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Fallacies as Cognitive Virtues Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Logic, Games and Philosophy: Foundational Perspectives (2009) In its recent attention to reasoning that is agent-based and target-driven, logic has re-taken the practical turn and recovered something of its historic mission. In so doing, it has taken on in a quite ... [more ▼] In its recent attention to reasoning that is agent-based and target-driven, logic has re-taken the practical turn and recovered something of its historic mission. In so doing, it has taken on in a quite general way a game-theoretic character, precisely as it was with the theory of syllogistic refutation in the Topics and On Sophistical Refutations, where Aristotle develops winning strategies for disputations. The approach that the present authors take toward the logic of practical reasoning is one in which cognitive agency is inherently strategic in its orientation. In particular, as is typically the case, individual agents set cognitive targets for themselves opportunistically, that is, in such ways that the attainment of those targets can be met with resources currently or forseeably at their disposal. This not to say that human reasoning is so game-like as to be utterly tendentious. But it does make the point that the human player of the cognitive game has no general stake in accepting undertakings that he has no chance of making good on. Throughout its long history, the traditional fallacies have been characterized as mistakes that are attractive, universal and incorrigible. In the present essay, we want to begin developing an alternative understanding of the fallacies. We will suggest that, when they are actually employed by beings like us, they are defensible strategies in game-theoretically describable pursuit of cognitive (and other) ends. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 UL)A logical account of formal argumentation Caminada, Martin ; Gabbay, Dov M. in Studia Logica (2009) In the current paper, we re-examine how abstract argumentation can be formulated in terms of labellings, and how the resulting theory can be applied in the field of modal logic. In particular, we are able ... [more ▼] In the current paper, we re-examine how abstract argumentation can be formulated in terms of labellings, and how the resulting theory can be applied in the field of modal logic. In particular, we are able to express the (complete) extensions of an argumentation framework as models of a set of modal logic formulas that represents the argumentation framework. Using this approach, it becomes possible to define the grounded extension in terms of modal logic entailment. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 UL)Non-Monotonicity and Holicity in Quantum Logic Gabbay, Dov M. ; ; in HANDBOOK OF QUANTUM LOGIC AND QUANTUM STRUCTURES: QUANTUM LOGIC (2009) Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL)Reactive Preferencial Structures and Nonmonotonic consequence Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Review of Symbolic Logic (2009) Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 UL)Revision, Acceptability and Context Gabbay, Dov M. ; ; Book published by Springer (2009) Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 UL)Quantification in Non-classical Logics Gabbay, Dov M. ; ; Book published by Elsevier (2009) Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 UL)Voting by Eliminating Quantifiers Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Studia Logica (2009), 92(3), 365379 Mathematical theory of voting and social choice has attracted much at- tention. In the general setting one can view social choice as a method of aggregating individual, often conflicting preferences and ... [more ▼] Mathematical theory of voting and social choice has attracted much at- tention. In the general setting one can view social choice as a method of aggregating individual, often conflicting preferences and making a choice that is the best compromise. How preferences are expressed and what is the “best compromise” varies and heavily depends on a particular situation. The method we propose in this paper depends on expressing individual preferences of voters and specifying properties of the resulting ranking by means of first-order formulas. Then, as a technical tool, we use methods of second-order quantifier elimination to analyze and compute results of voting. We show how to specify voting, how to compute resulting rankings and how to verify voting protocols. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 UL)Roadmap for Preferential Logics Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics (2009), 19(1), 4395 Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 UL)Modal Logics of Reactive Frames Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Studia Logica (2009) A reactive graph generalizes the concept of a graph by making it dynamic, in the sense that the arrows coming out from a point depend on how we got there. This idea was fi rst applied to Kripke semantics ... [more ▼] A reactive graph generalizes the concept of a graph by making it dynamic, in the sense that the arrows coming out from a point depend on how we got there. This idea was fi rst applied to Kripke semantics of modal logic in [2]. In this paper we strengthen that unimodal language by adding a second operator. One op- erator corresponds to the dynamics relation and the other one relates paths with the same endpoint. We explore the expressivity of this interpretation by axiomatizing some natural subclasses of reactive frames. The main objective of this paper is to present a methodology to study reactive logics using the existent classic techniques. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 UL)Logical Modes of Attack in Argumentation Networks Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Studia Logica (2009) This paper studies methodologically robust options for giving logical contents to nodes in abstract argumentation networks. It defines a variety of notions of attack in terms of the logical contents of ... [more ▼] This paper studies methodologically robust options for giving logical contents to nodes in abstract argumentation networks. It defines a variety of notions of attack in terms of the logical contents of the nodes in a network. General properties of logics are refined both in the object level and in the meta level to suit the needs of the application. The network-based system improves upon some of the attempts in the literature to define attacks in terms of defeasible proofs, the so-called rule- based systems. We also provide a number of examples and consider a rigorous case study, which indicate that our system does not suffer from anomalies. We define consequence relations based on a notion of defeat, consider rationality postulates, and prove that one such consequence relation is consistent. