemia è un tabù . Essa è un peccato particolarmente grave nella tradizione cristiana, tanto che, secondo i Vangeli, «qualunque peccato e bestemmia verrà perdonata agli uomini, ma la bestemmia contro lo Spirito non verrà perdonata» . L’Antico Testamento prescrive una punizione severa per questo peccato: «chi bestemmia il nome del Signore dovrà essere messo a morte: tutta la comunità lo dovrà lapidare» . Ciò spiega perché in passato tutti i Paesi europei punissero la blasfemia . La progressiva separazione tra potere politico e potere religioso, così come l’affermazione di democrazie pluraliste, ha portato diversi Stati ad abolire le leggi sulla blasfemia. La Corte Suprema degli Stati Uniti, in particolare, ha affermato già nel 1952 che «lo Stato non ha alcun legittimo interesse a proteggere una qualsiasi religione, o tutte le religioni, da espressioni a loro sgradite [...] non spetta al governo sopprimere attachi reali o immaginati a una particolare dottrina religiosa» . Le leggi di molti Stati europei, però, continuano a vietare la blasfemia, in linea teorica, e alcuni Paesi la puniscono anche in pratica. Secondo la Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo (Corte EDU), la repressione della blasfemia è compatibile con la tutela dei diritti umani, perché non vi sarebbe sufficiente «terreno comune» agli ordinamenti giuridici e sociali degli Stati europei per poter concludere che il divieto della blasfemia sia innecessario in una società democratica. Tuttavia, la posizione della Corte è stata spesso criticata, perché teoricamente infondata e pericolosa per la libertà di espressione . Con questo studio si intende dimostrare che non è legittimo sanzionare la blasfemia in Europa; la prassi degli Stati membri dell’UE e delle istituzioni europee mostra infatti che il divieto di esprimere idee blasfeme non è più «necessario» nelle società democratiche. L’analisi si divide in tre sezioni. Nella prima si presentano le norme sulla blasfemia in vigore negli Stati membri dell’UE. Nella seconda si analizza la giurisprudenza della Corte EDU sulla blasfemia. Nella terza si discute della recente prassi dell’Unione Europea in materia. [less ▲]

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See detailBlasphemy in European Law
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Diez Bosch, Miriam; Torrents, Jordi (Eds.) On Blasphemy (2015)

European countries have been punishing blasphemy since time immemorial. Several members of the European Union maintain blasphemy laws in their books to this day and some States implement them. These laws ... [more ▼]

European countries have been punishing blasphemy since time immemorial. Several members of the European Union maintain blasphemy laws in their books to this day and some States implement them. These laws are problematic even when they are not applied, since they curtail criticism of religious doctrines and encourage censorship and self-censorship. In the past, the European Court of Human Rights affirmed that blasphemy laws were compatible with human rights law, since there was not sufficient common ground in the legal and social orders of European States to conclude that the repression of blasphemy was unnecessary in a democratic society. This paper intends to demonstrate that such ‘common ground’ now exists, especially within the European Union. Several EU countries have scrapped blasphemy laws from their penal codes, or have ceased to implement them. What is more, the governments of all EU Member States have repeatedly declared that blasphemy laws are incompatible with universal human rights standards. The existence of such a ‘common ground’ between EU Members suggests that the European Court of Human Rights should revise its jurisprudence. It also indicates that EU States should abolish their blasphemy laws, if they have not done so already. In a Union based on freedom and human rights, the most appropriate way to combat a perceived offense from the exercise of freedom of expression is not censorship, but the use of freedom of expression itself. [less ▲]

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See detailIDRL in Italy: A Study on Strengthening Legal Preparedness for International Disaster Response
Gatti, Mauro UL

Report (2015)

This report seeks to identify the main obstacles that existing rules create for international cooperation in the event of disasters in Italy: It does so by looking to the Guidelines for the Domestic ... [more ▼]

This report seeks to identify the main obstacles that existing rules create for international cooperation in the event of disasters in Italy: It does so by looking to the Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance (hereinafter the IDRL Guidelines) and to the EU Host Nation Support Guidelines (HNSG). The analysis seeks to point out solutions (mostly legislative ones) that may contribute to enhancing international cooperation in response to disasters occurring in Italy. The report finds that Italy has developed advanced and flexible disaster response mechanisms. Furthermore, Italy’s participation in international cooperation arrangements, notably the European Union (EU) Civil Protection Mechanism, reinforces the country’s capacities and preparedness. As of today, the country has seldom relied on external assistance, and when it did, international cooperation did not prove problematic. Indeed, it would seem that Italian law is generally in line with the prescriptions of the IDRL Guidelines and the HNSG, especially as concerns assistance originating from other EU countries. However, the investigation has also indicated three main problems that need to be addressed in order to ensure effective and accountable assistance in the future. In the first place, the institutional framework is fragmented: Numerous organs with different resources and powers intervene in disaster response. In the second place, it is not always easy to say what rules apply: There is a multiplicity of instruments that regulate disaster response, and their identification and interpretation is often complex. And, in the third place, some of the rules may hinder incoming aid: There are cases in which the law may prevent the provision of assistance or may discourage it by imposing onerous procedures and financial obligations. These problems can be addressed by fixing the flaws identified in the report, that is, by clarifying existing law, repealing outdated provisions, and introducing specific norms designed to regulate and facilitate international cooperation. To this end, the report offers recommendations for the competent authorities. [less ▲]

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See detailLibertà di espressione e sentimento religioso - Laicità e simboli religiosi
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Manzini, Pietro; Lollini, Andrea (Eds.) Diritti fondamentali in Europa: un casebook (2015)

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See detailLa tutela dei diritti umani tra azione esterna dell’Unione europea e politiche interne degli Stati membri: medici, curate vos ipsos
Gatti, Mauro UL

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Il Consiglio dell’Unione europea ha recentemente adottato delle Conclusioni sulla coerenza fra aspetti esterni ed interni della protezione e promozione dei diritti umani nell’Unione europea. Tale ... [more ▼]

Il Consiglio dell’Unione europea ha recentemente adottato delle Conclusioni sulla coerenza fra aspetti esterni ed interni della protezione e promozione dei diritti umani nell’Unione europea. Tale strumento attira l’attenzione su un problema cruciale: l’Unione promuove da anni il rispetto di taluni diritti umani che i suoi stessi membri non sembrano proteggere, o che interpretano in modo difforme. Tale contraddizione è difficile da giustificare sul piano teorico ed è pericolosa su quello pratico, dato che pregiudica la credibilità dell’Unione sulla scena internazionale. Per risolvere questo problema, sarebbe opportuno che gli Stati membri inizino ad applicare in Europa le stesse regole che intendono diffondere nel mondo. [less ▲]

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See detailCoherence vs. Conferred Powers? The Case of the European External Action Service
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Rossi, Lucia Serena; Casolari, Federico (Eds.) The EU After Lisbon: Amending or Coping with the Existing Treaties? (2014)

The process of European integration has led to the creation of numerous external actions at the Union level, and these should now be brought together to reinforce the coherence of EU foreign affairs. The ... [more ▼]

The process of European integration has led to the creation of numerous external actions at the Union level, and these should now be brought together to reinforce the coherence of EU foreign affairs. The attainment of coherence finds an apparently insurmountable obstacle in the delimitation of the powers conferred on EU institutions, since a rigid separation of the powers of Union bodies hinders the generation of positive connections among EU policies. The Lisbon Treaty sought to increase coherence in foreign affairs in part by creating the European External Action Service. This paper examines the EEAS’s mandate and responsibilities in order to elucidate the interplay of coherence and conferred powers in external relations law. The first part of the analysis investigates the EEAS mandate, showing that the Treaties require the Service to coordinate external relations in order to ensure coherence. The second part examines the nature of this coordination, focusing on the technique legislators used to enable the EEAS to have a role in the implementation of development aid. Legislators identified the EEAS’s responsibilities by balancing the principle of the coherence of external action against the delimitation of conferred powers, with a view to fostering synergy in foreign affairs. It is argued that a similar approach can also be adopted in other areas where the EEAS brings added value as a coordinator, and in particular in the area of crisis response. An enlargement of the EEAS’s responsibilities is politically difficult, but it may be simplified by an amendment of the Treaties (where the mandate of the Service is spelled out), in such a way as to reinforce the Service’s legitimacy and effectiveness as a foreign-policy coordinator. [less ▲]

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See detailDiplomats at the Bar: The European External Action Service before EU Courts
Gatti, Mauro UL

in European Law Review (2014)

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See detailAutonomy of Religious Organizations in the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Union Law
Gatti, Mauro UL

in di Federico, Giacomo; Rossi, Lucia Serena (Eds.) Fundamental Rights in Europe and China Between Identities and Universalism (2013)

The right of believers to freedom of religion encompasses the expectation that they will be allowed to associate freely without interference from public authorities. This implies that religious ... [more ▼]

The right of believers to freedom of religion encompasses the expectation that they will be allowed to associate freely without interference from public authorities. This implies that religious organisations should enjoy a certain degree of autonomy in their internal management and in the formulation of their doctrines. In the context of European religious pluralism, however, such right to autonomy may conflict with the interests of society and the rights of others. This contribution examines the management and doctrinal dimensions of religious autonomy. It demonstrates that the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and EU institutions recognise the relevance and non-absoluteness of religious autonomy and pragmatically balance it against other rights and interests. Nonetheless, the current practice raises two issues. In the field of management autonomy, the most recent jurisprudence of the ECtHR may jeopardise the protection of the rights of others. In the area of doctrinal autonomy, European institutions may prevent minority groups from enjoying their rights, by adopting a restrictive definition of belief and its manifestation and by evaluating the legitimacy of religious beliefs. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of the European External Action Service in the External Dimension of the Area of Freedom Security and Justice
Gatti, Mauro UL

in Rossi, Lucia Serena; Flaesch-Mougin, Catherine (Eds.) La dimension extérieure de l'Espace de liberté, sécurité et de justice (2013)

The abolition of the ‘third pillar’ of the European Union has apparently reinforced the ‘Community method’ in the external dimension of the Area of Freedom Security and Justice (AFSJ). However, the ... [more ▼]

The abolition of the ‘third pillar’ of the European Union has apparently reinforced the ‘Community method’ in the external dimension of the Area of Freedom Security and Justice (AFSJ). However, the objectives of this Area are pursued through several activities, characterised by different procedures and actors. This contribution intends to demonstrate that the creation of the European External Action Service (EEAS) can enhance the coherence of the external dimension of the AFSJ, because the Service is tasked with the coordination of the entire external action. It is submitted that the EEAS can foster the effectiveness of the law-making and policy implementation phases and it can ensure the unity of the EU’s diplomatic representation. The potential of the EEAS is particularly evident with respect to security, because the Service can effectively coordinate the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and non-CFSP aspects of the EU’s security management. However, the EEAS is largely influenced by the intergovernmental method, and its involvement in non-CFSP initiatives may perpetuate the intergovernmental approach to the external dimension of the AFSJ. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal Representation of the European Union in the Conclusion of International Agreements
Gatti, Mauro UL; Manzini, Pietro

in Common Market Law Review (2012)

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