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 UL)Analysis of the Talmudic Argumentum A Fortiori Inference Rule (Kal-Vachomer) using Matrix Abduction ; Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Studia Logica (2009), 92(3), 281364 We motivate and introduce a new method of abduction, Matrix Abduction, and apply it to modelling the use of non-deductive inferences in the Talmud such as Ana- logy and the rule of Argumentum A Fortiori ... [more ▼] We motivate and introduce a new method of abduction, Matrix Abduction, and apply it to modelling the use of non-deductive inferences in the Talmud such as Ana- logy and the rule of Argumentum A Fortiori. Given a matrix A with entries in {0,1},we allow for one or more blank squares in the matrix, say ai,j=?. The method allows us to decide whether to declare ai,j=0 or ai,j=1 or ai,j=? undecided. This algorithmic method is then applied to modelling several legal and practical reasoning situations including the Talmudic rule of Kal-Vachomer. We add an Appendix showing that this new rule of Matrix Abduction, arising from the Talmud, can also be applied to the analysis of paradoxes in voting and judgement aggregation. In fact we have here a general method for executing non-deductive inferences. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 UL)Annotation theories over finite graphs Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Studia Logica (2009) In the current paper we consider theories with vocabulary containing a num- ber of binary and unary relation symbols. Binary relation symbols represent labeled edges of a graph and unary relations ... [more ▼] In the current paper we consider theories with vocabulary containing a num- ber of binary and unary relation symbols. Binary relation symbols represent labeled edges of a graph and unary relations represent unique annotations of the graph’s nodes. Such theories, which we call annotation theories , can be used in many applications, including the formalization of argumentation, approxim ate reasoning, semantics of logic programs, graph coloring, etc. We address a number of problems related to annotation theories over finite models, including satisfiability, querying problem, specification of preferred models and model checking problem. We show that most of considered problems are NPTime -or co-NPTime -complete. In order to reduce the complexity for particular theories, we use second-order quantifier elimination. To our best knowledge none of existing methods works in the case of anno- tation theories. We then provide a new second-order quantifier elimination method for stratified theories, which is successful in the considered cases. The new result subsumes many other results, including those of [2, 28, 21]. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 UL)Independence-Revision and Defaults Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Studia Logica (2009), 92(3), 381394 We investigate different aspects of independence here, in th e context of theory revision, generalizing slightly work by Chopra, Parikh, and Rodrigues, and in the context of prefere ntial reasoning Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 UL)Reactive Preferential Structures and Nonmonotonic consequence Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Review of Symbolic Logic (The) (2009), 2(2), 414450 We introduce Information Bearing Relation Systems (IBRS) a s an abstraction of many logical systems. We then define a general semantics for IBRS, and show that a special case of IBRS generalizes in a very ... [more ▼] We introduce Information Bearing Relation Systems (IBRS) a s an abstraction of many logical systems. We then define a general semantics for IBRS, and show that a special case of IBRS generalizes in a very natural way preferential semantics and solves open representation problems for weak logical systems. This is possible, as we can ”break” the strong coher ence properties of preferential structures by higher arrows, i.e. arrows, which do not go to points, but t o arrows themselves [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 UL)A meta-model of access control in a fibred security language ; ; Gabbay, Dov M. et al in Studia Logica (2009), 92(3), 437-477 The issue of representing access control requirements continues to demand significant attention. The focus of researchers has traditionally been on developing particular access control models and policy ... [more ▼] The issue of representing access control requirements continues to demand significant attention. The focus of researchers has traditionally been on developing particular access control models and policy specification languages for particular applications. However, this approach has resulted in an unnecessary surfeit of models and languages. In contrast, we describe a general access control model and a logic-based specification language from which both existing and novel access control models may be derived as particular cases and from which several approaches can be developed for domain-specific applications. We will argue that our general framework has a number of specific attractions and an implication of our work is to encourage a methodological shift from a study of the particulars of access control to its generalities. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 UL)Fibring Argumentation Frames Gabbay, Dov M. in Studia Logica (2009) This paper is part of a research program centered around argumentation networks and offering several research directions for argumentation networks, with a view of using such networks for integrating ... [more ▼] This paper is part of a research program centered around argumentation networks and offering several research directions for argumentation networks, with a view of using such networks for integrating logics and network reasoning. In Section 1 we introduce our program manifesto. In Section 2 we motivate and show how to substitute one argumentation network as a node in another argumentation network. Substitution is a purely logical operation and doing it for networks, besides developing their theory further, also helps us see how to bring logic and networks closer together. Section 3 develops the formal properties of the new kind of network and Section 4 offers general discussion and comparison with the literature. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 UL)A Theory of Hierarchical Conditionals Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Journal of Logic, Language and Information (2009) Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 UL)Modal Foundations for Argumentation Networks Gabbay, Dov M. in Studia Logica (2009) Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 UL)Size and Logic Gabbay, Dov M. ; in Review of Symbolic Logic (The) (2009), 2(2), 396404 Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 UL)Meta-Argumentation part 1 Boella, Guido ; Gabbay, Dov M. ; van der Torre, Leon et al in Studia Logica (2009) In this paper, we introduce the methodology and techniques of meta-argumentation to model argumentation. The methodology of meta-argumentation instantiates Dung’s abstract argumentation theory with an ... [more ▼] In this paper, we introduce the methodology and techniques of meta-argumentation to model argumentation. The methodology of meta-argumentation instantiates Dung’s abstract argumentation theory with an extended argumentation theory, and is thus based on a combination of the methodology of instantiating abstract arguments, and the methodology of extending Dung’s basic argumentation frameworks with other relations among abstract arguments. The technique of meta-argumentation applies Dung’s theory of abstract argumentation to itself, by instantiating Dung’s abstract arguments with meta-arguments using a technique called flattening. We characterize the domain of instantiation using a representation technique based on soundness and completeness. Finally, we distinguish among various instantiations using the technique of specification languages. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL) |
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